1996 - 2016
BSEE - KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
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Values given for size and weight are typical of indicated batteries. Charge and discharge characteristics are quite distinct for each chemistry, so links to applications notes are provided above for most types. I wrote an article on my experience with Li-Po batteries that you might be interested in reading.
There are two categories of battery cells, Primary Cells and Secondary Cells. Here is the basic difference:
Primary Cells are not rechargeable (disposable).
Secondary Cells are rechargeable.
Worthy of note is the newest battery chemistry on the commercial market: Lithium Manganese (LiMn). This battery has all the advantages of LiPo and LiIon, only without the sensitivity to overcharging and heating that causes explosions. As you might expect, LiMn cells and battery packs are even more expensive that the already overpriced LiPo and LiIon varieties. I keep expecting prices to reduce as more and more consumer products use them, but as with printer ink cartridges, there does not seems to be any relief in sight.
|Gravimetric Energy Density (Wh/kg)||45 - 80||60 - 120||30 - 50||110 - 160||100 - 150||80 (initial)|
|Internal Resistance (mΩ)
(includes peripheral circuits)
|100 - 200
|200 - 300
|150 - 250
|200 - 300
|200 - 2000
|Cycle Life (to 80% of initial capacity)||1500||300 - 500||200 - 300||500 - 1000||300 - 500||50
|Fast Charge Time||1h typical||2-4h||8-16h||2-4h||2-4h||2-3h|
|Overcharge Tolerance||moderate||low||high||very low||low||moderate|
|Self-discharge / Month (room temp)||20%||30%||5%||10%||10%||0.3%|
- best result
0.5C or less
5C or less
5C or less
0.2C or less
|Operating Temperature||-40 - 60°C||-20 - 60°C||-20 - 60°C||-20 - 60°C||0 - 60°C||0 - 65°C|
|Maintenance Requirement||30 - 60 days||60 - 90 days||3 - 6 months||not req.||not req.||not req.|
|Typical Battery Cost||5.0
* "C" is a unit that specifies the peak current supply capability of the battery. Multiply
the mAh rating by the "C" value to arrive at
the peak current. For example a 1000 mAh battery with a 20C rating can supply a peak current of 20,000 mA = 20 A.
|Physical Specifications of Common Cells|
|NiCad||AA||0.57 x 1.99||1.20|
|NiMH||AA||0.57 x 1.99||1.25|
|Carbon Zinc||D||1.34 x 2.42||3.07||1.5|
|Zinc Chloride||D||1.34 x 2.42||3.74||1.5|
|Alkaline||D||1.34 x 2.42||4.50||1.5|
|NiCad||D||1.34 x 2.42||5.30||1.25|
|Carbon Zinc||C||1.02 x 1.97||1.59||1.5|
|Zinc Chloride||C||1.02 x 1.97||1.80||1.5|
|Alkaline||C||1.02 x 1.97||2.20||1.5|
|NiCad||C||1.02 x 1.97||2.50||1.25|
|Carbon Zinc||AA||0.57 x 1.99||0.53||1.5|
|Zinc Chloride||AA||0.57 x 1.99||0.71||1.5|
|Alkaline||AA||0.57 x 1.99||0.75||1.5|
|NiCad||AA||0.57 x 1.99||0.85||1.25|
|Zinc Chloride||AAA||0.41 x 1.75||0.32||1.5|
|Alkaline||AAA||0.41 x 1.75||0.40||1.5|
|Zinc Chloride||N||0.47 x 1.18||0.23||1.5|
|Carbon Zinc||9V||1.03 x 1.94 x .69||1.31||9.0|
|Zinc Chloride||9V||1.03 x 1.94 x .69||1.36||9.0|
|Alkaline||9V||1.03 x 1.94 x .69||1.59||9.0|
|NiCad||9V||1.03 x 1.94 x .69||1.25||9.0|
Related Pages on RF Cafe:
- Battery Drawings
- Battery Vendors
- Li-Po or Li-Poly Battery Characteristics
- Inside a 9-Volt Battery
- Battery Resources & Design
- Battery App Notes
- How Many AA Batteries Would to Take to Power a Human?
- Ray-O-Vac Ad, August 25, 1945, Saturday Evening Post