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Exodus Advanced Communications

Homepage Archive - August 2020 (page 2)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

2020:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2018:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2017:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2016:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2015:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2014:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2013:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2012:  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | of the August 2020 homepage archives.

Friday 14

Thursday 13

Wednesday 12

Electronic Crossword Puzzle

Electronic Crossword Puzzle, September 1958 Radio & TV News - RF CafeThis "Electronic Crossword" appeared in the September 1958 issue of Radio & TV News magazine. Its creator, John Gill, designed specialty theme crossword puzzles for many other editions of Radio & TV News and Electronics World (see the big list at the bottom of the page). He considered this crossword to be a "fooler" because he claims to include many "unusual definitions and a number of obscure words which you will have to work around if your vocabulary of 'exotic words' is rusty." It really doesn't seem so difficult to me, and anyone used to working my custom RF Cafe Crosswords will have no problem with it.

Skyworks High Linearity LNAs for Small Cell, Massive MIMO and Base Stations

Skyworks High Linearity LNAs for Small Cell, Massive MIMO and Base Station Applications - RF CafeTo meet the challenging requirements of cellular LTE and 5G NR infrastructure applications, Skyworks has released the SKY67183−396LF and SKY67189−396LF low noise amplifiers (LNAs). These LNAs feature ultra low-noise figure, exceptional linearity, and operate over a wide range of frequencies. To reduce PCB board space, these devices are housed in an ultra-compact 2 x 2 mm plastic surface mount package. The SKY67183−396LF and SKY67189−396LF are ideal for 2G/3G/4G/5G TDD and FDD infrastructure applications, including small cell, massive MIMO, and macro base stations...

Astra Small Satellite Launcher Test Flight from Alaska

Astra Small Satellite Launcher Test Flight from Alaska - RF Cafe"After completing a countdown dress rehearsal, Astra is gearing up for its first orbital launch attempt this week from Kodiak Island, Alaska, but company officials said it will likely take multiple test flights before the new small satellite launcher successfully reaches orbit. Astra's small satellite delivery vehicle was set for liftoff from the Pacific Spaceport Complex in Alaska during a two-hour window opening at 10 p.m. EDT Sunday, or 6 p.m. local time in Alaska. In social media updates, Astra said it fueled the small satellite launcher with liquid propellants Sunday. But officials said out-of-limits upper level winds and a boat in restricted waters offshore of the launch site..."

Transmission-Line Feed for Short-Wave Antennas

Transmission-Line Feed for Short-Wave Antennas, October 1932 QST - RF CafeWhen someone with the first name of "True" writes an article about transmission line feeds for short-wave antennas, you should probably take note. This very topic has been covered in detail many times since the use of impedance-matched transmission lines have been in use (more than a century), but since there are always people new to the concept, it is good to keep introducing the topic on a regular basis."Transmission-Line Feed for Short-Wave Antennas" appeared in a 1932 issue of QST magazine. Even in this era of prefabricated everything, it still often comes down to winding coils and adjusting cable lengths to get optimal impedance matches between transceivers and antennas.

Vanadium: The Other Green Metal

Vanadium: The Other Green Metal - RF CafeI have extolled the virtues of Aerospace & Defense Technology magazine many times for its variety of extremely interesting articles on a wide range of topics. The August issue has a story on the element Vanadium (atomic number 23) and the critical role it plays as an alloy component of metals. At concentrations of less then 0.1%, vanadium can nearly double the strength of steel and aluminum, as well as increasing resistance to corrosion. It is also used as a catalyst (sometimes a substitution for nickel and platinum), in electronics components, and in ceramics. Use of vanadium is considered "green" because most of it is obtained from byproducts of other industrial processes like ash from coal burning. Vanadium is the earth's 22nd most abundant element and is found everywhere, but as you might suspect China provides 61% of the supply while the U.S. does a mere 3% (Russia makes 14%). Fortunately, part of the Dept. of Interior's 2018 charter was to include vanadium on its list of critical commodities and must act to significantly increase domestic production rather than be dependent on foreign sources. It's long past time.

ConductRF Performance TSA89 Flexible RF Test Cables to 40 GHz

ConductRF Performance TSA89 Flexible RF Test Cables to 40 GHz - RF CafeManufacturing of all our products continues to operate at full capacity as part of the "Essential Business" community. Professional high frequency TSA89 series of RF test cables with performance to 40 GHz. Precision connector choices include; SMA, Type-N, 3.5mm, 2.92mm, & 2.4mm. Key features: High-frequency point to point cable, light weight rugged double-shielded, flexible cable, low loss <0.68 dB/ft @ 40 GHz, low VSWR < 1.35:1 (Typical < 1.25:1), RF leakage >−100 dB to 18 GHz, temperature rated from -55ºC to 125ºC. 100% factory VSWR and insertion loss tested. Cables are in stock and available immediately from Digi−Key. Made in the USA.

Many Thanks to Electro-Photonics for Their Continued Support

Electro-PhotonicsElectro-Photonics is a global supplier of RF & Microwave components. Their products include SMT hybrid and directional couplers, wire bondable passive components, mounting tabs, filters, transmission lines, and very useful test boards for evaluating components (spiral inductors, single-layer capacitors). The Electro-Photonics team can support your small R&D design requirements with RF & Microwave test fixtures and save you valuable design and characterization time. Please take a moment to visit Electro-Photonics' website and see how your project might benefit. 

Tuesday 11

Ward Para-Con Antenna

Ward Para-Con Antenna, September 1951 Radio & Television News - RF CafeThe word prefix "para" can mean "above and beyond" or "resembling" or "abnormal or incorrect." Ward Products probably preferred first two be inferred by potential customers when naming their PARA−CON television antenna, although it actually is a shortening of "parabolic." The "con" part is a shortening of "conical." After reading the text of this full-page advertisement from a 1951 issue of Radio & Television News magazine, I'm inclined to assign the third prefix meaning of "para" to it. Then, add in the "con" part where "con" can take on either the noun form meaning of "disadvantage" or the verb form definition of "to trick or defraud," and you get what this antenna truly represented in terms of achieving superior performance. At best the PARA−CON exhibited the characteristics of a phased pseudo-[bi]conical antenna. The allusion to a parabolic antenna...

Metasurface Optical Chip Expands Use of Quantum Sensors

Metasurface Optical Chip Expands Use of Quantum Sensors - RF Cafe"Sensing devices have a range of industrial uses - from carrying out ground surveys to monitoring volcanoes - and scientists are developing ways to improve their sensitivity with quantum technologies that are based on cold atoms. Machines using quantum technology are, however, bulky and difficult to transport, making current designs unsuitable for most industrial uses. According to Birmingham University, the researchers have used a new approach that will enable quantum sensors to shrink to a fraction of their current size. The research was conducted by an international team led by Birmingham University and SUSTech in China in collaboration with Paderborn University in Germany. Their results are published in Science Advances..."

Student's Radio Physics Course - Series & Parallel Circuits

Student's Radio Physics Course, Series + Parallel Circuits, July 1932 Radio News - RF CafeNot everyone who visits websites like RF Cafe is a seasoned electronics veteran. While I and most likely you, too, can do series and parallel circuit analysis (and series/parallel for that matter, possibly using Fourier or La Place transforms for reactive AC circuits) in our sleep, many are recently getting into the wonderful world of electronics who are just coming of age or have suddenly at a later point in life developed a passion for the craft. Accordingly, this article from Radio News magazine provides yet another tutorial on the fundamentals of series and parallel circuit analysis. Only resistors and basic Ohms law are covered...

Withwave Intros 1.0 mm to 1.0 mm Adapter Series

Withwave Intros 1.0 mm to 1.0 mm Adapter Series (DC to 110 GHz) - RF CafeWithwave's Precision 1.0 mm to 1.0 mm Adapter Series are designed based on precision microwave interconnection technologies. Configurations include 1.0 mm (F) to 1.0 mm (F), 1.0 mm (M) to 1.0 mm (F), and 1.0 mm (M) to 1.0 mm (M). These Adapters are manufactured to precise microwave specifications and constructed with male and female gender on both side. The precision microwave connector interfaces ensure an excellent microwave performance up to 110 GHz. Features: Frequency range = DC to 110 GHz, VSWR (max) = 1.30:1, Body = stainless steel (passivated)...

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

Monday 10

Comics with an Electronics Theme

Comics with an Electronics Theme, February 1967 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere are a couple more tech-themed comics from a vintage electronics magazine (Popular Electronics). The one from page 101 reminds me again about how different the world of retail sales is today compared to just two short decades ago. Prior to the advent of online marketing and sales, you either walked into a brick and mortar (a term rarely heard before the Internet era) type store and walked out with your purchased product, or you thumbed through a catalog and placed an order either by mail or telephone. Most people opted to pay for a postage stamp rather than pay the long distance phone charge (a term rarely heard today). Free overnight or 2-day shipping from many e-stores makes online shopping nearly as instantaneous as walking into a store. People under 20 years old have never known much different, but some old-timers still find the paradigm change strange. The way things are going...

Exodus Advanced Communications Intros X-Band High Power Pulse Amplifier

Exodus Advanced Communications Intros X-Band High Power Pulse Amplifier - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications' model Exodus AMP5055P-SSC Pulse Amp (9.6-9.9 GHz, 150 W pulse) is IP67 rated and fully qualified for outdoor applications. Designed for Pulse/Radars in the harshest of environmental conditions up to a 20% duty cycle. The unit provides outstanding Pulse fidelity, excellent band flatness, all in a compact lightweight package with the highest reliability. Other frequency ranges & power levels available. Features: Outdoor waterproof packaged high power SSPA, class AB Pulse, GaN design, designed for high power X-band pulse applications, built-in control, monitoring, and protection circuits, high reliability and ruggedness...

The Ham Who Was President

The Ham Who Was President, November 1952 QST - RF CafeSince this is a presidential election year, I figured it would be a good time to post a tongue-in-cheek- story that appeared in the November 1952 issue of QST magazine about a fictional American president J. Willoughby Winkelspoof. The ARRL always has been and still is apolitical, so don't take seriously anything you read here. If you are an astute follower of politics, you might pick up on the nuances woven into the story, and might even marvel on how much the political landscape has changed in the half century since Pres. Winkelspoof graced the Oval Office. Incidentally, the 1952 presidential election was between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. You might wonder how many U.S. presidents were/are Amateur Radio operators. Answer...

Please Thank IPP for Their Long-Time Support!

Innovative Power ProductsInnovative Power Products (IPP) has over 30 years of experience designing & manufacturing RF & microwave passive components. Their high power, broadband couplers, combiners, resistors, baluns, terminations and attenuators are fabricated using the latest materials and design tools available, resulting in unrivaled product performance. Applications in military, medical, industrial and commercial markets are serviced around the world. Please take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how IPP can help you today.

Vintage Tech at Insanely High Prices

Vintage Tech at Insanely High Prices - RF CafeFrequent visitor and contributor Joe B. sent me a link to a page entitled, "40 Hilarious Ads For Technology From The Past That Look Insanely Expensive Now." It fits in well with the theme of RF Cafe so you might enjoy being reminded of (if you're old like me) or seeing for the first time (if you're not old like me) what people were paying for technology which was bleeding edge then and is toy-quality now. No kidding. Pick any microprocessor-driven toy from a shelf at Walmart and it will have nearly as much memory and processing power. One example is a 10 MByte hard drive costing $3,398 in 1981, which is the equivalent of $10,069 ($1k/MByte) in 2020 money per the BLS Inflation Calculator. These kinds of themes can be found all over the Internet, and as usual, the same set of examples are repeated on those pages. Do an image search on "10 mbyte hard drive ad" and you'll see what I mean.

Teledyne Aerospace & Defense Electronics UK Launches New Business Unit

Teledyne Aerospace & Defense Electronics UK Launches New Business Unit: Teledyne Energetics UK - RF CafeTeledyne Aerospace & Defense Electronics UK (TADE UK) announced the latest business unit addition to its brand portfolio, Teledyne Energetics UK, headquartered in Lincoln, England. Visit the home page of the company's new website here. The new website gives an overview of the Energetics UK systems, subsystems, and component offerings, which are ITAR-free and designed and manufactured exclusively in the UK. The website promotes the company's extensive heritage in all major deployment theatres including aerospace, land, surface maritime, subsea ASW and LEO launch. Teledyne Energetics UK designs and develops solutions for the safety, arming, and initiation technology sector, in particular military energetic devices...

Please Visit NorthEast RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

NorthEast RF - RF CafeNorthEast RF's comprehensive antenna testing services include linear | circular polarized antenna measurements and OTA cellular device pre-compliance. Up to 18" diameter and <10 kg weight. Antennas can be rapidly evaluated and optimized using our fast near field spherical system. Test results supplied in data file with pattern viewer software. A picture of the test configuration is included to help aligned axis. Our selection of human head and hand phantoms are ideal for verification of body worn devices. Turnaround time is usually 3-days.

Sunday 9

Amateur Radio Crossword Puzzle for August 9th

Amateur Radio Crossword Puzzle for August 9, 2020 - RF CafeAugust 9th's custom Amateur Radio crossword puzzle contains many words particular to Amateur Radio (labeled with an asterisk *). Each week for two decades I have created a new technology-themed crossword puzzle using only words (1,000s of them) from my custom-created lexicon related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. You will never find among the words names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort. You might, however, find someone or something in the otherwise excluded list directly related to this puzzle's technology theme, such as Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll, respectively. Avid cruciverbalists amongst us...

















 Electronics-Themed Comics June 1951 Radio-Electronics  

Engineering Job Opening

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $40/mo.

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeRF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday and about half that on weekends. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 13,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be. Advertising begins at $40/month.

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this. It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...


Astra Small Satellite Launcher Test Flight from Alaska

Astra Small Satellite Launcher Test Flight from Alaska - RF Cafe"After completing a countdown dress rehearsal, Astra is gearing up for its first orbital launch attempt this week from Kodiak Island, Alaska, but company officials said it will likely take multiple test flights before the new small satellite launcher successfully reaches orbit. Astra's small satellite delivery vehicle was set for liftoff from the Pacific Spaceport Complex in Alaska during a two-hour window opening at 10 p.m. EDT Sunday, or 6 p.m. local time in Alaska. In social media updates, Astra said it fueled the small satellite launcher with liquid propellants Sunday. But officials said out-of-limits upper level winds and a boat in restricted waters offshore of the launch site..."

Tracking Space Junk in Daylight

Tracking Space Junk in Daylight - RF Cafe"Scientists said they had discovered a way to detect space debris even in daylight hours, potentially helping satellites to avoid the ever-growing cloud of junk orbiting the planet. Defunct rockets, satellites and spacecraft parts continue to orbit Earth after they are discarded. The estimated 500,000 objects circling the globe range in size from a single screw to an entire rocket fuel tank. Travelling at thousands of miles an hour, they pose a huge and rising collision risk to satellites. Using lasers, it is possible to detect the debris from the ground..."

Tiniest Secrets of ICs Revealed with Imaging Technique

Tiniest Secrets of ICs Revealed with Imaging Technique - RF Cafe"The life-givers of integrated circuits and quantum devices in silicon are small structures made from patches of foreign atoms called dopants. The dopant structures provide charge carriers that flow through the components of the circuit, giving the components their ability to function. These days the dopant structures are only a few atoms across and so need to be made in precise locations within a circuit and have very well-defined electrical properties. At present manufacturers find it hard to tell in a non-destructive way whether they have made their devices according to these strict requirements. A new imaging paradigm promises to change all that. The imaging mode called broadband electric force microscopy..."

Ultra-High-Speed Terahertz Wireless Chip

Ultra-High-Speed Terahertz Wireless Chip - RF Cafe"To enable data transmission speeds that surpass the 5th Generation (5G) standards for telecommunications, scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Osaka University in Japan have built a new chip using a concept called photonic topological insulators. Published recently in Nature Photonics, the researchers showed that their chip can transmit terahertz (THz) waves resulting in a data rate of 11 Gigabits per second (Gbit/s), which is capable of supporting real-time streaming of 4K high-definition video, and exceeds the hitherto theoretical limit of 10 Gbit/s for 5G wireless communications. THz waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, in between infrared light waves and microwaves, and have been touted as the next frontier of high-speed wireless communications..."

Fractal Topological Insulators Are All Edge

Fractal Topological Insulators Are All Edge - RF Cafe"In novel materials known as topological insulators, electricity or light can flow around corners and defects with virtually no losses. All topological insulators produced so far are comprised of an insulating bulk and perfectly conductive edges. Now scientists have found - at least in theory - that fractal topological insulators could possibly be made up only of edges, with no bulk at all. Topology is the branch of mathematics that explores what aspects of shapes can survive deformation. For example, an object shaped like a doughnut can get deformed into the shape of a mug, with the doughnut's hole forming the hole in the cup's handle, but it could not get pushed or pulled into a shape that lacked a hole..."

Europe's 1st Software-Defined Satellite Completes RF Tests

Europe's 1st Software-Defined Satellite Completes RF Tests - RF Cafe"The first European satellite that is capable of being completely repurposed after launch and developed within an ESA Partnership Project - Quantum - has concluded its radio-frequency tests at a specialized facility in Toulouse (France). Quantum is the first ever software-defined satellite, preparing the way for the next generation of telecommunication satellites that can be reprogrammed in orbit. It offers unprecedented in-orbit reconfigurability in coverage, frequency and power, which allows for complete mission rehauls including changes in orbital position. Engineers involved in the Quantum Partnership Project from manufacturer Airbus, operator Eutelsat and ESA (European Space Agency) have developed new working practices that have enabled them to keep working during the coronavirus pandemic. This ensures that the satellite will be fully ready to launch later in the year..."

U.S. Special Ops Orders Inflatable Satellite Antennas

U.S. Special Ops Orders Inflatable Satellite Antennas - RF Cafe"U.S. Special Operations Command could order up to $172M worth of inflatable satellite communications terminals under a new five-year contract with GATR Technologies, a subsidiary of Cubic Corp. By using an inflatable radome, GATR Technologies' antennas are designed to be ultra-portable and easy to set up. The smaller version can be set up in less than 20 minutes, while the larger can be set up in less than 30 minutes. Consisting of five one-year ordering periods, the indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract provides for the procurement of 1.2-meter and 2.4-meter inflatable satellite communications terminals and related equipment. The contract was issued as a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research award by USSOCOM..."

Electronic Components Take up 10x Less Space on Computer Chips

Electronic Components Take up 10x Less Space on Computer Chips - RF Cafe"Electronic filters are essential to the inner workings of our phones and other wireless devices. They eliminate or enhance specific input signals to achieve the desired output signals. They are essential, but take up space on the chips that researchers are on a constant quest to make smaller. A new study demonstrates the successful integration of the individual elements that make up electronic filters onto a single component, significantly reducing the amount of space taken up by the device. Researchers at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign have ditched the conventional 2-D on-chip lumped or distributed filter network design - composed of separate inductors and capacitors - for a single, space-saving 3-D rolled membrane that contains both independently designed elements. The results of the study, led by electrical and computer engineering professor Xiuling Li..."

















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    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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