•−•  ••−•    −•−•  •−  ••−•  •
RF Cafe Morse Code >Hear It<

Job Board

About RF Cafe™

Sitemap

Frequency Modulation

Frequency modulation uses the instantaneous frequency of a modulating signal (voice, music, data, etc.) to directly vary the frequency of a carrier signal. Modulation index, β, is used to describe the ratio of maximum frequency deviation of the carrier to the maximum frequency deviation of the modulating signal. The concept was pioneered by Edwin H. Armstrong in the late 1920s and patented in the early 1930s.

Bessel function chart - RF CafeDepending on the modulation index chosen, the carrier and certain sideband frequencies may actually be suppressed. Zero crossings of the Bessel functions, Jn(β), occur where the corresponding sideband, n, disappears for a given modulation index, β. The composite spectrum for a single tone consists of lines at the carrier and upper and lower sidebands (of opposite phase), with amplitudes determined by the Bessel function values at those frequencies.

FM General Equation
Let the carrier be xc(t) = Xc·cos (Ωct),
and the modulating signal be xm(t) = β·sin (Ωmt)
Then x(t) = Xc·cos [Ωct + β·sin (Ωmt)]
Modulation Index

β =

 Δω
ωm


=
maximum carrier frequency deviation
        modulation frequency
Narrowband FM (NBFM)

Narrowband FM is defined as the condition where β is small enough to make all terms after the first two in the series expansion of the FM equation negligible.

Narrowband Approximation: β = Δω/Ωm < 0.2 (could be as high as 0.5, though)

BW ~ 2ωm

Wideband FM (WBFM)
Wideband FM is defined as when a significant number of sidebands have significant amplitudes.

BW ~ 2Δω

Carson's Rule
J.R. Carson showed in the 1920's that a good approximation that for both very small and very large β,

BW ~ 2 (Δω + Ωm/sub>)) = 2*Ωm/sub> (1 + β)



In the following examples, the carrier frequency is eleven time the modulation frequency. Red (dashed) lines represent the modulation envelope. Blue (solid) lines represent the modulated carrier.
Modulation Index (β) = 1

FM modulation index = 1 graph


Here, the maximum frequency (fmax) causes a maximum deviation of 1*fmax in the carrier. From the modulation index formula:

β =

1
1


= 1

 

Modulation Index (β) = 5

FM modulation index = 5 graph


Here, the maximum frequency (fmax) causes a maximum deviation of 5*fmax in the carrier. From the modulation index formula:

β =

5
1

= 5
Modulation Index (β) = 25

FM modulation index = 25 graph


Here, the maximum frequency (fmax) causes a maximum deviation of 25*fmax in the carrier. From the modulation index formula:

β =

 25
 1

= 25

Note: FM waveforms created with MathCAD 4.0 software.


Custom Search
More than 10,000 searchable pages indexed.

Your RF Cafe
Progenitor & Webmaster

Click here to read about RF CafeKirt Blattenberger... single-handedly redefining what an engineering website should be.

View the YouTube RF Cafe Intro Video Carpe Diem!
(Seize the Day!)

5th MOB: My USAF radar shop

Airplanes and Rockets: My personal hobby website

Equine Kingdom: My daughter Sally's horse riding website