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Homepage Archive - February 2020 (page 1)
See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | of the February 2020 homepage archives.

Friday 7

Crossword Puzzle, January 1974 Popular Electronics

Electronics Crossword Puzzle, January 1974 Popular Electronics - RF CafeBeing an old-school old guy (turn 62 this year), I still work the daily crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper - surely you've heard of it, that  antiquated print media form of which I am the only house on my street which has it delivered daily. Old habits die hard, as the saying goes. Working the Sudoku puzzles is also a pencil and paper exercise only because of my method of figuring out the numbers. My older sister is a whiz at them, and she does them on her iPhone. But I digress. In addition to the weekly RF Cafe Engineering and Science crossword puzzles I create each week, I also like to post crosswords that appeared in the vintage electronics magazines. This one appeared in a 1974 issue of Popular Electronics...

Finding Faults with TDR Test Instruments

Axiom Test Equipment Blog – Finding Faults with TDR Test Instruments - RF CafeAxiom Test Equipment, an electronic test equipment rentals and sales company headquartered in North County San Diego, has published a blog post entitled "Finding Faults with TDR Test Instruments." It is about selecting and using time-domain reflectometers (TDRs). This in-depth blog post goes over how TDRs work, which types of test equipment can be used to make TDR measurements, and what performance parameters should be compared when selecting a TDR for your particular test requirements and test environment. Finding Faults with TDR Test Instruments "Time-domain reflectometers (TDRs) are easy-to-use test instruments usually associated with finding faults in cables and antennas. How they work is simple: send a pulse with fast rise time into a cable under test and measure reflected signals that take place where the characteristic impedance...

In Pursuit of the Unknown - 17 Equations That Changed the World

In Pursuit of the Unknown - 17 Equations That Changed the World - RF CafeI don't pretend to be a big reader of books (2-3/year), which probably why I don't get invited to parties. Most of my reading is in the form of magazines (8-10 titles/month) and online articles. My books tend to be concerned with historical works on people and/or accomplishments of science and mathematics. Fiction and harlequin romances just aren't my thing. I just began reading Ian Stewart's "In Pursuit of the Unknown - 17 Equations That Changed the World." An interesting item is Michael Faraday's supposed response to PM William Gladstone's inquiry as to the practicality of the newly fashioned electromagnetics equations, and could anything useful come of them. Mr. Faraday responded, "Yes sir. One day you will tax it." There's nothing new under the son, as the saying goes. Politicians will find a way to tax and regulate every form of human endeavor, whilst contributing nothing themselves.

Patent Flurry for GaN-on-Si

Patent Flurry for GaN-on-Si - RF Cafe"Intel's RF GaN-on-Si patent portfolio mainly relates to III-N transistors used in SoC , RF switches, ultra-short channel lengths, field plates, and III-N/Silicon monolithic IC, says Yole. Intel has adopted a global patenting strategy with 17 patents pending in the U.S. and 20 in Taiwan. Fujitsu with more than 40 patents and Macom with more than 20 patents for its side, are leading the patent landscape in terms of enforceable IP in the field of GaN-on-Si RF. Fujitsu's portfolio focused on GaN-on-Si materials, especially on buffer layers, with inventions that might be implemented on others substrates including SiC or for other applications. Like Intel, Fujitsu has adopted a global patenting strategy. In contrast Macom's portfolio is more focused on GaN-on-Si devices for RF, addressing..."

Navy Electronics: Series-Parallel Circuits

Series-Parallel Circuits - Electricity - Basic Navy Training Courses, NAVPERS 10622, Chapter 10 - RF CafeThe U.S. army and navy were prime motivators and financial backers of research and development in electronics because vital communications and control functions depended on it. These "Basic Navy Training Courses," and in particular NAVPERS 10622, have been heralded over the years as some of the best courses ever developed for introducing young men to the concepts of electricity and electronics. As mentioned before, employers seeking experienced technicians used to (and may still) regard prior service members who graduated from them as prize hires. The hands-on experience gained from working on highly complex equipment under critical conditions served to hone those classroom lessons into very capable skills...

ATER Offering HILO-Test Automotive Test Systems

Advanced Test Equipment Rentals Now Offering HILO-Test Automotive Test Systems - RF CafeAdvanced Test Equipment Corporation (ATEC)announced it is now offering HILO-Test automotive test systems for rent. ATEC, a leading provider in test and measurement equipment for automotive testing and numerous other industry tests, now stocks the HILO-Test CAR PG 2804 and the HILO-Test CAR Test System 14 for immediate rental. ATEC offers a growing inventory of products from top manufacturers, like HILO-Test, with flexible rental options at affordable prices. ATEC sets the industry standard for test equipment rentals, combining next-day shipping and reliable equipment with knowledgeable customer support. ATEC simplifies the rental and testing process to help clients complete...

Amateurs Dig up Buzz Bombs That Fell on England in WW2

Amateurs Dig up Buzz Bombs That Fell on England in WW2 - Airplanes and RocketsAccording to UK National Archives: "6,725 [V-1s] were launched at Britain. Of these, 2,340 hit London, causing 5,475 deaths, with 16,000 injured." Re the map: "This patch of English woodland near the village of Bromley Green, about eight miles from the Channel shore, was once a smoking crater. A V-1 flying bomb - fired by Germany's Luftwaffe at London but shot down minutes before getting there - crashed and exploded here around eight o'clock in the morning on August 27, 1944, gouging a hole in the earth 10 feet deep and 20 feet across. The blast of its warhead and fuel lifted the nearest house, more than 600 feet away, off its foundations. Seventy-five years later, to the exact day, the old crater is the site of an archaeological investigation led by two brothers who grew up hearing stories of the terror wrought by Germany's V-1s. Colin and Sean Welch have searched for fragments of the flying bombs over the past 10 years..."

Copper Mountain Technologies: Vector Network Analyzers

Copper Mountain TechnologiesCopper Mountain Technologies develops innovative and robust RF test and measurement solutions for engineers all over the world. Copper Mountain's extensive line of unique form factor Vector Network Analyzers include an RF measurement module and a software application which runs on any Windows PC, laptop or tablet, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The result is a lower cost, faster, more effective test process that fits into the modern workspace in lab, production, field and secure testing environments.

Thursday 6

The Birth of a Picture Tube

The Birth of a Picture Tube, September 1950 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThe world is full of geniuses who have ideas with the potential to introduce history-making products and services to mankind. Thankfully, many of them manage to draw the attention to themselves and make their contributions available. Some of those same people have the talent to prepare their inventions and concepts for distribution, while others require the know-how of others - nowadays known as manufacturing engineers - to figure out how to mass produce a product with enough efficiency to make things affordable. Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, George Westinghouse, Lee de Forest, and other recognizable inventors depended on assistance for ultimate success. I will soon be posting stories of de Forest's long, hard-fought path to success with his Audion tube which will make you wonder how people can have the fortitude to continue...

Triad Launches New Brand Identity and Website

Triad Launches New Brand Identity and Website - RF CafeTriad RF Systems, a leading designer and manufacturer of high performance RF/Microwave amplifiers and integrated radio systems, has recently announced the launch of a new brand identity and website. Founded in 2013 by three partners with decades of accumulated knowledge of RF/Microwave amplifier and integrated radio system design and manufacturing experience, Triad is making a strategic move to continue its dominance within high-performance radio system applications. Already respected by the military, defense, commercial radio, and UAV marketplace for making high quality, state-of-the-art RF/Microwave amplifiers and subsystems, their new logo and website is a move that clearly is intended to help further position them as leaders in their field. Visitors to their new website will discover Triad's track record of creating RF/microwave amplifier products...

Ode on a Power Supply?

Electronics Poetry - "Power Supply", September 1942 QST - RF CafeOde on a Power Supply? Well, maybe not really an ode, but this poem entitled, "Power Supply," written by Eileen V. Corridan, appeared in the September 1942 edition of the ARRL's QST magazine. It is really quite entertaining and instructive! It applies to the original tube-based circuit as well as to modern solid state versions. I somehow get the feeling that this poem will now be republished in many places...

Protecting Wideband RF Systems in Congested EM Environments

Protecting Wideband RF Systems in Congested Electromagnetic Environments - RF Cafe"New program aims to develop wideband adaptive RF circuit technology to mitigate interference from external and self-generated signals. Today's electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is a scarce resource that is becoming increasingly congested and contested as friendly, unfriendly, and neutral entities vie for available spectrum resources at any given time, location, and frequency. Within the Department of Defense (DoD), radio frequency (RF) systems, such as communications networks and radar, must operate within this congested environment and contend with mission-compromising interference from both self- and externally generated signals. A desire to support wideband EM spectrum operations also adds to the burden, as current approaches to mitigating wideband receiver interference..."

ConductRF Lab / Production Test Cables for DC to 40 GHz

ConductRF Lab / Production Test Cables for DC to 40 GHz - RF CafeConductRF offers many lines of Lab & Production RF Test solutions for DC to 40 GHz. TESTeCON and TESTeCON RF Cable lines feature standard connector choices include straight male, female, and bulkhead, and right angle male. Standard interfaces include type-N, TNC, SMA, 3.5 mm, and 2.92 mm. Phase stable testing ±4° to 18 GHz, amplitude stable to ±0.2 dB to 18 GHz, max power 170 W @ 18 GHz, flex life over 10,000 cycles, cable loss <0.330 dB/ft @ 18 GHz, VSWR < 1.30:1 (typical < 1.20:1). ConductRF also offers RF Engineers a large selection of Hi Flex cable for vector network analyzers (VNAs)...

ERZIA: Microwave & mm-Wave Modular Amplifiers

ERZIA Technologies - RF CafeERZIA serves critical aerospace and defense missions by designing and manufacturing RF, microwave, and mm-wave amplifiers, integrated assemblies operating from low frequencies up to 100 GHz, and by providing high reliable satellite communications. The company was founded in 2002 to become a worldwide reference of advanced engineering, performance, reliability and ruggedness. Their catalogue of standard amplifier modules comprises more than 100 different models, having also a high capacity of customization for amplifiers and integrated assemblies. Some of products have space heritage and are used in aerospace, commercial, military and scientific systems, having a wide range of final applications.

Wednesday 5

Electronics-Themed Comics

Electronics-Themed Comics, May 1948 Radio-Craft - RF CafeWe're about due for another round of electronics-themed comics, this time from a circa 1948 Radio-Craft magazine. The post World War II era in America experienced a surge in consumerism after half a decade of intense war that required major sacrifices on the parts of both servicemen and civilians. Factories previously built and run for the manufacturing of household items, automobiles, clothing, and other items had been converted to support production of implements of war. Massive efforts across the nation were carried out to collect all forms of metal, fabric, plastic, rubber, electrical and electronic components, engine parts, and other such things that could be repurposed or used directly in the effort. Once the world was finally safe from imminent overrun by Imperialist, Socialist, and Communist regimes, not much time was required to shift back into pre-war production mode...

Many Thanks to Exodus Advanced Communications for Their Support

Exodus Advanced Communications - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications is a multinational RF communication equipment and engineering service company serving both commercial and government entities and their affiliates worldwide. Power amplifiers ranging from 10 kHz to 51 GHz with various output power levels and noise figure ranges, we fully support custom designs and manufacturing requirements for both small and large volume levels. decades of combined experience in the RF field for numerous applications including military jamming, communications, radar, EMI/EMC and various commercial projects with all designing and manufacturing of our HPA, MPA, and LNA products in-house.

The Decibel: AWG Wire Size Rule of Thumb

The Decibel: AWG Wire Size Rule of Thumb, October 1931 QST - RF CafeIn 1931, QST reader John H. Miller, Electrical Engineer, of the Jewell Electrical Instrument Company, wrote to the editor regarding the story "What Is This Thing Called Decibel?," by James L McLaughlin and James J. Lamb, which appeared in the August issue of that year. Mr. Miller wished to inform (or remind) readers that the American Wire Gauge system for assigning sizes to wire cross-section ratios closely follows a decibel (i.e., logarithmic) relationship. Applying his information: A 28 AWG solid wire has a cross-section of 160 circular mils, so at 3 sizes larger, 25 AWG should be 320 circular mils. In fact, it is 320 circular mils. A 12 AWG solid wire has a cross-section of 5,630 circular mils, so at 3 sizes larger, 9 AWG should be 13,060 circular mils, and it is 13,090 circular mils. That verifies the 3 dB per three differences in gauge for two cases using small and large wire sizes. What about, say, 5 dB for 5 wires sizes in difference? Using 28 AWG again as a reference, a 5 dB increase in size for 28-5=23 AWG wire should be about...

GPS / GSM / ARGOS Wireless Tracking Tags & Equipment

Cellular Tracking Technologies - RF CafeDan F., of Cellular Tracking Technologies (CTT®), wrote to ask that his company be listed on the RF Cafe categorized vendor pages. Per their website, the founders of CTT have over 40 years of telemetry research experience between them. In 2007, when not satisfied with the current products on the market, they created Cellular Tracking Technologies in order to bring the newest innovations and highest levels of service to the wildlife research market. They offer a full complement of GPS / GSM / ARGOS and digitally coded radio products that can be used for tracking wildlife, pets, disabled family members, etc. All products can be fit into almost any case design, from standard backpacks to ultra-customized solutions. CTT is located in Rio Grande, NJ (who knew there was a Rio Grande in New Jersey?)

Encapsulation Technique Enables Super-Thin Semiconductors

Encapsulation Technique Enables Super-Thin Semiconductors - RF Cafe"In the race for ever smaller semiconductor structures, the chemical compounds indium selenide and gallium selenide are considered promising candidates. As extremely thin layers, they form two-dimensional semiconductors. So far however, they are hardly ever used because they change during production and through contact with air. A new technology makes it possible to integrate the sensitive materials into electronic components without losing any of their desired properties. A research group at the HZDR Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research in Dresden has succeeded in producing encapsulated transistors based on indium selenide and gallium selenide. The encapsulation technique protects the sensitive layers..."

Triad RF Systems: RF/Microwave Amplifiers and Amplifier Systems

Triad RF SystemsTriad RF Systems designs and manufactures RF power amplifiers and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners (hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount, and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can help your project.

Tuesday 4

Flag-Pole Ham Antenna

Flag-Pole Ham Antenna, January 1974 Popular Electronics - RF CafeCamouflaging amateur radio antennas and their mounts is not a new concept, although an increasingly large amount of prohibitions by community organizations and/or municipalities have made the lives of many hobbyists more difficult. The ARRL's QST magazine issues are replete with articles describing how desperate and determined Hams have managed to erect successful antennas in spite of imposed limitations. Flag poles have long been the means of disguising vertical antennas of the 1/4-wave, 1/2-wave, J-pole, and other formats that are constructed in a long, straight line. Some authors are just-the-facts types and aptly present all the required information for getting the job done. Others, like Roland McMahan, throw in a bit of humor to help take the bite out having such an otherwise unnecessary task imposed upon him - in this case at the "request" (pronounced "insistence") of his YL...

TotalTemp Technologies Blog: Temperature Testing Practices

TotalTemp Technologies Blog: Temperature Testing Practices - RF CafeMany items require thermal environmental testing. Items going through product development, requiring validation for high reliability applications and products exposed to extreme environments among others require specific thermal testing. Diligent adherence to requirements results in performing meaningful test and ultimately higher quality products as opposed to simply taking the easiest route to put a testing checkmark in the box. A few important aspects to the testing can help ensure that best practices in thermal testing are followed to get real results from testing efforts. Testing can be time consuming. Properly applied automation will increase the repeatability and can produce consistent results. Test results...

Please Thank IPP for Their Long-Time Support!

Innovative Power ProductsInnovative Power Products (IPP) has over 30 years of experience designing & manufacturing RF & microwave passive components. Their high power, broadband couplers, combiners, resistors, baluns, terminations and attenuators are fabricated using the latest materials and design tools available, resulting in unrivaled product performance. Applications in military, medical, industrial and commercial markets. Take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how IPP can help you today.

Air Corps Radio Phraseology Training

Air Corps Radio Phraseology Training, January 1945 Radio News - RF Cafe"Say again." That phrase is heard often in telephony conversations both wired and wireless. It was coined near the end of World War II by Air Corpsman 2nd Lt. Byron A. Susan, as reported in the January 1945 edition of Radio Craft magazine. Lt. Susan was responsible for setting standards for "radio phraseology" to eliminate ambiguity between aviators and ground forces. "Say again" replaced "Repeat" because the latter is an artillery term used to order another round of assault from a gun salvo. The history of the confirmation "Roger" is murky, but many agree it comes from the older military phonetic pronunciation of the letter "R" being "Roger," and in radio the letter "R" meaning "received." Another common bit of radio phraseology is "Wilco," which is a contraction of the words "will comply."

Empower RF Systems Intros 4 kW S-Band SSPA for Satcom Uplink - RF CafeEmpower's model 2176 is a compact high power GaN on SiC solid state CW amplifier. Standing 27 inches tall, it's less than half the size of the typical legacy uplink HPA's that it replaces. The slightly broader band brings flexibility to transmit in either of the two uplink channels. Besides the dramatic size reduction, the upgrade from legacy design to a next generation SSPA from Empower RF brings greater reliability and improved spectral purity for increased data rates. The 2176 is based on Empower's established and field proven Next Generation architecture that is tactically deployed and operating on multiple levels in support of a variety of critical DOD missions...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

GM Engineers Break Electronics So We Don't Have To

GM Engineers Break Electronics So We Don't Have To - RF Cafe"The General Motors electrical integration lab at the Warren Technical Center wades through the chore of testing the multitude of electronic devices in modern cars. Time was when General Motors' engineering and validation functions were part of the same organization, according to Gary Bandurski, executive director of global electric components and subsystems. That was before the disastrous GM ignition key scandal, when cars inadvertently switched off while driving. Checking your own work is a bit of the fox guarding the henhouse, Bandurski observed, so now GM has a separate global validation organization led by executive director Kristin Siemen to check out the engineering team's innovations."

Transient Specialists: EMC, EMI, RFI Test Equipment Rentals

Transient Specialists - RF CafeTransient Specialists specializes in EMC test equipment rentals and carries a complete line of ESD guns, surge immunity test equipment, and EFT generators. Rentals available for military (Mil-Std 461), automotive (ISO 7637), and commercial (IEC 61000-4) EMC testing. Flexible terms, accredited calibrations and technical support on EMC testing equipment offered. Equipment consists of top EMC Test System manufacturers, including Teseq, Thermo Keytek, EM Test and EMC Partner. Contact Transient Specialists today for your ESD / EMC / RFI testing needs.

Monday 3

Carl & Jerry: Pi in the Sky and Big Twist

Carl & Jerry: Pi in the Sky and Big Twist, February 1964 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn this "Pi in the Sky and Big Twist" episode of John Frye's "Carl & Jerry" series, the boys are by now into their college years at Parvoo University. Having been a mix of electronics experimenters, Ham radio operators, and high tech sleuths since high school times, the two friends find themselves once again participating in an event that depends upon cool heads and quick thinking. As is typical of Mr. Frye's tales, more than one topic is woven into the story, and usually real-life products, companies, and scenarios are incorporated in an effort to inform his readers. The Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction (MPATI) mentioned was an out-of-the-box idea in the pre-satellite era for broadcasting educational programming to areas that otherwise did not experience good quality over-the-air reception...

Tech Professions Dominate Rankings of Best Jobs

Tech Professions Dominate Rankings of Best Jobs - RF Cafe"What makes a job nearly perfect? It's a combination of salary, demand (the number empty posts waiting to be filled), and job satisfaction, according to job search firm Glassdoor, which this week released a list of the best jobs in America for 2020. Using median base salaries reported on Glassdoor in 2019, the number of U.S. job openings as of 18 December 2019, and the overall job satisfaction rating (on a scale of 1 to 5) reported by employees in those jobs, the company put front-end engineer in the number one spot, followed by Java developer and data scientist. That's a switch previous trends; data scientist held the number one spot on Glassdoor's top jobs list for the four previous years. In fact, you don't hit a non-tech job until the 8th ranking, where speech language pathologist claims the spot, boosted by astronomical demand..."

Custom MMIC's Keysight 130+ Model Library Download

Custom MMIC Keysight 130+ Model Library Download - RF CafeCustom MMIC has made installing and updating our SystemVue™ and Genesys™ compatible component libraries even simpler, just follow the step-by-step instructions provided on the download page. SystemVue or Genesys must already be installed on the user's computer. Click on the version of the specific link to download the library installer. Ensure SystemVue or Genesys is shut down before running installer. Run the library installer executable. Follow the on-screen prompts to finish the installation. Open Keysight's SystemVue or Genesys and start using your updated Custom MMIC Library...

The Capacitor: What It Is, What It Does, How It Works

The Capacitor: What It Is, What It Does, How It Works, April 1960 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is a very nice primer on capacitors that appeared in the April 1960 issue of Popular Electronics. A lot of ground is covered including history, form factors, dielectric types (ceramic mentioned as a new variety at the time), applications, etc. Interestingly, units of picofarads (pF) were still being referred to as μμfarads. In fact, since not a lot of work was being done yet in the GHz realm, there was not much use for pF other than maybe to tune a filter response. Author Ken Gilmore reveals a sense of humor when writing of early capacitance experiments as he says, "Since they couldn't think of much to do with the Leyden jar except stand around and shock each other, they didn't have any need for an accurate system of measuring the stored charge, or the capacitance, of the jar."

Understanding Constellation Diagrams and How They Are Used

Understanding Constellation Diagrams and How They Are Used - RF CafeRyan Foster, of NuWaves Engineering, posted an app note entitled, "Understanding Constellation Diagrams and How They Are Used." It begins: "Constellation diagrams are an important tool in an engineer's arsenal when determining whether or not a digitally modulated RF signal is behaving correctly, and troubleshooting the underlying issues when it is not. However, before delving into constellation diagrams and how they are used, it is important to understand the fundamentals behind digital modulation schemes and why they are used. Background on Signals and Modulation Types Transmitting data wirelessly from one point to another, while complex in practice, is simple in concept. In a very broad sense, there are only three main steps in this process: (1) generation of a pure carrier signal (i.e. an unmodulated sine wave) at the transmitter; (2) infusing the carrier signal with information via modulation...

everythingRF: Their Name Says It All

everything RF Searchable Database - RF CafePlease take a few moments to visit the everythingRF website to see how they can assist you with your project. everythingRF is a product discovery platform for RF and microwave products and services. They currently have 227,460 products from more than 1210 companies across 285 categories in their database and enable engineers to search for them using their customized parametric search tool. Amplifiers, test equipment, power couplers and dividers, coaxial connectors, waveguide, antennas, filters, mixers, power supplies, and everything else. Please visit everythingRF today to see how they can help you.

Sunday 2

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for February 2

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle February 2, 2020 - RF CafeAs with my hundreds of previous science and engineering-themed crossword puzzles, this one for February 2, 2020, contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over nearly two decades. Many new words and company names have been added that had not even been created when I started in the year 2002. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village in the Andes mountains. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you...



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