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Radar Equation, 2-Way

These are the tried & true radar equations used for decades. Transmitter power, target distance and radar cross-section (RCS) are used along with free-space loss (Friss equation), and antenna gains to calculate the power that arrives at the input of the receiver. These equations cover both monostatic (transmitter and receiver in same location) and bistatic (transmitter and receiver in different locations).

Click here for an online calculator.
Monostatic (Tx and Rx in same location)
Radar equation formula monostatic bistatic - RF Cafe Radar equation formula monostatic bistatic - RF Cafe
Bistatic (Tx and Rx in different locations)
Radar equation formula monostatic bistatic - RF Cafe Radar equation formula monostatic bistatic - RF Cafe
Keep all units consistent.
Losses due to atmospheric absorption and antenna polarization are not included.
where: Pr = Received peak power ( W )
Pt = Transmitted peak power ( W )
Gt = Gain of transmitter antenna ( ratio, not dBi )
Gr = Gain of receiver antenna ( ratio, not dBi )
λ = Transmitted wavelength ( m, cm, in, etc. )
σ = Radar cross-section of target - RCS ( m2, cm2, in2, etc. )
R = Range ( m, cm, in, etc. )
RTx = Transmitter range to target ( m, cm, in, etc. )
RRx = Receiver range from target ( m, cm, in, etc. )
c = speed of light

              Radar Applets: Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)
Monostatic Radar

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