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Electrical / Electronics Conversions, Formulas & References

Throughout the years as an engineer, I have needed to research topics on engineering, physics, chemistry, mechanics, mathematics, etc. The Internet has made the job infinitely simpler, with the caveat that you have to be careful of your sources. Anyone can post anything on the Internet without peer review, and errors are rampant. The topics listed below are primarily ones that I have researched and generated custom pages for the content. I welcome visitor review and comments on my material to help ensure accuracy.

- NIST's Reference on Constants, Units & Uncertainty

1dB Compression Point
A/D Converter Calculations
A/D & D/A Design Data
Abbreviations - NIST
ABCD, S, H, Y, Z Parameters
Acronyms - NIST
AC Voltage & Frequency Worldwide Standards
Admittance Formulas for RLC Combinations
Amplifier Design Data
Amplifiers Introduction
Amplitude Modulation
AM Radio Database Query
AN Component Designators
Antenna Basics
Antenna G/T Calculations
Antenna- Near vs. Far Field
Antenna Radiation Patterns
Antique Radio Restorations
Arrhenius Lifetime Acceleration
Atmospheric Propagation
Attenuation in Construction Materials
Attenuators (Fixed)
ASIC Design Data
Atmospheric Absorption
Atmospheric Refraction
Ball Grid Array (BGA) Counter
Bandwidth Requirements for Data & Media
Battery Design Data
Battery - Li-Poly
Battery Outlines
Battery Types & Parameters
Bessel Function Plots
Bessel Filter Lowpass Poles
Bessel Filter Lowpass Prototype
Bidirectional Couplers
Bit Error Rate
Blind Speed
Bluetooth Resources
Bond Wire Fusing in ICs
Bond Wire Properties
Boolean Algebra
Broadband Deployment Map, FCC
Bulbs - Miniature Lamp Guide
Bulk Resistivity
Butterworth Filter Lowpass Poles
Butterworth Filter Lowpass Prototype
Cable Industry Standards
Capacitance Conversions
Capacitor Color Codes
Capacitor Dielectrics & Descriptions
Capacitor Dielectric Properties
Capacitor Families, Mil-Spec
Capacitor Values
Cascade Budget Calculation
Cell Phone Coverage Maps
Cellular Data Rate Standards
Charge Conversions
Chebyshev Filter Lowpass Poles
Chebyshev Filter Lowpass Prototype
Circular Waveguide
Circulators / Isolators
Coaxial Cable Chart
Coaxial Cable Equations
Coaxial Connectors
Coaxial Connector Torque Specs
Coaxial Resonators (λ/4-Wave)
Coil Design Data
Coil Values
Color Codes
Communications Standards
Compression Point, 1 dB
Conductor Bulk Resistivity
Conductivity of Metals @ DC
Connector Torque Specs
Constants (all values)
Constants (electrical only)
Copper Facts
Copper Wire Spec
Coupling Loss
Current Conversions
Damped Responses
dBm-to-mW Conversions
DC Blocks
Decibels (dB, dBm)
De-Embedding 12-Term SOLT Errors
Dielectric Constant, Loss Tangent & Strength
Directional Couplers
Distributed-to-Lumped Elements
Doppler Frequency Shift
DTMF Tones
Dummy Loads
Duty Cycle
Electrical Equipment
Electric Field Intensity
Electric Fields
Electrical Field Strength Conversion Table
Electricity - Basic Navy Training Course, NAVPERS 10622
Electrical Safety
Electrician's Mate Training Course, NAVPERS 10548
Electrocution of Human Body
Electronics Kits
Electronics Symbol Fonts
Electron Tubes
Electronic Warfare and Radar Systems Handbook
Embedding 12-Term SOLT Errors
EMC / EMI / RFI Resources
EMF / Voltage
ESD / EOS Resources
Far Field / Near-Field Transition
Filter Design Data
Filter Equivalent Noise BW
Filter Transfer Functions
Filter Prototype Denormalization
Flip Flop Tables
FM Radio Database Query
Fourier Series of Periodic Signals
Frequency Allocation - E.U.
     - text table version
Frequency Allocation - U.S.
     - text table version
Frequency Bands
Frequency Inversion
Frequency Modulation
Frequency-Reactance Nomograph
Frequency-to-Wavelength (table)
Friis Equation (Path Loss)
Fuse Specs
Fuse Package Outline
Gaussian Filter Lowpass Poles
Gaussian Filter Lowpass Prototype
Generators   AC / DC
GPS Resources
Greek Alphabet (Symbols,  Letters)
GSM (CTSBCH) Timeslot Assignment
GSM (MS) Classes for Multislot Capability
GSM Timeslot & Frequency Specs
HAM, Origin of
Helical Resonators / Filters
High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments
Hiram Percy Maxim Gravesite
History of Communications
History of 50 Ω
Hobby Electronics Kits
Home Computers circa 1981
HPIB (IEEE-488/GPIB) Interface
IC Logo Identifier
IEEE-488 (HPIB/GPIB) Interface
IEEE802.16 WiMAX - WiMAN Resources
IM3 Frequency Prediction for any Number of Tones
Image Frequency
Impedance Formulas for RLC Combinations
Impedance Matching
Inductor Color Codes
Inductor Design Data
Inductor Values
Inductance Conversions
Insulation & Jacketing Materials Properties
Intercept Points, 2-Tone 2nd-Order
Intercept Points, 2-Tone 3rd-Order
Isolators / Circulators
Isotropic Radiator
Karnaugh Maps
Kirchhoff's Law
Kits, Electronics, Projects
Kuroda Identities
Lead-Free Initiative
   pb-free.com, pb-free.info
   EU RoHS Limits
Link Budget
Lightning Protection
Li-Poly Batteries
Logo Identifier
Loss Tangent
Low Power FM (LPFM) Radio
Lumped-to-Distributed Elements
Magnetic Field Conversions
Magnetic Flux Conversions
Magnetic Materials Parameters
Magnetics Design Data
Maximum Permissible RF Exposure Limits (FCC)
Maxwell's Equations
Microwave Principles
MIL Standards & Specs
MIL-STD-1553 & 1773 Bus
Miniature Lamp Guide
Mixer Design Data
Mixer Spurious Products
Modulation Principles
Morse Code
Motors AC / Motors, DC
mW-to-dBm Conversions
Nanotechnology Resources
Near Field Communications (NFC) Resources
Near-Field / Far-Field Transition
  Module 1 - Introduction to Matter,
    Energy, and Direct Current
  Module 3 - Introduction to Circuit
    Protection, Control, and
  Module 4 - Introduction to
    Electrical Conductors, Wiring
    Techniques, and Schematic
  Module 5 - Introduction to
    Generators and Motors
  Module 6 - Introduction to
    Electronic Emission, Tubes,
    and Power Supplies
  Module 7 - Introduction to Solid-
    State Devices and Power
  Module 8 - Introduction to
    Introduction to Amplifiers
  Module 10 - Introduction to Wave
    Propagation, Transmission Lines,
    and Antennas
  Module 11 - Microwave Principles
  Module 12 - Modulation Principles
  Module 18 - Radar Principles
  Module 21 - Test Methods and
Neutral Conductor Hazards
Noise Figure
Noise Power
Noise Voltage
Norton Equivalent
Numerical Prefixes
Ohm's Law
Opamp Noise Figure
Oscillator Design Data
Package Marking Search Engine
Package Outlines
Parallel Circuits
Parallel Port Pinout
Parallel-Series Circuits
Path Loss
PCB Design Data
PCB Trace Fusing Current
PCB Via Fusing Current
PIM - Passive Intermodulation
Path Loss, 1- & 2-Way (Friis)
Photovoltaic Cell EM Regions
Polarization, Antenna
Power, Electric
Power Density
Power Dividers / Combiners
Power Factor
Power Supply Design Data
Power & Voltage in 50 Ω System
Propagation Time
Pulse Definition
Quadrature Couplers
Quadrature Modulation
Radar Blind Speed
Radar Cross Section (RCS)
Radar Equation
Radar Horizon/Line of Sight
Radar Principles
Radar Pulse Repetition Frequency
Radiation Hazards
Radio Restoration Projects
 - Airline 62-437
 - Bendix Model 75P6U
 - Capehart TC-62
 - Crosley Desktop Model
 - Crosley Model 03CB
 - Hallicrafters TW-1000A
 - Hammarlund RBG-2
 - Philco 46-420
 - RCA 86T
 - Scott RBO-2 Radio
 - Stewart Warner R1451-A
 - Stewart Warner SW13-6P1
Radio Frequencies
Reactance-Frequency Nomograph (2)
Reflection Coefficient / VSWR / Return Loss
Resistance Conversions
Resistor Markings: MIL-PRF-55342
Resistor Markings & Color Codes
Resistor Values
Resonators (λ/4-Wave Coaxial)
Return Loss / VSWR / Gamma
RF Exposure Limits (FCC)
RFID Resources
RFID DeFacto Standards
Right-Hand Rule
RLC Combinations: Parallel
RLC Combinations: Series
RMS & Average Voltages
               - Sinewave
               - Triangle Wave
RMS & Average Power & Voltage
"Roger Wilco" Origin
RoHS Lead-Free Initiative
   pb-free.com, pb-free.info,
   EU RoHS Limits
RoHS Resources
RS-422 Interface
RS-485 Interface
SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)
Satellite Communications
Satellite Frequencies
Semiconductor Properties, RF
Serial Port Pinout
Series Circuits
Series-Parallel Circuits
S, H, Y, Z, ABCD Parameters
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Sinewave Voltages
Skin Depth
Slide Rules, Wooden
Slide Rules, Cardboard
Slot Antennas
Smith Chart
Solar Cell EM Regions
Solar Spectral Irradiance
Solvents for Electronics (properties)
Spectral Inversion
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range
Spurious Calculations
Square Wave Voltages - Vpk, Vpk-pk, Vavg, Vrms
Standards Documents - Military & Commercial
Static Electricity
Switch Design Data
Substrate Design Data
Television/CATV Frequencies
Thermal Noise Power
Thermal Noise Voltage
Thévénin Equivalent
Tin Whiskers - NASA
Toroid Cores
Torque Specs for Coax Connectors
Transformer Design Data
Transformer Lead Color Codes
Transient (Damped) Responses
Transistor Museum
Transmission Line Equations
Transmission Lines
Triboelectric Series
Tubes, Vacuum
Ultra Wideband (UWB)
Units (electrical)
USB Specifications
Vacuum Tubes #1, Vacuum Tubes #2
VoIP Basics
Voltage / EMF
Voltage: RMS & Average Power
VSWR Mismatch Error
  Phase Angle Error Derivation
VSWR Reduction By Attenuation
VSWR / Return Loss / Gamma
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
Watkins-Johnson (WJ) Tech-Notes
Waveguide Charts
Waveguide Design Data
Waveguide Formulas:
     Rectangular & Circular
Waveguide TE & TM Modes
     Rectangular & Circular
WCDMA Band Frequency Assignments
WEEE Resources
Wi-Fi Hot Spot Finder
Wireless Communication Specs #1, #2
Wireless Coverage Maps
Wireless Data Rate Standards
Wireless Frequency Bands - Global
Wireless LAN (WLAN)
WLAN Specs
WLAN Spectral Masks (802.11a/b/g)
ZigBee Resources

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Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe WebmasterCopyright
1996 - 2022
Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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