RF Cafe Software
About RF Cafe
1996 - 2016
BSEE - KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.
My Hobby Website:
Try Using SEARCH
to Find What You Need.
There are 1,000s of Pages Indexed on RF Cafe !
Quadrature modulators are used to conserve bandwidth for a given data rate. This is accomplished by modulating two orthogonal data streams onto a common carrier. If the phases and amplitudes of both data stream (in-phase "I" and quadrature "Q"), then one of the sidebands is completely cancelled out. If there is no DC bias feed-through, then the carrier itself is completely cancelled out. In practice, complete cancellation is never accomplished, but without too much work, achieving 40 dB of sideband cancellation is not hard to do. Even 60 dB is relatively easy; however, preventing drift due to thermal and mechanical effects is not so easy, and the result is that a "textbook" quadrature alignment during alignment can look pretty bad over time.
Without showing all the trigonometry and algebra steps in-between, here are the basics of quadrature modulation. See the chart below.
|In-Phase Data (I)||Quadrature Data (Q)||Carrier (C)|
|After Multiplying I & Q by the Carrier and Adding|
Note that the D cos(Ωct) term is the carrier and disappears if D (the DC component) equals zero.
|Lower Sideband Envelope (LSB)||Upper Sideband Envelope (USB)|
where G is the amplitude imbalance (ratio) and f is the phase imbalance, and
|Sideband Suppression Equation|
|Phase Error (f)|
|Picture of Sideband & Carrier Suppression|
|Chart of Sideband Suppression as a Function of Phase and Amplitude Imbalance|
|This chart was created with Excel, using the above equations.|
Related Pages on RF Cafe
- Amplitude Modulation
- Frequency Modulation
- Quadrature (I/Q) Modulator Sideband Suppression
- Bessel Functions & Graphs
- Modulation Principles, AM Modulation, NEETS
- Modulation Principles, FM Modulation, NEETS
- Modulation Principles, Demodulation, NEETS
- Frequency Mixer, Converter, Multiplier, Modulator Vendors