Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Alliance Test Equipment Centric RF Empower RF ISOTEC Reactel RF Connector Technology San Francisco Circuits Anritsu Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Berkeley Nucleonics Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies everything RF Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products KR Filters LadyBug Technologies Lotus Systems PCB Directory Rigol Temwell RF Components TotalTemp Technologies Werbel Microwave Windfreak Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Withwave Sponsorship Rates RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines RF Cafe Software WhoIs entry for RF Cafe.com Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
PCB Directory (Manufacturers)

Rigol DHO1000 Oscilloscope - RF Cafe

Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low−priced products, all of which I created.

RF Cascade Workbook for Excel

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF Workbench  (shareware)

T-Shirts, Mugs, Cups, Ball Caps, Mouse Pads

These Are Available for Free

Espresso Engineering Workbook™

Smith Chart™ for Excel

Copper Mountain Technologies (VNA) - RF Cafe

"Final" Action in Radio Feed-Back Case
January 1935 Radio-Craft

January 1935 Radio-Craft

January 1935 Radio Craft Cover - RF Cafe[Table of Contents]

Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles from Radio-Craft, published 1929 - 1953. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.

If you think controversial and otherwise inane decisions made by high-level courts is something new to this era of political high dudgeon, think again. This article in the January 1935 in Radio-Craft magazine reports a Supreme Court decision over who was the inventor of regeneration in radio circuits - Lee de Forest or Major Edwin H. Armstrong. Evidently in spite of much support by the opinions of notable experts in the field who claim Armstrong deserves credit, the Court found in favor of de Forest. The battle had been fought at many level for the previous 18 years. Columbia University's Professor Michael I. Pupin wrote, " On several occasions after that I have had conversations with de Forest which convinced me that he did not know of or understand the production of radio frequencies by vacuum tubes." Major Armstrong eventually committed suicide over his distraught state over this and other issues.

"Final" Action in Radio Feed-Back Case

"Final" Action in Radio Feed-Back Case, January 1935 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe

This is how one of our staff artists visualizes the arguments in and out of court concerning the "regeneration patents."

There have been so many "final" decisions in the long-drawn-out case between the de Forest and the Armstrong interests regarding who actually invented regeneration that there is no wonder that cries of "wolf, wolf" have been heard from all sides in the radio industry.

It will be remembered (Radio-Craft, August 1934, page 70) that the United States Supreme Court, presided over by Judge Cardoza decided that Lee de Forest was the inventor, and held that de Forest had heard a "clear heterodyne" before Edwin H. Armstrong, then a student at Columbia University, had struck upon the same phenomenon. Major Armstrong recently petitioned for a rehearing of the case with the object of reversing the Supreme Court ruling, and the latest decision of the court is a denial of that application.

In addition to the legal actions which have taken place, a heated argument has been progressing in the New York Times, between Professor Pupin and Dr. de Forest concerning the opinions of the former who has rallied to the support of his colleague, Armstrong. This argument has become heated to the point where many bitter words are being said by both parties involved.

In the latest epistle by Prof. Pupin, over half a column in the Times, is devoted to a "tabulation" of the names of famous scientists and radio engineers who take sides with Armstrong. So famous an authority as Dr. Irving Langmuir is quoted as having made the following statement:

"Ever since 1913 when I first learned of your (Armstrong's) pioneering work in this field, I have known the great value of your contributions. On several occasions after that I have had conversations with de Forest which convinced me that he did not know of or understand the production of radio frequencies by vacuum tubes. I have therefore been amazed at the fact that the highest court has previously upheld the de Forest patent."

Professor Pupin sums up his letter with the following remarks: "The court holds Dr. de Forest to be the inventor; the scientific world is a unit holding Armstrong to be the inventor." - and -" ... I have never heard of any scientific opinion of recognized weight supporting the de Forest claims."

"Dr. Langmuir, a recent Nobel Prize man, was one of the claimants of the same invention which was under litigation between Armstrong and de Forest for eighteen years.

"Third, the famous radio engineer, Mr. Round of England, one of Marconi's right-hand men, also sent hearty approval of the decision of the Court of Appeals of the Second Circuit, (which gave the decision to Armstrong - Ed.) Both these letters appeared in full in the Columbia Alumni News of September 29, 1933.

"Fourth, the very significant fact that Cyril Elwell, who was the chief engineer of the Federal Telegraph Company, the company employing de Forest at the time he claims to have made the invention, supported Armstrong, as did Professor Leonard Fuller, now head of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of California."

It seems that while Dr. de Forest has the upper hand as far as legal proceedings are concerned, he must now vindicate himself in the eyes of Professor Pupin and his supporters. And so the Feed-back case seems no nearer to an end, in one sense, than it has been for the past ten or twelve years.



Posted April 3, 2017

Axiom Test Equipment - RF Cafe

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

Copyright  1996 - 2026

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:


RF Cascade Workbook 2018 by RF Cafe

Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe