modulation uses the instantaneous amplitude of a modulating signal (voice, music, data, etc.) to directly vary the
amplitude of a carrier signal. Modulation index, m, is used to describe the ratio of maximum voltage to
minimum voltage in the modulated signal. If the modulating signal is equal in magnitude to the carrier, then
m = 1 and the modulated signal varies from a scaled maximum of unity down to zero (see figure below). When
m = 0, no modulation of the carrier is performed. If m is greater than 1, the carrier is actually cut off
for some period of time, and unwanted harmonics are created at the transmitter output.
The pictures here are of my restored Crosley 03CB
radio, which was manufactured in 1941, before commercial FM broadcast radio was still in the experimental phase
of development. This radio tuned the 540 to 1700 kHz AM band and the 16 to 49 meter shortwave band.
||Device is biased in to conduct in the linear region all the time.
||> 180º, << 360º
||Two devices connected like a Class B, but biased to conduct somewhere between Class A and Class B.
||Two devices in series with the output taken at the common junction. Both devices biased to conduct in the
linear region for opposite half a cycle, i.e., they are never on at the same time.
||> 0º, < 180º
||Device is biased to turn on after a certain input threshold voltage is exceeded. Very efficient, but creates
||Used to switch completely on or completely off.
||Used for rectangular input signals.
In the frequency domain, the carrier frequency is flanked on both sides by mirror image copies of the modulating
ΩM1 = Ωc ± ωm1, ΩM2 = Ωc
Let the carrier be xc(t) = Xc·sin
(Ωct), and the modulating signal be xm(t) = Xm·sin
Then x(t) = Xc·[1+m·sin
In the following examples, the carrier frequency is nine times the modulation frequency. Red (dashed) lines represent
the modulation envelope. Blue (solid) lines represent the modulated carrier.
Here, the maximum voltage (Vmax) is 2 V and the minimum (Vmin) is 0 V. From the modulation index formula:
Here, the maximum voltage (Vmax) is 3 V and the minimum (Vmin) is 1 V. From the modulation index formula:
Here, the maximum voltage (Vmax) is 1.25 V and the minimum (Vmin) is 0.75 V. From the modulation index formula:
Here, the maximum voltage (Vmax) is 2.5 V and the minimum (Vmin) is -0.5 V. From the modulation index formula:
Note: AM waveforms created with MathCAD 4.0 software.
Related Pages on RF Cafe
- Frequency Modulation
Quadrature (I/Q) Modulator Sideband Suppression
Bessel Functions & Graphs
Modulation Principles, AM Modulation,
- Modulation Principles,
FM Modulation, NEETS
Principles, Demodulation, NEETS
- Frequency Mixer, Converter, Multiplier,