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Electrical / Electronics Conversions, Formulas & References

Electrical / Electronics Conversions Formulas & References - RF CafeThroughout the years as an engineer, I have needed to research topics on engineering, physics, chemistry, mechanics, mathematics, etc. The Internet has made the job infinitely simpler, with the caveat that you have to be careful of your sources. Anyone can post anything on the Internet without peer review, and errors are rampant. The topics listed below are primarily ones that I have researched and generated custom pages for the content. I welcome visitor review and comments on my material to help ensure accuracy.

- NIST's Reference on Constants, Units & Uncertainty



1dB Compression Point


A/D Converter (ADC, A2D) Calculations

Abbreviations - NIST

ABCD, S, H, Y, Z Parameters

Acronyms - NIST

AC Voltage & Frequency Worldwide Standards

Admittance Formulas for RLC Combinations

Amplifiers Introduction

Amplitude Modulation

AM Radio Database Query

AN Component Designators

Antenna Basics

Antenna G/T Calculations

Antenna- Near vs. Far Field

Antenna Radiation Patterns

Antique Radio Restorations

Arrhenius Lifetime Acceleration

Atmospheric Propagation

Attenuation in Construction Materials

Attenuators (Fixed)

Atmospheric Absorption

Atmospheric Refraction


Ball Grid Array (BGA) Counter

Bandwidth Requirements for Data & Media

Battery - Li-Poly

Battery Outlines

Battery Types & Parameters

Bessel Function Plots

Bessel Filter Lowpass Poles

Bessel Filter Lowpass Prototype

Bidirectional Couplers

Bit Error Rate

Blind Speed

Bond Wire Fusing in ICs

Bond Wire Properties

Boolean Algebra


Broadband Deployment Map, FCC

Bulbs - Miniature Lamp Guide

Bulk Resistivity

Butterworth Filter Lowpass Poles

Butterworth Filter Lowpass Prototype


Cable Industry Standards


Capacitance Conversions

Capacitor Color Codes

Capacitor Dielectrics & Descriptions

Capacitor Dielectric Properties

Capacitor Families, Mil-Spec

Capacitor Values

Cascade Budget Calculation


Cell Phone Coverage Maps

Cellular Data Rate Standards

Charge Conversions

Cheat Sheets

Chebyshev Filter Lowpass Poles

Chebyshev Filter Lowpass Prototype


Circular Waveguide

Circulators / Isolators

Coaxial Cable Chart

Coaxial Cable Equations

Coaxial Connectors

Coaxial Connector Usage

Coaxial Connector Torque Specs

Coaxial Resonators (λ/4-Wave)


Coil Values

Color Codes

Color Television

Communications Standards

Compression Point, 1 dB

Conductor Bulk Resistivity

Conductivity of Metals @ DC

Connector Torque Specs

Constants (all values)

Constants (electrical only)

Copper Facts

Copper Wire Spec


Coupling Loss


Current Conversions


Damped Responses

dBm-to-mW Conversions

DC Blocks

Decibels (dB, dBm)

De-Embedding 12-Term SOLT Errors



Dielectric Constant, Loss Tangent & Strength

Directional Couplers

Distributed-to-Lumped Elements


Doppler Frequency Shift

DTMF Tones

Dummy Loads

Duty Cycle



Electric Circuit Fundamentals

Electrical Equipment

Electric Field Intensity

Electric Fields

Electric Flight Propulsion

Electrical Field Strength Conversion Table

Electricity - Basic Navy Training Course, NAVPERS 10622

Electrocution of Human Body

Electromagnetic Wave Behavior

Electromagnetic Wave Physics


Electronics Fundamentals

Electronics Kits

Electronics Symbol Fonts

Electron Tubes

Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Handbook

Embedding 12-Term SOLT Errors

Emergency Communications

EMF / Voltage

Engineering Organizations


Far Field / Near-Field Transition

Filter Equivalent Noise BW

Filter Transfer Functions

Filter Prototype Denormalization

Flip Flop Tables

FM Radio Database Query

Fourier Series of Periodic Signals

Frequency Allocation - E.U.   (text table version)

Frequency Allocation - U.S.   (text table version)

Frequency Bands

Frequency Inversion

Frequency Modulation

Frequency-Reactance Nomograph

Frequency-to-Wavelength (table)

Fresnel Zone

Friis Equation (Path Loss)

Fuse Specs

Fuse Package Outline



Gaussian Filter Lowpass Poles

Gaussian Filter Lowpass Prototype

Generators --- AC / DC


Greek Alphabet (Symbols, Letters)

Ground Conductivity Map

GSM (CTSBCH) Timeslot Assignment

GSM (MS) Classes for Multislot Capability

GSM Timeslot & Frequency Specs


HAM, Origin of

Hazardous Voltages

Helical Resonators / Filters

High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments

Hiram Percy Maxim Gravesite

History of Communications

History of 50 Ω

Hobby Electronics Kits

Home Computers circa 1981

HPIB (IEEE-488/GPIB) Interface

Huygens Principle


IC Logo Identifier

IEEE-488 (HPIB/GPIB) Interface

IM3 Frequency Prediction for any Number of Tones

Image Frequency

Impedance Formulas for RLC Combinations

Impedance Matching



Inductor Color Codes

Inductor Values

Inductance Conversions

Insulation & Jacketing Materials Properties

Intercept Points, 2-Tone 2nd-Order

Intercept Points, 2-Tone 3rd-Order



Isolators / Circulators

Isotropic Radiator






Karnaugh Maps

Kirchhoff's Law

Kits, Electronics, Projects

Kuroda Identities


Lead-Free Initiative

   pb-free.com, pb-free.info

   EU RoHS Limits

Link Budget


Li-Poly Batteries

Logo Identifier

Loss Tangent

Low Power FM (LPFM) Radio

Lumped-to-Distributed Elements


Magnetic Field Conversions

Magnetic Flux Conversions

Magnetic Materials Parameters



Maximum Permissible RF Exposure Limits (FCC)

Maxwell's Equations



Microwave Principles

MIL Standards & Specs

MIL-STD-1553 & 1773 Bus

Miniature Lamp Guide

Mixer Spurious Products


Modulation Principles

Morse Code

Motors AC / Motors, DC

mW-to-dBm Conversions


Near-Field / Far-Field Transition


  Module 1 - Introduction to Matter,

    Energy, and Direct Current

  Module 3 - Introduction to Circuit

    Protection, Control, and


  Module 4 - Introduction to

    Electrical Conductors, Wiring

    Techniques, and Schematic


  Module 5 - Introduction to

    Generators and Motors

  Module 6 - Introduction to

    Electronic Emission, Tubes,

    and Power Supplies

  Module 7 - Introduction to Solid-

    State Devices and Power


  Module 8 - Introduction to

    Introduction to Amplifiers

  Module 10 - Introduction to Wave

    Propagation, Transmission Lines,

    and Antennas

  Module 11 - Microwave Principles

  Module 12 - Modulation Principles

  Module 18 - Radar Principles

  Module 21 - Test Methods and


Neutral Conductor Hazards

Noise Figure

Noise Power

Noise Voltage

Norton Equivalent

Numerical Prefixes


Ohm's Law


Opamp Noise Figure



Package Marking Search Engine

Package Outlines

Parallel Circuits

Parallel Port Pinout

Parallel-Series Circuits

Path Loss

PCB Trace Fusing Current

PCB Via Fusing Current

PIM - Passive Intermodulation

Path Loss, 1- & 2-Way (Friis)

Phase Noise

Photovoltaic Cell EM Regions

Polarization, Antenna


Power, Electric

Power Density

Power Dividers / Combiners

Power Factor

Power & Voltage in 50 Ω System


Propagation Time

Pulse Definition


Quadrature Couplers

Quadrature Modulation


Radar Blind Speed

Radar Cross Section (RCS)

Radar Equation

Radar Horizon/Line of Sight

Radar, Introduction to

Radar Principles

Radar Pulse Repetition Frequency

Radiation Hazards

Radio Broadcast Frequencies, Marine

Radio Restoration Projects

 - Airline 62-437

 - Bendix Model 75P6U

 - Capehart TC-62

 - Crosley Desktop Model

 - Crosley Model 03CB

 - Hallicrafters TW-1000A

 - Hammarlund RBG-2

 - Philco 46-420

 - RCA 86T

 - Scott RBO-2 Radio

 - Stewart Warner R1451-A

 - Stewart Warner SW13-6P1

Reactance-Frequency Nomograph (2)

Reflection Coefficient / VSWR / Return Loss

Resistance Conversions

Resistor Markings: MIL-PRF-55342

Resistor Markings & Color Codes

Resistor Values


Resonators (λ/4-Wave Coaxial)

Return Loss / VSWR / Gamma

RF Exposure Limits (FCC)

RFID DeFacto Standards

Right-Hand Rule

RLC Combinations: Parallel

RLC Combinations: Series

RMS & Average Voltages: Sinewave   Triangle Wave

RMS & Average Power & Voltage

"Roger Wilco" Origin

RoHS Lead-Free Initiative

   pb-free.com, pb-free.info,

   EU RoHS Limits

RS-422 Interface

RS-485 Interface


SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)

Satellite Communications

Semiconductor Properties, RF

Serial Port Pinout

Series Circuits | Series-Parallel Circuits

S, H, Y, Z, ABCD Parameters

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Sinewave Voltages

Skin Depth

Slide Rules, Wooden | Slide Rules, Cardboard

Slot Antennas

Smith Chart

Solar Cell EM Regions

Solar Spectral Irradiance


Solvents for Electronics (properties)

Spectral Inversion

Spurious-Free Dynamic Range

Spurious Calculations

Square Wave Voltages - Vpk, Vpk-pk, Vavg, Vrms

Standards Documents - Military & Commercial

Static Electricity


Television & CATV Frequencies



Thermal Noise Power

Thermal Noise Voltage

Thévénin Equivalent

Tin Whiskers - NASA

Toroid Cores

Torque Specs for Coax Connectors


Transformer Lead Color Codes

Transient (Damped) Responses

Transistor Museum

Transmission Line Equations

Transmission Lines

Triboelectric Series

Tubes, Vacuum



Units (electrical)

USB Specifications


Vacuum Tubes #1, Vacuum Tubes #2

VoIP Basics

Voltage / EMF

Voltage: RMS & Average Power

VSWR Mismatch Error

  Phase Angle Error Derivation

VSWR Reduction By Attenuation

VSWR / Return Loss / Gamma


WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)

Watkins-Johnson (WJ) Tech-Notes


Waveguide Charts

Waveguide Formulas:  Rectangular & Circular

Waveguide TE & TM Modes:  Rectangular & Circular


Wave Physics

WCDMA Band Frequency Assignments


Wi-Fi Hot Spot Finder


Wireless Communication Specs #1, #2

Wireless Coverage Maps

Wireless Data Rate Standards

Wireless Frequency Bands - Global

Wire-Wrap Workmanship Standards

WLAN Specs

WLAN Spectral Masks (802.11a/b/g)


LED Christmas Light Patents

Chevrolet Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) Fob Teardown


DOS Command Line LAN Repair (note to self)

TotalTemp Technologies (Thermal Platforms) - RF Cafe

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

Copyright  1996 - 2026

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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