Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Alliance Test Equipment Centric RF Empower RF ISOTEC Reactel RF Connector Technology San Francisco Circuits Anritsu Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products KR Filters LadyBug Technologies Rigol TotalTemp Technologies Werbel Microwave Windfreak Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Withwave RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines RF Cafe Software WhoIs entry for RF Cafe.com Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
Temwell Filters

Cafe Press

withwave microwave devices - RF Cafe

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low-priced products, all of which I created.

RF Cascade Workbook for Excel

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF Workbench

T-Shirts, Mugs, Cups, Ball Caps, Mouse Pads

These Are Available for Free

Espresso Engineering Workbook™

Smith Chart™ for Excel

Anritsu Test Equipment - RF Cafe

Homepage Archive - October 2023 (page 4)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | of the October 2023 homepage archives.
”

Friday the 3rd

Thursday the 2nd

Wednesday the 1st

Tuesday the 31st

Catalysts ... Secret Agents of Chemistry

Catalysts ... Secret Agents of Chemistry, February 1944 Popular Science - RF CafePrior to taking my first chemistry course while in engineering school, I had experience with using catalysts in compounds like epoxy adhesives and paints, fiberglass resin, and body putty for fixing cars. Usually the catalyst part was called a "hardener." It seemed to me the end result was a solid mass with no apparent separate leftover component. My freshman semester professor's* claim that, similar to author Swezey's statement, "A catalyst is a substance which can change the speed of reaction between two or more other substances, without being permanently changed or used up," was amazing to me. Where did the catalyst go, then? This "Catalysts ... Secret Agents of Chemistry" article from a 1944 issue of Popular Science magazine does a nice job of explaining the process, and gives a few examples of how a catalyst works...

Google Pathfinder 1 Airship FAA Gets Approval

Google Pathfinder 1 Airship Gets FAA Approval - RF Cafe"Expect traffic on the 101 highway in Mountain View, California, to be even worse in the days or weeks ahead, as motorists slow down to watch Google co-founder Sergey Brin's 124-meter long airship Pathfinder 1 launch into the air for the first time. IEEE Spectrum has learned that LTA Research, the company that Brin founded in 2015 to develop airships for humanitarian and cargo transport, received a special airworthiness certificate for the helium-filled airship in early September. That piece of paper allows the largest aircraft since the ill-fated Hindenburg to begin flight tests at Moffett Field, a joint civil-military airport in Silicon Valley, with immediate effect. The certificate permits LTA to fly Pathfinder 1 within the boundaries of Moffett Field and neighboring Palo Alto airport's airspaces, at a height of up to 460 meters (1500 feet). That will let it venture out over the south San Francisco Bay, without interfering with planes flying..."

Modern Theory of Electricity

Modern Theory of Electricity (Part I), March 1935 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"Modern" is a relative term, and I have always objected to using it in the title unless a date reference is included. This article in the March 1935 issue of Radio-Craft magazine is an example. Some subjects are timeless, like general relativity (pun intended), and are forever unchanged. In 1935, the Bohr planetary model of the atom was still widely accepted. Still, the information within is useful for the study of electronics. Sal ammoniac, mentioned here, is a new term for me; it is a mineral composed of ammonium chloride. I suppose I should have been familiar with it because of its use for cleaning soldering iron tips. This compound is another example of how two otherwise lethal elements can form a molecule that is safe for human consumption, like sodium chloride (table salt). It is used today in the production of dry cell batteries, fertilizers, solder flux, fire extinguisher fluid, and even as food flavoring...

Anatech Electronics October 2023 Newsletter

Anatech Electronics October 2023 Newsletter (Resurgence of the TWT) - RF CafeSam Benzacar of Anatech Electronics, an RF and microwave filter company, has published his October 2023 newsletter that features his short op-ed entitled "The Resurgence of the Traveling-Wave Tube." In it, Sam demonstrates an impressive knowledge of the state of the TWT industry. As is always the case with technology, the desire for greater functionality, lower cost, higher reliability, and small size and weight drive the research and development for fulfilling the need. Sometimes ideas are borne of fantastic fictional accounts of future scenarios, but most often it is the need to break through the barriers of existing science to achieve a goal. As the old saying goes, necessity is the mother of invention. Being a frequent surveyor of tech news sites, I read occasionally of TWT products and research, but I do not recall seeing where the efficiencies have nearly doubled over previous designs, so that was a surprise. Incremental advances in TWT research does not receive the same amount of print space as, say, photovoltaic semiconductors, which produce headlines whenever scientists manage to squeeze another 0.1% efficiency in the conversion of sunlight to electricity (in a laboratory environment). Per Sam's piece, the surging demand for traveling-wave tubes is being driven by the inability of semiconductors to provide power levels required for unique applications...

Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - 10.31.2023

RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel (v10.31.2023 - RF CafeSprurious Product (Mixer) Calculator in RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - RF CafeThe newest release of RF Cafe's spreadsheet (Excel) based engineering and science calculator is now available - Espresso Engineering Workbook™. Among other additions, it now has an Spurious Product (Mixer) Calculator. Since 2002, the original Calculator Workbook has been available as a free download. Continuing the tradition, RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ is also provided at no cost, compliments of my generous sponsors. The original calculators are included, but with a vastly expanded and improved user interface. Error-trapped user input cells help prevent entry of invalid values. An extensive use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions now do most of the heavy lifting with calculations, and facilitates a wide user-selectable choice of units for voltage, frequency, speed, temperature, power, wavelength, weight, etc. In fact, a full page of units conversion calculators is included. A particularly handy feature is the ability to specify the the number of significant digits to display. Drop-down menus are provided for convenience. Now that a more expandable basis has been created, I have been adding new calculators on a regular basis...

Crosley Roamio 4-A-1 Radio Schematic

Crosley Roamio 4-A-1 Radio Schematic, June 1935 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe Crosley Roamio 4-A-1 was an automotive radio set that mounted under the cowl section of the car, with the dial visible below the instrument panel. Thereby, the lid is easily removable for convenient service. Its schematic, along with a brief functional description, was published in the June 1935 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. Although I have not seen it mentioned anywhere, I'm guessing the name "Roamio" is a play on "Romeo," with the "roam" part alluding to its mobile nature. A couple photos of the Crosley Roamio were found on the RadioMuseum.org website. The circuit features a self-rectifying vibrator "B" unit used in the power supply of this receiver, which generates an alternating current necessary to achieve voltage step-up transformation. High gain in this receiver has been achieved through the use of high efficiency R.F. and I.F. coils...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

Many Thanks to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Monday the 30th

Plastic Transistors - The Future Billions

Plastic Transistors - The Future Billions, March 1967 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeHave you ever heard of a "Joy bomb" in regard to encapsulation of semiconductors in plastic packages? It took me a moment to figure out what the author was referring to when I read it in this 1967 Radio-Electronics magazine article entitled "Plastic Transistors - The Future Billions." Joy was (is) a household dishwashing detergent that has been around since 1949. I still remember the corny "Lemon Joy" commercials from the 1970s with people being utterly overcome with the joy of seeing their reflections in the dishes cleaned in Joy... but I digress. Although not explicitly mentioned, I assume a concentrated liquid soap was used because, as when pouring soap on a tire when looking for an air leak, a visible bubble will form at the site of the breach. That was part of the initial investigation into using plastic. We take for granted cheap plastic packaging, but the transition from bulky, heavy, hollow metal cans which were vulnerable to vibration, to small. lightweight, fully encapsulated packages that capture the wirebond connections greatly improved affordability and reliability...

Brief History of the Office Cubicle

Brief History of the Office Cubicle - RF Cafe"In 1964, the office cubicle was born. For that you can thank Robert Propst, a designer at the Herman Miller furniture company. Four years earlier, he had proposed a radical alternative to the office bullpen: the Action Office. He envisioned it as a holistic and integrated system designed to increase worker efficiency while providing an ergonomic workspace. Sadly, the Action Office soon devolved into soulless cubicle farms, pilloried in Dilbert cartoons and despised by office workers everywhere. Chief among the complaints: noisy coworkers and a lack of privacy. To address both issues, Propst and Jack Kelley created the Acoustic Area Conditioner in 1975. The AAC was a noise-canceling device designed to hush unwanted background chatter. The globe became known around the company as the maskitball..."

(Re)Discovering the Lost Science of Near-Field Measurements

Discovering the Lost Science of Near-Field Measurements - RF CafeIn Part 4 of his "(Re)Discovering the Lost Science of Near-Field Measurements" series, Ken Javor asserts: "Understanding Radiated Emissions Measurements Made at One-Meter Separation: It's Not What You've Been Led to Believe This is the final installment of this serialized article. The first installment explained what near and far field measurements entail, and that one-meter measurements are very much near field. The second installment explained the evolution of the earlier 12" and present-day one-meter separation measurements, considerations in antenna selection, the difference between antenna-induced and field strength limits, and the evolution from one to the other. The third installment investigated practical problems arising from the misapplication of field intensity and far-field concepts to near-field phenomena. This fourth and final installment lists theoretical misunderstandings arising from the erroneous substitution of field intensity for antenna-induced concepts and shows the serious practical outcomes that result from these theoretical mistakes. Theoretical Problems Resulting from Using Field Intensity Limits Where Antenna-Induced Is More Appropriate Ignorance of the fundamentals of extreme near field measurements and of gain derating and the nature of the Fresnel zone has pronounced and dangerous impacts on both EMI and EMC requirements and verification. The following sections provide some relevant case histories..."

Colonial 31 and 32 D.C. Radio Service Data Sheet

Colonial 31 and 32 D.C. Radio Service Data Sheet, September 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe following announcement was posted in the September 1930 edition of Radio-Craft magazine regarding Radio Data Service Sheets. Oddly, I don't recall knowing that the "Radio Service" part of Radio Service Data Sheet referred to the name of a company/publisher. They must have been like an early version of Sam's Photofact subscription plan. Radio-Craft continues to produce the Data sheets for many years. "We are pleased to announce that RADIO-CRAFT has taken over the subscription list of 'RADIO SERVICE,' formerly published in Dallas, Texas. All subscribers of record to RADIO SERVICE will receive RADIO-CRAFT until the expiration of their subscriptions." I could not locate a photo of the Colonial Model 31 / 32 "DC" radio, but did find a model 31 AC. The DC and AC models likely used the same chassis, with the only difference being the AC operated off line current and DC used a battery. Up until the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was established later in the 1930s, most rural areas did not have AC electric service and relied on banks of storage batteries...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeBanner Ads are rotated in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 visits each weekdayRF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 17,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. Your Banner Ads are displayed on average 225,000 times per year! New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be...

Please Thank Werbel Microwave for Continued Support!

Werbel MicrowaveWerbel Microwave is a manufacturer of RF directional and bidirectional couplers (6 dB to 30 dB) and RF power dividers / combiners (2- to 16-way) with select models operating up to 26.5 GHz and 100 W of CW power (3 kW peak). All are RoHS and REACH compliant and are designed and manufactured in our Whippany, NJ, location. Custom products and private label service available. Please take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how Werbel Microwave can help you today.

Sunday the 29th

Electronics Themed Crossword for October 29th

Electronics Themed Crossword Puzzle for October 29th, 2023 - RF CafeAs with my hundreds of previous engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles, this one for October 29th uses only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over more than two decades. Many new words and company names have been added that had not even been added to the world's technical lexicon when I started in the year 2002. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you.  The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. A full list of all RF Cafe crosswords is at the page bottom. Enjoy!

How to Target RFCafe.com for Your Google Ads

Google AdSense - it makes good sense - RF CafeOne aspect of advertising on the RF Cafe website I have not covered is using Google AdSense. The reason is that I never took the time to explore how - or even whether it is possible - to target a specific website for displaying your banner ads. A couple display opportunities have always been provided for Google Ads to display, but the vast majority of advertising on RF Cafe is done via private advertisers. That is, companies deal with me directly and I handle inserting their banner ads into the html page code that randomly selects and displays them. My advertising scheme is what the industry refers to as a "Tenancy Campaign," whereby a flat price per month is paid regardless of number of impressions or clicks. It is the simplest format and has seemed to work well for many companies. With nearly 4 million pageviews per year for RFCafe.com, the average impression rate per banner ad is about 220,000 per year (in six locations on each page, with >17,000 pages). That's pretty good exposure for $300 per month. Some companies have expressed an interest in being able to manage their advertising accounts themselves a la the Google AdSense program...

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today. Manufactured in the USA.

Friday the 27th

It Can't Be All Bad

It Can't Be All Bad, September 1967 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeAs one who made in-home service calls for a few years as an electrician, I can attest to the sometimes strange scenarios which can be experienced. Most of the time the customers were sane and cordial, but every once in a while a lunatic answered the door. I always went out of my way to be accommodating and polite. One of the strangest places was a very expensive home that had essentially been outfitted as an aviary for various breeds of parrots. The owner insisted I never open a door or window without her being present. Bird poop was all over everything - furniture, curtains, kitchen stove and sink. Yuk. I got out of there as quickly as possible. Being in Annapolis, MD, near water (Chesapeake Bay and tributaries), lots of creepy-crawlies were everywhere, especially under houses. I can't count the number of times I met with nasty spiders, bees and wasps, multi-legged whatevers, and snakes whilst working deep inside crawl spaces and attics - with no expedient means of egress. In the 1970s there were no high power LED flashlights (or cellphones with a "flashlight" app) that lasted for hours, just D-cell flashlights with a PR-2 incandescent bulb that varied in brightness from moment to moment. Panic ensued when all of a sudden the light failed and there was no perceptible light marking a safe exit path. One old guy was a retired physics instructor at the U.S. Naval Academy, and he lectured me severely for daring to drill a couple holes...

August 2023 Heat Wave Tropospheric Opening

August 2023 Heat Wave Tropospheric Opening (November QST page 92) - RF Cafe"The World Above 50 MHz" is admittedly not a QST magazine column I usually read through each month, but the "August 2023 Heat Wave Tropospheric Opening" headline caught my attention. DXing (long distance communications) is a passion for many amateur radio operators, and much effort goes into making worldwide contacts, particularly by using as little transmitter power as possible (just about anyone with a maximum PEP power amplifier, expensive low-loss transmission line, a monster antenna, and a state-of-the-art transceiver can be successful). When an "opening" occurs due to ionospheric charging of atmospheric layers, it usually lasts for a relatively short time - from minutes to hours or maybe a couple days. According to K1HTV, "In my 65+ years of VHF DXing, this is the longest continuous tropospheric opening I have ever seen." VHF operators were "astonished" by a heat wave tropospheric opening, which don't usually occur at temperatures greater than 100°F, but this one lasted August 19-24 with temps in the 100°F realm. The included map shows contact locations and durations. Unfortunately, the article is only available to ARRL members.

Linear Scales Show Mixer Harmonics

Linear Scales Show Mixer Harmonics, January 10, 1964 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeHaving been out of the RF system design realm for a few years, I do not have much cause to think about mixer spurious products anymore. This "Linear Scales Show Mixer Harmonics" article from a 1964 issue of Electronics magazine got me thinking about it. I wonder these days how many designers even do much in the way of frequency planning in conversion systems? Are the RF, IF, and baseband frequencies so well defined for most of what is done in the wireless world that all the spurious product issues have been solved and there are few people who need to calculate mixer spurious product frequencies and powers? If there is a need, what methods are currently being used? Do you still cobble together spreadsheets and/or MATLAB worksheets using equations like those presented here, do you have a favorite smartphone app, a compact program on your computer, or are you using one of the two or three uber-sophisticated and super expensive design engineering programs...

Space 5G Changes Course

Space 5G Changes Course - RF Cafe"It's the season for space-based cellular service, courtesy of a recent string of announcements from companies around the world. Huawei upgraded its China-only satellite service from messaging to video calling this summer using its latest handset, the Mate 60 Pro, while AST SpaceMobile made its first 5G voice and data call using its prototype BlueWalker 3 satellite and a standard Samsung Galaxy S22. Apple's September announcement of its latest mobile telephone mentioned the subtle expansion of its emergency satellite messaging service to include roadside assistance. The flurry of activity adds up to a sign that companies are making progress on providing cellular service via satellite. 'I would say that most of the initiatives have moved from establishment phase to consolidation phase,' says Derek Long, the head of telecommunications at Cambridge Consultants. Yet consolidation does not necessarily mean the companies are meeting the goals they set last year. At the start of 2023, I reported on predictions from these companies..."

Brunswick Model 31 Combination Radio and Panatrope

Brunswick Model 31 Combination Radio and Panatrope Radio Service Data Sheet, February 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe Brunswick Model 31 Combination Radio Panatrope was billed as the world's first all-electric phonograph (as opposed to the mechanical crank-up models), combined with an AM radio. It was designed with the assistance of RCA, many of whose components were integrated into the unit. A video of a restored Panatrope is embedded on the page below the data sheet. I couldn't find an official etymology for "panatrope," but the prefix "pan" means "all-inclusive," and "trope" means "turning," like the turning of a phrase. However, given that the Panatrope is a "turn"table, perhaps that was an intentional distortion of the meaning to fit the device which it named, ergo, a record player that had all available functions. That's my best shot at it. This Radio Service Data Sheet for the Brunswick Model 31 Combination Radio and Panatrope appeared in the February 1930 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. It includes schematics and very detailed alignment instructions. A video of one in operation is embedded below. 

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Many Thanks to Exodus Advanced Communications for Their Support

Exodus Advanced Communications - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications is a multinational RF communication equipment and engineering service company serving both commercial and government entities and their affiliates worldwide. Power amplifiers ranging from 10 kHz to 51 GHz with various output power levels and noise figure ranges, we fully support custom designs and manufacturing requirements for both small and large volume levels. decades of combined experience in the RF field for numerous applications including military jamming, communications, radar, EMI/EMC and various commercial projects with all designing and manufacturing of our HPA, MPA, and LNA products in-house.

Thursday the 26th

Superstorms That Rage in Silence

Superstorms That Rage in Silence, May 1968 Popular Mechanics - RF CafeYou have likely heard of the International Geophysical Year (year and a half, actually), which was timed to coincide with maximum solar activity beginning in June 30, 1957, but have you heard of the Second Polar Year, a 13-month period that began in August 1932? It was conducted at a time when long range radio communications was becoming a major geopolitical necessity and scientists needed to better understand the phenomena of ionization in the Earth's upper atmosphere (named as a result - you guessed it - the ionosphere). Critical World War II radio communications were hampered by atmospheric electrical disturbances; likewise during the Korean War. When the Space Age was in its early years, learning about how radiation in all forms affect both electrical and biological (i.e., human) entities was essential in order to mitigate harmful effects and assure their safety. This "Superstorms That Rage in Silence" article in a 1968 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine discusses the consequences of solar activity on Earth-based systems - particularly the power distribution grid...

Entangled Atoms Lead to Ultraprecise Quantum Sensors

Entangled Atoms Lead to Ultraprecise Quantum Sensors - RF Cafe"The strange quantum phenomenon known as entanglement can link atoms and other particles together so that they can influence one another instantaneously, regardless of distance. New research suggests it's possible to take advantage of entanglement for significantly more accurate and faster quantum sensors that could support satellite navigation technologies like GPS. Quantum sensors rely on the effects that can emerge, because the universe becomes a fuzzy place at the smallest perspectives. These quantum effects are notoriously fragile to outside interference. However, quantum sensors capitalize on this vulnerability in order to respond to the slightest disturbances in the environment. Increasingly, quantum sensors are reaching unprecedented levels..."

Italy Electronics Market 1965

Italy Electronics Market 1965 - RF CafeThis is the electronics market prediction for Italy, circa 1966. It was part of a comprehensive assessment by the editors of Electronics magazine of the state of commercial, military, and consumer electronics at the end of 1965. Computers, military communications, numerically controlled factory automation, and consumer electronics drove the Italian markets, as was the case for every first-world nation. A bigger concentration on exports was becoming an important part of the equation. Unless you can find a news story on the state of the industry, detailed reports must be purchased from research companies like Statista. Their website has a lot of charts on Italy's current electronics market showing revenue in the consumer electronics segment amounts of US$2,948M in 2020...

Silvertone "Rocket" Model 6110 Radio Service Data Sheet

Sears, Roebuck & Co., Silvertone "Rocket" Models 6110 and 6111 Radio Service Data Sheet, January 1939 Radio-Craft - RF CafeIn 1938, the designers at Sears, Roebuck & Company's, Silvertone radio division were truly thinking "outside the box" when they came up with this "Rocket" model 6110. It is an ultra compact tabletop design with a unique rounded top and a huge tuning dial that comprised one entire end of the Bakelite cabinet, along with a set of six pushbuttons for station recall. There were only four vacuum tubes in the signal path so it was probably not the the highest quality sound or tuning selectivity. The "Rocket" nomenclature certainly fit its futuristic looks. The Tube Radio Land website has a good description of the radio. The world was fascinated with rockets at the time, being just a decade since Robert Goddard conducted his first liquid fueled rocket launch in 1926. There are still many people who restore and service these vintage radios, and often it can be difficult or impossible to find schematics and/or tuning information...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, Baseball Caps, and more, all sporting my amazingly clever "RF Engineers - We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. My graphic has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. I only make a couple bucks on each sale - the rest goes to Cafe Press. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Withwave for Long-Time Support!

Withwave RF & Microwave Components - RF CafeWithwave manufactures an extensive line of metrology quality coaxial test cable assemblies, connectors (wave-, end-, vertical-launch, board edge, panel mount), calibration kits (SOLT), a fully automated 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrator, between- and in-series connector adaptors, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, torque wrenches, test probes & probe positioner. Special test fixtures for calibration and multicoax cable assemblies. Frequency ranges from DC through 110 GHz. Please contact Withwave today to see how they can help your project succeed.

Wednesday the 25th

MAT - MOST - MOSFET - UFET - FET: Understanding Solid-State

MAT - MOST - MOSFET - UFET - FET: Understanding Solid-State, September 1967 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeAbbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms abound in all technical fields, and electronics is no exception. Generally, the coined names are based on the (usually) first letters of words comprising the entity (e.g., metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor - MOSFET) when the originators are affiliated with private and academic organizations. Government and military groups are famous for twisting and distorting entity names to create descriptive acronyms, like Nanoscale Architectures for Coherent Hyper-Optic Sources (NACHOS), NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN), and Counter-electronics High-powered Microwave Advanced Missile Project (CHAMP). I just checked in with Wikipedia and found a list of a couple dozen of transistor-related acronyms, which includes MOSFET, DGMOSFET, DGMOS, BJT, SCR, IGBT, JLNT, MNOS, ISFET, BioFET, EnFET, GenFET, DNAFET, CPFET, BeetleFET, DNAFET, finFET, GAAFET, JFET, DEPFET, FREDFET, HIGFET, MODFET, TFET, TQFET, HEMT, HFET, MESFET, NOMFET, GNRFET, VeSFET, CNTFET, OFET, QFET, GFET, VTFET, and others. Determining the meaning and properties of each type is left as an exercise for the reader ;-)

Metamaterials for Complex Materials

Metamaterials for Complex Materials - RF Cafe"Researchers from MIT and the Institute of Science and Technology Austria have created a technique to include many different building blocks of cellular metamaterials into one, unified graph-based representation. They used this representation to create a user-friendly interface that an engineer can utilize to quickly and easily model metamaterials, edit the structures, and simulate their properties. With a new, user-friendly interface, researchers can quickly design many cellular metamaterial structures that have unique mechanical properties. Engineers are constantly searching for materials with novel, desirable property combinations. For example, an ultra-strong, lightweight material could be used to make airplanes and cars more fuel-efficient, or a material that is porous..."

Two Ways to Measure Distortion

Two Ways to Measure Distortion, October 4, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeHere is a good, brief introduction to harmonic and intermodulation distortion measurement methods that were commonly used in the 1960s. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used often, especially for audio equipment, which of course most frequency conversion circuits ultimately were in the era since digital data transmission over the air was not too common. Author Charles Moore worked for Hewlett-Packard (HP) and references HP Application Note 15, "Distortion and Intermodulation" which, thankfully, is made available by The HP Memory Project website. In fact, a complete list of all the vintage app notes are available on this page by downloading the PDF files. I highly recommend that you download and save all you think you might ever want because as with most things on the Web, they could disappear at any time. Some have been captured on the Archive.org website (I just now had it save AN-15 for time immemorial)...

Bosch Models 60 and 61 Radio Service Data Sheet

Bosch Models 60 and 61 Radio Service Data Sheet, August 1931 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThis Radio Service Data Sheet for the American Bosch Models 60 and 61 was published in the August 1931 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. I searched high and low on the Internet for a photo of an actual radio. Models 5, 28, 30, 48, and 200 are aplenty, but alas, no 60 or 61. Features like automatic volume control (AVC) were considered deluxe niceties available to the consumer willing to pay extra for it. There are five vacuum tubes in the signal path, not including a separate tube for the AVC circuit. Two rectifier tubes are in the power supply, and a neon bulb is used as a power on indicator. With this number of tubes, it could be either a high-end tabletop job or a console type floor model. Bosch was first a German electronics company before expanding to America...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols"" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafeThe leading website for the PCB industry. PCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Tuesday the 24th

Voltage Quiz

Voltage Quiz, December 1961 Popular Electronics - RF CafePopular Electronics magazine's quizmeister Robert P. Balin created this "Voltage Quiz" for the December 1961 issue. Fortunately, only fixed resistors (6 Ω each) and battery voltage source(s) are involved. The goal is to calculate the voltage at point "A" with respect to ground. Analyzing some of the circuits is made easier by rearranging the layout to remove wiring overlaps. Circuit 5 might be the simplest of all, and can be done fairly easily in your head. Others, like circuit 1, are best approached by writing two mesh equations per Kirchhoff's voltage law (the sum of all voltages in a closed circuit equals zero) and solving the resulting two equations in two unknowns (basic algebra). Spoiler: Upon redrawing a couple circuits you might discover an identical instance of a previous one, making the solution the same as well...

2D Transistors, 3D Chips, and More Mad Stuff

2D Transistors, 3D Chips, and More Mad Stuff - RF Cafe"The 69th Annual IEEE International Electron Device Meeting is set to start on 9 December, and the conference teaser shows that researchers have been extending the roadmap for a number of technologies, notably those used to make CPUs and GPUs. Because chip companies can't keep on increasing transistor density by scaling down chip features in two dimensions, they have moved into the third dimension by stacking chips on top of each other. Now they're working to build transistors on top of each other within those chips. Next, it appears likely, they will squeeze still more into the third dimension by designing 3D circuits with 2D semiconductors, such as molybdenum disulfide. All of these technologies will likely serve machine learning, an application with an ever-growing appetite for processing power. But other research to be presented at IEDM shows that 3D silicon and 2D semiconductors..."

Messages by Meteor

Messages by Meteor, October 18, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeMeteor scatter (aka meteor burst) communications is today largely the domain of amateur radio operators in their ongoing attempts to set records for making long distance (DX) contacts with a minimum amount of transmit power. When this article was written by U. California's Victor Latorre, transcontinental fiber optic cables did not interconnect the world with high speed, phase stable media that meets the exacting needs of precise time synchronization. Radio astronomy, quantum physics experiments, and even stock market trading (see Arbitrage via Microwaves) depends on microsecond or finer timing. Mr. Latorre explains in this 1965 issue of Electronics magazine how meteor scatter communications' unique phase-stable characteristic is used to send synchronization signals between scientific and navigation facilities. Of course meteor scatter has the severe disadvantages of being unpredictable in time and place, short-lived, and varying in levels of ionization of the upper atmosphere with attendant frequency and bandwidth accommodation. That very unpredictablity...

FCC CORES License Renewal

FCC CORES License Renewal - RF CafeEvidently the ARRL's QST magazine editor(s) believe registering with the FCC's new COmmission REgistration System (CORES) is essential, because full-page articles appeared in both the October and November issues. Say the authors, "Before you renew your license, you will need to create a new FCC CORES username account, and then link your FCC Registration Number (FRN) to your new account. As of April 2022, the FCC charges a $35 fee to renew amateur radio licenses. You must create the new account to pay the fee." I did mine back when CORES was first established and had no problems. However, when I just now tried to log in to review my information, the password didn't work and I needed to reset and create a new one. Evidently the FCC has changed its password character content requirements since then. My Amateur Extra license expires in 2030, so it'll be a while before needing to update. I wonder if my password will work in 2030?

Delco 32-Volt Radio Receiver

Delco 32-Volt Radio Receiver Chasses Radio Service Data Sheet, January 1932 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe Here is the Delco 32-Volt Radio Receiver Chassis schematic and parts list as featured in a 1933 edition of Radio-Craft magazine. The only example I could find is the one shown to the left, on the PhilcoRadio.com website. The schematic shows six vacuum tubes, and there appears to be six in the photo. Battery-powered radios were common in the era before AC electric service was available in rural locations, and a lot of homes even in the cities did not have service either. A look through a Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalog in the early part of the last century showed many electricity generator systems for use on farms, including windmills and water-powered generators for placing in streams and rivers. Life was tough...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems is the technological leader in RF & microwave power amplifier solutions for EW, Radar, Satcom, Threat Simulation, Communications, and Product Testing. Our air and liquid cooled amplifiers incorporate the latest semiconductor and power combining technologies and with a patented architecture we build the most sophisticated and flexible COTS system amplifiers in the world. Solutions range from tens of watts to hundreds of kilowatts and includes basic PA modules to scalable rack systems.

Monday the 23rd

Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun

Implausible Remarks, Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun, March 1967 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn July 1966, Popular Electronics magazine invited its readers to submit examples of ridiculous statements made by people supposedly "in-the-know" about electronics and/or technical subjects. Space was allotted to it in four later issues as well, all of which I have now posted with Sequel 4 of "Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun!" finishing it out. Stories of customer remarks are always good for a laugh, like the housewife (remember those?) of an engineer who, upon having a repairman tell her the TV had a problem with an intermittent tube, called her husband and told him to pick up a new intermittent tube. Then there are the puns, like Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neumann exclaimed on seeing his new ham ticket, "What me W0RRY?," and that connecting together all the batteries on earth end-to-end you would have a world series. What about having your color TV picture tube "deloused?" Enjoy...

BT Connects Skies with UK's 1st Drone SIM

BT Connects Skies with UK's 1st Drone SIM - RF Cafe"BT today announces the launch of the UK's first Drone SIM to unlock the true potential of beyond visual line of sight (BVLOs) drone operation across the UK. Designed to function at altitude using the EE network, Drone SIM offers unlimited data plans and continuous connectivity in the sky. Drone SIM is built to endure vibration, temperature and humidity extremes, supporting all-season drone use. BT business customers will be the first to benefit from the Drone SIM which has the potential to transform industries, from urgent delivery of medical supplies to infrastructure monitoring and transportation of goods. Using BT Group's EE network, Drone SIM benefits from high priority and ultra responsive connectivity, enabling safety, control, telemetry and realising ultra-high definition (UHD) video streaming at altitude. This enables drone users to capture detailed, survey quality imagery and video for a wide range of purposes, from search and rescue to infrastructure inspection. Drone SIM is pushing the limits of drone flight..."

What Do Hams Do?

What Do Hams Do?, March 1972 Popular Electronics - RF CafeOften times, a recent convert, adopter, proselyte, or whatever name you give to a newly energized person who has a new activity or lifestyle, is among the most ardent of disciples for that realm. That goes for religions, weight loss and smoking cessation programs, social and political movements, and even hobbies. Recipients of that person's enthusiastic dogma view such evangelism as anything from welcome news worthy of adoption to merely annoying to downright offensive and unbearable. Since receiving my first Amateur Radio operator's license in 2010, long-time visitors of RF Cafe have probably noticed an increase in the number of Ham-related news stories and magazine articles on the subject. Hopefully, my interspersing them with more career-centric engineering and technical content is not regarded as superfluous to non-Hams. The fact is that even if you have no interest in becoming an Amateur Radio operator, the incredible amount of information generated by the Ham community - which consists in a large part of electronics engineers and technicians - is beneficial to the majority of people in the professional field. So, if you think I have gone overboard...

Japanese Technology - When You're Second, You Try Harder

Japanese Technology - When You're Second, You Try Harder, December 13, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF CafeThe December 1965 issue of Electronics magazine reported in multiple articles on the state of Japan's electronics industry (see the table of contents for other stories). Japan's indisputable lead today in many realms of semiconductor, commercial, and consumer products proves successful implementation of the strategy described in these articles. Per this piece's NTT employee authors, "In one decade, Japan's semiconductor industry has become the world's second largest. Pioneering engineers, a variety of unusual devices, and breakthroughs in miniaturization techniques account for phenomenal growth." A notable claim is taking credit for inventing the ceramic "pill" packaging format for high frequency transistors...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeBanner Ads are rotated in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 visits each weekdayRF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 17,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. Your Banner Ads are displayed on average 225,000 times per year! New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be...

Thanks to TotalTemp Technologies for Continued Support!

TotalTemp Technologies - RF CafeTotalTemp Technologies has more than 40 years of combined experience providing thermal platforms. Thermal Platforms are available to provide temperatures between -100°C and +200°C for cryogenic cooling, recirculating & circulating coolers, temperature chambers and temperature controllers, thermal range safety controllers, space simulation chambers, hybrid benchtop chambers, custom systems and platforms. Manual and automated configurations for laboratory and production environments. Please contact TotalTemp Technologies today to learn how they can help your project.

Sunday the 22nd

Electronics Themed Crossword Puzzle October 22nd

Electronics Themed Crossword Puzzle October 22nd, 2023 - RF CafeAs with my hundreds of previous engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles, this one for October 22nd uses only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over more than two decades. Many new words and company names have been added that had not even been added to the world's technical lexicon when I started in the year 2002. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you. The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. A full list of all RF Cafe crosswords is at the page bottom. Enjoy!

Thanks to Anatech Electronics for Long-Time Support!

Anatech Electronics logo - RF CafeAnatech Electronics (AEI) manufactures and supplies RF and microwave filters for military and commercial communication systems, providing standard LP, HP, BP, BS, notch, diplexer, and custom RF filters, and RF products. Standard RF filter and cable assembly products are published in our website database for ease of procurement. Custom RF filters designs are used when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements dictate a custom approach for your military and commercial communications needs. Sam Benzacar's monthly newsletters address contemporary wireless subjects. Please visit Anatech today to see how they can help your project succeed. 

Atwater Kent Model 30 Data Sheet

Atwater Kent Models 30, 33, 35, 48 and 49 Radio Service Data Sheet, May 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeInterestingly, a couple models of this Atwater-Kent radio featured an untuned front end at the antenna interface, possibly because the adjustment range of the provided variable capacitor would not handle an extreme antenna impedance. With as basic as all the RF amplifier stages are, it seems maybe adding a second adjustable capacitor in parallel to facilitate a wider adjustment range would not have been too big of a cost burden compared to the advantage of tuning the input in the presence of all the EMI spewing from crappy electromechanical equipment and minimally filtered transmitters (it was the era of AM, after all). Note the unusual aspect ratio of the case, being much longer than it is deep or high. There are many YouTube videos of people having restored various versions of the radio - models 30, 35, 40, and more...

Guglielmo Marconi Obituary

Guglielmo Marconi Obituary, October 1937 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThis editorial commemoration was written by Radio-Craft magazine publisher Hugo Gernsback to radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, who died on July 20th, 1937. He was only 63 years old. Gernsback states, "The debt which the world owes to Marconi is staggering - if you figure only one single result of his accomplishments - the saving of tens of thousands of lives which would have perished in the sea and otherwise, if had not been for Marconi." The January 1939 issue of Radio-Craft magazine featured an article titled, "Marconi - Father of Radio?," wherein author Edward H. Loftin challenges the veracity of Marconi receiving credit for the title. An obituary appeared in this same issue...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current-Carrying Capacity of Wire

Selecting the Proper Fuse

Men Who Made Radio - Frank Conrad

Mac's Service Shop: Biological Effects of Electrical Shock

Japan: An Industrious Competitor

Japan Stresses Research

Japanese Technology - The New Push for Technical Leadership

Bud Radio Advertisement

Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun!

Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun! - Sequel 2

Characteristics of Metal Tubes - and Other "Octal" (8-Prong)-Base Types

Chemical Institute of New York Advertisement

Surveyor Program Under Attack

Columbia Screen-Grid 8 (SG-8) Receiver

Netherlands Electronics Market

Coyne Electrical School Advertisement

Six Possible Routes to Noninductive Tuned Circuitry

Crosley Model AC-7 and AC-7C Radio Service Data Sheet

Frequency Modulation, Facsimile, Sound, & Nazi Propaganda

Radar Adds Beep to Home Sets

Crosley Model 120 Senior Superheterodyne (Pliodynatron) Chassis

The Moon: We Look Before We Leap - Ranger 6

Crosley Model 1316 (in Model 167 Console)

"Final" Action in Radio Feed-Back Case

Raytheon Numerical Indicator Tubes and Data Display Devices

Use it up... Wear it out... Make it do... Or do without

Rohde & Schwarz Advertisement

Current-Carrying Capacity of Wire

Rotating Subreflector Produces Circular Scanning

U.S. Radio War Effort

Russia Electronics Market

Emerson Models 38, 42 and 49, 6-Tube Dual-Wave Super. (Chassis U6)

U.S. Radio and Television Stations January 15, 1948

Plotting Coverage Circles for Satellite Communications

Emerson 5A Automotive Radio Schematic

The Theory and Construction of Attenuators and Line Filters

Fada 103 Fadalette, Stewart-Warner Series 108, DeWald 54 Dynette Sets

Mallory Carbon Controls Advertisement

FADA "Special" Model 265-A and FADA "7" Model 475-A

India's New Network of Radio Broadcasting

Ford-Philco Car-Radio Models F-1440 and F-1442

Silvertone Models 4488 and 4588 (Chassis No.101412) and 4488A and 4588A

 

 

 

 

 

Your Radio Training and the Defense Program

Radio Craft 2015 search

June 1969 P-E, Kohler p40

August 1969, Hobnobbing Harbaugh p68

Channel Master 6515 "Super Fringe" Radio

Channel Master Contact Cleaner

Your Radio Training and the Defense Program

Radio Craft 2015 search

June 1969 P-E, Kohler p40

August 1969, Hobnobbing Harbaugh p68

Channel Master 6515 "Super Fringe" Radio

Channel Master Contact Cleaner

Engineering Job Opening

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeBanner Ads are rotated in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 visits each weekdayRF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 17,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. Your Banner Ads are displayed on average 225,000 times per year! New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be...

How to Target RFCafe.com for Your Google Ads

Google AdSense - it makes good sense - RF CafeOne aspect of advertising on the RF Cafe website I have not covered is using Google AdSense. The reason is that I never took the time to explore how - or even whether it is possible - to target a specific website for displaying your banner ads. A couple display opportunities have always been provided for Google Ads to display, but the vast majority of advertising on RF Cafe is done via private advertisers. That is, companies deal with me directly and I handle inserting their banner ads into the html page code that randomly selects and displays them. My advertising scheme is what the industry refers to as a "Tenancy Campaign," whereby a flat price per month is paid regardless of number of impressions or clicks. It is the simplest format and has seemed to work well for many companies. With nearly 4 million pageviews per year for RFCafe.com, the average impression rate per banner ad is about 220,000 per year (in six locations on each page, with >17,000 pages). That's pretty good exposure for $300 per month. Some companies have expressed an interest in being able to manage their advertising accounts themselves a la the Google AdSense program...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols"" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - 9.21.2023

RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - RF CafeThe newest release of RF Cafe's spreadsheet (Excel) based engineering and science calculator is now available - Espresso Engineering Workbook™. Among other additions, it now has an extensive coaxial cable parameter calculator. Since 2002, the original Calculator Workbook has been available as a free download. Continuing the tradition, RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ is also provided at no cost, compliments of my generous sponsors. The original calculators are included, but with a vastly expanded and improved user interface. Error-trapped user input cells help prevent entry of invalid values. An extensive use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions now do most of the heavy lifting with calculations, and facilitates a wide user-selectable choice of units for voltage, frequency, speed, temperature, power, wavelength, weight, etc. In fact, a full page of units conversion calculators is included. A particularly handy feature is the ability to specify the the number of significant digits to display. Drop-down menus are provided for convenience. Now that a more expandable basis has been created, I plan to add new calculators on a regular basis...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, Baseball Caps, and more, all sporting my amazingly clever "RF Engineers - We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. My graphic has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. I only make a couple bucks on each sale - the rest goes to Cafe Press. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

/jobs.htm">Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable /jobs.htm">job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

 

2-Way End-to-End Laser Communications System

NASA 2-Way End-to-End Laser Communications System - RF Cafe"NASA is demonstrating laser communications on multiple missions - showcasing the benefits infrared light can have for science and exploration missions transmitting terabytes of important data. The International Space Station is getting a 'flashy' technology demonstration this November. The ILLUMA-T (Integrated Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Low Earth Orbit User Modem and Amplifier Terminal) payload is launching to the International Space Station to demonstrate how missions in low Earth orbit can benefit from laser communications. Laser communications uses invisible infrared light to send and receive information at higher data rates, providing spacecraft with the capability to send more data back to Earth in a single transmission and expediting discoveries for researchers. Managed by NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program, ILLUMA-T is completing NASA's first bi-directional, end-to-end laser communications relay by working with the agency's LCRD (Laser Communications Relay Demonstration)..."

 Antenna Enabled by Atoms in Rydberg State

Antenna Enabled by Atoms in Rydberg State - RF Cafe"Physicists from University of Otago have used a small glass bulb containing atomic vapor to demonstrate a new form of antenna for radio waves. The bulb was 'wired up' with laser beams and could therefore be placed far away from any receiver. Dr. Susi Otto, from the Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, led the field testing of the portable atomic radio frequency sensor. Such sensors, which are enabled by atoms in a so-called Rydberg state, can provide superior performance over current antenna technologies as they are highly sensitive, have broad tunability and small physical size, making them attractive for use in defense and communications. For example, they could simplify communications for soldiers on the battlefield as they cover the full spectrum of radio frequencies, rather than needing multiple antennas to cover different frequency bands, and are super sensitive and accurate to detect a wide range of critical signals..."

Einstein Made It Famous; Tech Makes It Current

Einstein Made It Famous; Tech Makes It Current - RF Cafe"There are many ways to convert the movement of liquids into electricity, such as, in the form of hydropower or tidal power. But there's another kind of movement available in liquids that has rarely been considered for this purpose - molecular thermal motion or Brownian motion. (Albert Einstein famously developed the foundational theory of Brownian motion, the basis of his Ph.D. thesis, at the University of Zurich in 1905.) Molecular motion has traditionally been an impediment in engineering on a nanoscale, but recent developments in nanotechnology have also allowed scientists to use this phenomenon to their advantage. In a recent study from China, scientists posit that the internal, molecular motion of liquids could be a source of energy if only there was a way to harvest it. To demonstrate, they built a prototype of a molecular thermal motion harvester (MTMH)..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

2024:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2023:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2022:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2021:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2020:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2019:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2018:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2017:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2016:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2015:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2014:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2013:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2012:  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 (no archives before 2012)

Anritsu Test Equipment - RF Cafe
Rigol DHO1000 Oscilloscope - RF Cafe

Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs

ConductRF Phased Matched RF Cables - RF Cafe