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Homepage Archive - November 2023 (page 1)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | of the November 2023 homepage archives.
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Tuesday the 7th

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., February 1944 Popular Science - RF CafeWestinghouse Electric Company is, alas, yet another of America's great founding businesses that is fading into oblivion. Many are already gone, usually having been bought up by foreign conglomerates. In an effort to be a "global player," we have surrendered our technology, manufacturing, and brainpower all over the Earth - far too often to countries who would prefer our demise. Out of thirst for power and money, politicians and bureaucrats bring citizens of those adversarial countries here to populate positions (usually unelected) of policy making or enforcing power. Some seem to be here for the purpose of warfare if called upon (witness the millions of single, military-aged men pouring over our southern border with no vetting). I worked for Westinghouse at the Oceanic Division in Annapolis, Maryland, as an electronics technician back in the 1980s. Lots of very bright engineers motivated me to earn my electrical engineering degree. Northrup Grumman (still American, surprisingly) now owns that division. Judging by their website, I'm guessing the primary product there is diversity, equity, and inclusion. They might also build sonars...

Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - 11.7.2023

RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ for Excel - RF CafeThe newest release of RF Cafe's spreadsheet (Excel) based engineering and science calculator is now available - Espresso Engineering Workbook™. Among other additions, it now has a spurious mixer product calculator and capacitance calculator calculator. Since 2002, the original Calculator Workbook has been available as a free download. Continuing the tradition, RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™ is also provided at no cost, compliments of my generous sponsors. The original calculators are included, but with a vastly expanded and improved user interface. Error-trapped user input cells help prevent entry of invalid values. An extensive use of Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions now do most of the heavy lifting with calculations, and facilitates a wide user-selectable choice of units for voltage, frequency, speed, temperature, power, wavelength, weight, etc. In fact, a full page of units conversion calculators is included. A particularly handy feature is the ability to specify the the number of significant digits to display. Drop-down menus are provided for convenience. Now that a more expandable basis has been created, I plan to add new calculators on a regular basis...

QST Print Edition No Longer Included in ARRL Membership

A notice arrived in an e-mail from the ARRL today saying that the print edition of QST and/or On the Air magazines are no longer included with the cost of membership, which is increasing from $49/year to $59/year. The online edition will be included, but it'll cost an additional $25/year for the print version. I don't have a huge problem with that, but they also say if I want to continue receiving the print edition which I already paid to receive through March 2024, it will cost me an extra $6.25. That seems like a breach of contract to me. No offer is made to refund me for missed issues if I do not pay the extra amount. The issue is not so much the money as the principle of reneging on a contract. Any lawyers out there have an opinion on this?

Werbel Wideband Resistive Power Dividers

Werbel Microwave Wideband Resistive Power Dividers / Combiners - RF CafeWerbel Microwave presents a lineup of 50-ohm resistive power divider/combiner models that covers up to 7.2 GHz with ultra-wide bandwidth. This unique design accomplishes extremely flat frequency response in a small radial package. Our unique design approach provides higher than expected isolation between outputs at far ports than would be achieved in a typical star topology. It has applications in markets such as CATV, test and measurement, and military radio. Its small size makes it easy to integrate into compact systems. Werbel Microwave products now sport a unique green finish providing protection against the elements and easy manufacturer identification in all environments. Designed, assembled, and tested in the USA...

Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun!

Just When I Forgot My (Soldering) Gun!, July 1966 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn July 1966, Popular Electronics magazine invited its readers to submit examples of ridiculous - implausible remarks - statements made by people supposedly "in-the-know" about electronics and/or technical subjects. Space was allotted to it in four later issues, all of which I will eventually post (update: now done). This initial request included a couple of the editor's favorite lines. Some of them seem to be more like the speaker punking another person rather than not really knowing any better. See if you agree.

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeBanner Ads are rotated in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 visits each weekdayRF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 17,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. Your Banner Ads are displayed on average 280,000 times per year! New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be...

Please Thank IPP for Their Long-Time Support!

Innovative Power ProductsInnovative Power Products has been designing and manufacturing RF and Microwave passive components since 2005. We use the latest design tools available to build our baluns, 90-degree couplers, directional couplers, combiners/dividers, single-ended transformers, resistors, terminations, and custom products. Applications in military, medical, industrial, and commercial markets are serviced around the world. Products listed on the website link to detailed mechanical drawings, electrical specifications, and performance data. If you cannot find a product that meets your requirements on our website, contact us to speak with one of our experienced design engineers about your project.

Monday the 6th

How Binoculars Are Made

How Binoculars Are Made, February 1944 Popular Science - RF CafeFundamentally, not much has changed in the way binoculars are constructed versus in 1944 when this article appeared in Popular Science magazine. Manufacturing methods have, of course, been updated. At the time nearly all binoculars used a "porro prism" (PP) design (named after inventor Ignazio Porro), but today many employ a "roof prism" (RP) configuration (named after... a roof). A search of the pros and cons of each turned up mostly a regurgitation of the same information, much of which I consider to be very biased toward roof prism types, including claims that RPs are waterproof and PPs are not (my Nikon Action EX 7x50 PP binocs are water proof), and that RPs use antireflective coatings whereas PPs do not (my Nikon PPs have antireflective coatings). As is typical with most products, the features largely depend on what you pay for the binoculars. High-end telescope maker Celestron has a good write-up on porro prism vs. roof prism binoculars. Astronomers, incidentally, prefer prefer prism binoculars over roofing prism types...

Word Charades and Riddles

Word Charades and Riddles, 1958 Old Farmer's Almanac - RF CafeThis set of "Word Charades and Riddles" was presented in the 1958 issue of The Old Farmer's Almanac. The Charades puzzle solutions are each a single word formed from the combination of two or more other possibly unrelated words inferred in the clues. They are not portmanteaus, as in "coplay" for costume player, or "smog" for smoke and fog. Instead, they are akin to "port," as in the left side of a boat, plus "age," as in years since birth, combined as portage, being the act of carrying something. I have to admit to only getting one of these, and that's after looking at the answer to another and guessing that there might be some similarity (spoiler: think of Roman numerals). People must have thought differently in 1958 (the year I was born, BTW)...

Columbia Screen-Grid 8 Receiver

Columbia Screen-Grid 8 Receiver Radio Service Data Sheet, October 1930 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"I always attempt to find a photo of the radio whose Radio Service Data Sheets posted here on RF Cafe. However, none could be located for this Columbia Screen Grid 8 (SG-8) radio. It appeared in a 1930 issue of Radio-Craft magazine, so it was manufactured almost 100 years ago. That might explain why there are no images of them available, especially if the SG-8 was not a particularly popular model. There may be, though, examples of this chassis under different brand names, as mentioned in the date sheet. Wexmark Radio and Allied Radio are two specifically given. If you have found this page because you have a Columbia SG-8 (in one of its forms) and are restoring it, please consider sending me a photo for posting...

How to Target RFCafe.com for Your Google Ads

Google AdSense - it makes good sense - RF CafeOne aspect of advertising on the RF Cafe website I have not covered is using Google AdSense. The reason is that I never took the time to explore how - or even whether it is possible - to target a specific website for displaying your banner ads. A couple display opportunities have always been provided for Google Ads to display, but the vast majority of advertising on RF Cafe is done via private advertisers. That is, companies deal with me directly and I handle inserting their banner ads into the html page code that randomly selects and displays them. My advertising scheme is what the industry refers to as a "Tenancy Campaign," whereby a flat price per month is paid regardless of number of impressions or clicks. It is the simplest format and has seemed to work well for many companies. With nearly 4 million pageviews per year for RFCafe.com, the average impression rate per banner ad is about 280,000 per year (in eight locations on each page, with >17,000 pages). That's pretty good exposure for $300 per month. Some companies have expressed an interest in being able to manage their advertising accounts themselves a la the Google AdSense program...

Thanks to Anritsu for Their Support!

Anritsu (electronics test equipment) - RF CafeAnritsu has been a global provider of innovative communications test and measurement solutions for more than 120 years. Anritsu manufactures a full line of innovative components and accessories for RF and Microwave Test and Measurement Equipment including attenuators & terminations; coaxial cables, connectors & adapters; o-scopes; power meters & sensors; signal generators; antenna, signal, spectrum, & vector network analyzers (VNAs); calibration kits; Bluetooth & WLAN testers; PIM testers; amplifiers; power dividers; antennas. "We've Got You Covered."

Sunday the 5th

Engineering & Science Themed Crossword for November 5th

Engineering and Science Themed Crossword Puzzle for November 5th, 2023 - RF CafeAs with my hundreds of previous engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles, this one for November 5th uses only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over more than two decades. Many new words and company names have been added that had not even been added to the world's technical lexicon when I started in the year 2002. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you. The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. A full list of all RF Cafe crosswords is at the page bottom. Enjoy!

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, Baseball Caps, and more, all sporting my amazingly clever "RF Engineers - We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. My graphic has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. I only make a couple bucks on each sale - the rest goes to Cafe Press. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Thanks Again for Windfreak Technologies' Continued Support!

Windfreak TechnologiesWindfreak Technologies designs, manufactures, tests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up / downconverters. Since the conception of WFT, we have introduced products that have been purchased by a wide range of customers, from hobbyists to education facilities to government agencies. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, and Asia. Please contact Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project.

Friday the 3rd

War Metals from Sand

War Metals from Sand, February 1944 Popular Science - RF CafeIf this "War Metals from Sand" article had appeared in a contemporary magazine instead of a 1944 issue of Popular Science, I might think it was referring to all the semiconductors being made from silicon --- sand. However, the story reported on the mining and processing of sand, monazite sand in particular. At the time, it was the only known commercial source for thorium. Other rare earth metals are also separated from the "sand," including cerium, lanthanum, and erbium. The outbreak of World War II forced the primary source for monazite sand to be changed from India to coastal CONUS locations like Florida, the Carolinas, and Oregon. In fact, by the end of the war, the U.S. produced the vast majority of its raw materials, which contributed to the country establishing itself as a major global economic force in addition to being a military force. Sadly, we are way too dependent on offshore sources for both raw materials and manufacturing for some of our most vital products, including medicine and semiconductors. It doesn't have to be this way, but scumbag politicians, bureaucrats, and industry leaders (many of whom are foreigners) make far too much money to allow any other system...

Einstein Made It Famous; Tech Makes It Current

Einstein Made It Famous; Tech Makes It Current - RF Cafe"There are many ways to convert the movement of liquids into electricity, such as, in the form of hydropower or tidal power. But there's another kind of movement available in liquids that has rarely been considered for this purpose - molecular thermal motion or Brownian motion. (Albert Einstein famously developed the foundational theory of Brownian motion, the basis of his Ph.D. thesis, at the University of Zurich in 1905.) Molecular motion has traditionally been an impediment in engineering on a nanoscale, but recent developments in nanotechnology have also allowed scientists to use this phenomenon to their advantage. In a recent study from China, scientists posit that the internal, molecular motion of liquids could be a source of energy if only there was a way to harvest it. To demonstrate, they built a prototype of a molecular thermal motion harvester (MTMH)..."

Current-Carrying (Fusing) Capacity of Wire

Current-Carrying Capacity of Wire, March 1935 Radio-Craft - RF CafeRadio-Craft magazine used to run a feature where readers would write in with questions, and someone on the staff would respond. This March 1935 issue's query requested a table containing maximum current carrying (fusing) capacities for various wire gauge sizes. Values of fusing current were provided for 10 through 40 GA, for copper, German silver, and iron. The "B. & S. Gauge" wire size scale refers to Brown & Sharpe, which now goes by the designation of American Wire Gauge (AWG)...

Thanks Again to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Crosley AC-7 Radio Service Data Sheet

Crosley AC-7 and AC-7C Radio Service Data Sheet, May 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeHave you ever heard of a Mershon condenser? Me neither, but this Crosley Model AC-7 radio used one (or more), whose Radio Service Data Sheet was published in the May 1930 issue of Radio-Craft magazine, mentions it. Ohio State University alums are likely familiar with the name Mershon, if not the man. Ralph Mershon was, among other things, an early manufacturer of electrolytic capacitors. The data sheet mentions a propensity of Mershon capacitors to experience breakdown of the electrolyte when the radio is not used for many months. Rejuvenation is necessary via an included prescribed procedure to ensure effective operation in removing the 60 Hz hum in the audio...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Thanks to Anritsu for Their Support!

Anritsu (electronics test equipment) - RF CafeAnritsu has been a global provider of innovative communications test and measurement solutions for more than 120 years. Anritsu manufactures a full line of innovative components and accessories for RF and Microwave Test and Measurement Equipment including attenuators & terminations; coaxial cables, connectors & adapters; o-scopes; power meters & sensors; signal generators; antenna, signal, spectrum, & vector network analyzers (VNAs); calibration kits; Bluetooth & WLAN testers; PIM testers; amplifiers; power dividers; antennas. "We've Got You Covered."

Thursday the 2nd

Can Electronics Get Much Smaller?

Can Electronics Get Much Smaller? (Forest Belt), March 1967 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeMr. Forest H. Belt was, in addition to being an editor for Radio-Electronics magazine in the 1960s, a prolific author of electronics handbooks. His publications included theory, design, components, and operation of radios and various equipment and gadgets - even snowmobiles and mobile home maintenance. He published this "Can Electronics Get Much Smaller?," editorial article in the March 1967 issue of Radio-Electronics. On the surface, it seems like a rhetorical question, but this statement suggests maybe he thinks that current state of the art had about reached the practical limit of size reduction: "There are practical limits to just how small electronic devices can become. At least, there seem to be." The first commercially available monolithic IC op amp, the μA702, appeared in 1963, just three years earlier. Surely that could not have represented the pinnacle in electronic component technology. Mr. Belt imagines miniaturizing existing vacuum tube designs with newfangled semiconductor equivalents, but did he have the vision to imagine entire mixed signal (analog and digital) radios on a single chip?...

Antenna Enabled by Atoms in Rydberg State

Antenna Enabled by Atoms in Rydberg State - RF Cafe"Physicists from University of Otago have used a small glass bulb containing atomic vapor to demonstrate a new form of antenna for radio waves. The bulb was 'wired up' with laser beams and could therefore be placed far away from any receiver. Dr. Susi Otto, from the Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, led the field testing of the portable atomic radio frequency sensor. Such sensors, which are enabled by atoms in a so-called Rydberg state, can provide superior performance over current antenna technologies as they are highly sensitive, have broad tunability and small physical size, making them attractive for use in defense and communications. For example, they could simplify communications for soldiers on the battlefield as they cover the full spectrum of radio frequencies, rather than needing multiple antennas to cover different frequency bands, and are super sensitive and accurate to detect a wide range of critical signals..."

Surveyor Program Under Attack

Surveyor Program Under Attack, November 15, 1965 Electronics Magazine - RF Cafe"One of the least orderly and most poorly executed of NASA projects," was the description given to the Surveyor program whose goal was to land on the moon and send back images, both still and motion (in preparation for a manned landing). That, from a congressional sub-committee. Yes, the very same Congress that famously cannot balance its own budget or create successful programs of its own. It is a classic case of "The pot calling the kettle black." NASA was and always has been at the bleeding edge of new technology and as such lives in uncharted territory. Unexpected pitfalls lurk everywhere - a minefield of "gotchas." Not that every organization can't benefit from external oversight to prevent "blinders-on" engineering and management teams from straying too far off the defined (though not yet beaten) path, but having the notoriously pompous and buffoonish bureaucrats of Congress admonish largely creative, brilliant minds of NASA staff (and their subcontractor teams) regarding landing an automated craft on the moon for the first time ever is infuriating - then and now. "Creativity cannot be scheduled," as the saying goes...

Bud Radio Advertisement

Bud Radio Advertisement, May 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeBack in the days when I built a lot of prototype electronic gear, project enclosures were generically referred as a "Bud Box." Lab stock rooms always had a good variety of sizes and configurations of the soft aluminum and sometimes plastic boxes that were easily drilled, punched, filed, and painted to make professional looking equipment. Not all the project boxes were made by Bud Industries, but just as everyone knows you're talking about a cola when you say "Coke," it was understood that a "Bud Box" was a chassis for a home-brewed circuit. They are still seen in construction articles of electronics hobby magazines today. I have even seen test equipment and utility items for sale that are obviously in a Bud Box type of chassis. This full-page advertisement for Bud Radio appeared in a 1930 issue of Radio Craft magazine - a mere two years after opening their doors. Note the Bud Lightning Arrestor that included $100 of equipment damage insurance (equivalent to $1820 in 2023 money)...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, Baseball Caps, and more, all sporting my amazingly clever "RF Engineers - We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. My graphic has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. I only make a couple bucks on each sale - the rest goes to Cafe Press. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to San Francisco Circuits for Continued Support!

San Francisco CircuitsSF Circuits' specialty is in the complex, advanced technology of PCB fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers. Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed Circuit Fabrication & Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."

Wednesday the 1st

R-E Puzzler

R-E Puzzler, August 1967 Radio-Electronics - RF CafePuzzlemeister Edmund Braun refers to his challenge as an "only-across-word puzzle." It is similar to others he has created for Radio-Electronics magazine - this one appearing in the August 1967 issue. Not having "cross-words" running vertically can make things a bit more difficult, but he does provide at least one letter for each word. In spite of its era, you shouldn't have too much problems with most of it. There are a couple component types that are no longer part of the electronics experience. Others, like number 5, now usually go by a different name (I mistaken thought it was a variation of gutta-percha, based on the "tt" near the end). The symbols shown have no bearing on the puzzle, BTW. Of the two longest words, number 1 is easy, but number 15 will be known only by those familiar with older analog calculator methods. I'll admit to knowing the root part of the word, but not the prefix (hint: it begins with "a")...

Capacitor Design Techniques for EMC

Capacitor Design Techniques for EMC - RF Cafe"Capacitors are among the most commonly used components on a circuit board. With the ever-increasing number of electronics devices (from mobile phones to cars), there has been a growing demand for capacitors. Covid 19 pandemic has [unnecessarily, KRB] disrupted the global supply chain of components from semiconductors to passive components, and capacitors have been in short supply. A discussion on the subject of capacitors could easily become a book or a dictionary. To start with, there are different types of capacitors such as electrolytic, film, ceramic capacitors, and so on. Then, within the same type, there are different dielectric materials. There are also different classes. As for physical construction, there are two-terminal and three-terminal capacitor types. There's also an X2Y type capacitor which essentially is a pair of Y-capacitors packaged in one. What about supercapacitors? The fact is, if you sit down and start reading the capacitor selection guide of major manufacturers..."

Guglielmo Marconi Obituary

Guglielmo Marconi Obituary, October 1937 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThis editorial commemoration was written by Radio-Craft magazine publisher Hugo Gernsback to radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, who died on July 20th, 1937. He was only 63 years old. Gernsback states, "The debt which the world owes to Marconi is staggering - if you figure only one single result of his accomplishments - the saving of tens of thousands of lives which would have perished in the sea and otherwise, if had not been for Marconi." The January 1939 issue of Radio-Craft magazine featured an article titled, "Marconi - Father of Radio?," wherein author Edward H. Loftin challenges the veracity of Marconi receiving credit for the title. An obituary appeared in this same issue...

2-Way End-to-End Laser Communications System

NASA 2-Way End-to-End Laser Communications System - RF Cafe"NASA is demonstrating laser communications on multiple missions - showcasing the benefits infrared light can have for science and exploration missions transmitting terabytes of important data. The International Space Station is getting a 'flashy' technology demonstration this November. The ILLUMA-T (Integrated Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Low Earth Orbit User Modem and Amplifier Terminal) payload is launching to the International Space Station to demonstrate how missions in low Earth orbit can benefit from laser communications. Laser communications uses invisible infrared light to send and receive information at higher data rates, providing spacecraft with the capability to send more data back to Earth in a single transmission and expediting discoveries for researchers. Managed by NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program, ILLUMA-T is completing NASA's first bi-directional, end-to-end laser communications relay by working with the agency's LCRD (Laser Communications Relay Demonstration)..."

Atwater Kent Model 30 Data Sheet

Atwater Kent Models 30, 33, 35, 48 and 49 Radio Service Data Sheet, May 1930 Radio-Craft - RF CafeInterestingly, a couple models of this Atwater-Kent radio featured an untuned front end at the antenna interface, possibly because the adjustment range of the provided variable capacitor would not handle an extreme antenna impedance. With as basic as all the RF amplifier stages are, it seems maybe adding a second adjustable capacitor in parallel to facilitate a wider adjustment range would not have been too big of a cost burden compared to the advantage of tuning the input in the presence of all the EMI spewing from crappy electromechanical equipment and minimally filtered transmitters (it was the era of AM, after all). Note the unusual aspect ratio of the case, being much longer than it is deep or high. There are many YouTube videos of people having restored various versions of the radio - models 30, 35, 40, and more...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols"" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Thanks to Alliance Test Equipment's Support!

Allied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test Equipment sells used / refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Alliance Test will purchase your excess test equipment in large or small lots. Blog posts offer advice on application and use of a wide range of test equipment. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.

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Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs - RF Cafe
Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe

LadyBug RF Power Sensors

Amplifier Solutions Corporation (ASC) - RF Cafe