NEETS Module 9 — Introduction to Wave- Generation and Wave-Shaping
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, 1-1 to 1-10
1-11 to 1-20
, 1-21 to 1-30
1-31 to 1-40
, 1-41 to 1-52
2-1 to 2-10
, 2-11 to 2-20
2-21 to 2-30
, 2-31 to 2-38
3-1 to 3-10
, 3-11 to 3-20
3-21 to 3-30
, 3-31 to 3-40
3-41 to 3-50
, 3-51 to 3-56
4-1 to 4-10
, 4-11 to 4-20
4-21 to 4-30
, 4-31- to 4-40
4-41 to 4-50
, 4-51 to 4-61
Figure 2-16.—Common-base Colpitts oscillator.
Q-14. What is the identifying feature of a Colpitts oscillator? RESISTIVE-CAPACITIVE
(RC) FEEDBACK OSCILLATOR
As mentioned earlier, resistive-capacitive (RC) networks provide
regenerative feedback and determine the frequency of operation in RESISTIVE-CAPACITIVE (RC) OSCILLATORS.
The oscillators presented in this chapter have used resonant tank circuits (LC). You should already know how the
LC tank circuit stores energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor.
The major difference between the
LC and RC oscillator is that the frequency-determining device in the RC oscillator is not a tank circuit.
Remember, the LC oscillator can operate with class A or C biasing because of the oscillator action of the resonant
tank. The RC oscillator, however, must use class A biasing because the RC frequency-determining device doesn't
have the oscillating ability of a tank circuit.
An RC FEEDBACK or PHASE-SHIFT oscillator is shown in
figure 2-17. Components C1, R1, C2, R2, C3, and RB are the feedback and frequency-determining network. This RC
network also provides the needed phase shift between the collector and base.
Figure 2-17.—Phase-shift oscillator.
The PHASE-SHIFT OSCILLATOR, shown in figure 2-17, is a sine-wave
generator that uses a resistive-capacitive (RC) network as its frequency-determining device.
earlier in the common-emitter amplifier configuration (figure 2-17), there is a 180-degree phase difference
between the base and the collector signal. To obtain the regenerative feedback in the phase-shift oscillator, you
need a phase shift of 180 degrees between the output and the input signal. An RC network consisting of three RC
sections provides the proper feedback and phase inversion to provide this regenerative feedback. Each section
shifts the feedback signal 60 degrees in phase.
Since the impedance of an RC network is capacitive, the
current flowing through it leads the applied voltage by a specific phase angle. The phase angle is determined by
the amount of resistance and capacitance of the RC section.
If the capacitance is a fixed value, a change
in the resistance value will change the phase angle. If the resistance could be changed to zero, we could get a
maximum phase angle of 90 degrees. But since a voltage cannot be developed across zero resistance, a 90-degree
phase shift is not possible.
With a small value of resistance, however, the phase angle or phase shift is less than 90 degrees. In the
phase-shift oscillator, therefore, at least three RC sections are needed to give the required 180-degree phase
shift for regenerative feedback. The values of resistance and capacitance are generally chosen so that each
section provides about a 60-degree phase shift.
, and RC
provide base and collector bias. Capacitor CE
bypasses ac variations around the emitter resistor RE
Capacitors C1, C2, and C3 and resistors R1, R2, and RB
form the feedback and phase-shifting network.
Resistor R2 is variable for fine tuning to compensate for any small changes in value of the other components of
the phase-shifting network.
When power is applied to the circuit, oscillations are started by any random
noise (random electrical variations generated internally in electronic components). A change in the flow of base
current results in an amplified change in collector current which is phase-shifted the 180 degrees. When the
signal is returned to the base, it has been shifted 180 degrees by the action of the RC network, making the
circuit regenerative. View (A) of figure 2-18 shows the amount of phase shift produced by C1 and R1. View (B)
shows the amount of phase shift produced by C2 and R2 (signal received from C1 and R1), and view (C) shows the
complete phase shift as the signal leaves the RC network. With the correct amount of resistance and capacitance in
the phase-shifting network, the 180-degree phase shift occurs at only one frequency. At any other than the desired
frequency, the capacitive reactance increases or decreases and causes an incorrect phase relationship (the
feedback becomes degenerative). Thus, the oscillator works at only one frequency. To find the resonant frequency
) of an RC phase shift oscillator, use the following formula:
where n is the number of RC sections.
Figure 2-18A.—Three-section, phase-shifting RC network. PHASE-SHIFT NETWORK C1 AND R1.
Figure 2-18B.—Three-section, phase-shifting RC network. PHASE-SHIFT NETWORK C2 AND R2.
Figure 2-18C.—Three-section, phase-shifting RC network. PHASE-SHIFT NETWORK C3 AND RB.
A high-gain transistor must be used with the three-section RC network because the losses in the network
are high. Using more than three RC sections actually reduces the overall signal loss within the network. This is
because additional RC sections reduce the phase shift necessary for each section, and the loss for each section is
lowered as the phase shift is reduced. In addition, an oscillator that uses four or more RC networks has more
stability than one that uses three RC networks. In a four-part RC network,
each part shifts the phase of the feedback signal by approximately 45 degrees to give the total required
180-degree phase shift.
Q-15. Which components provide the regenerative feedback signal in the
Q-16. Why is a high-gain transistor used in the phase-shift oscillator?
Q-17. Which RC network provides better frequency stability, three-section or four-section?
Crystal oscillators are those in which a specially-cut crystal
controls the frequency. CRYSTAL- CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS are the standard means used for maintaining the frequency
of radio transmitting stations within their assigned frequency limits. A crystal-controlled oscillator is usually
used to produce an output which is highly stable and at a very precise frequency.
As stated earlier,
crystals used in electrical circuits are thin sheets cut from the natural crystal and are ground to the proper
thickness for the desired resonant frequency. For any given crystal cut, the thinner the crystal, the higher the
resonant frequency. The "cut" (X, Y, AT, and so forth) of the crystal means the precise way in which the usable
crystal is cut from the natural crystal. Some typical crystal cuts may be seen in figure 2-19.
Figure 2-19.—Quartz crystal cuts.
Transmitters which require a very high degree of frequency stability, such as a broadcast transmitter,
use temperature-controlled ovens to maintain a constant crystal temperature. These ovens are thermostatically
controlled containers in which the crystals are placed.
The type of cut also determines the activity of
the crystal. Some crystals vibrate at more than one frequency and thus will operate at harmonic frequencies.
Crystals which are not of uniform thickness may have two or more resonant frequencies. Usually one resonant
frequency is more pronounced than the others. The other less pronounced resonant frequencies are referred to as
SPURIOUS frequencies. Sometimes such a crystal oscillates at two frequencies at the same time.
of current that can safely pass through a crystal ranges from 50 to 200 milliamperes. When the rated current is
exceeded, the amplitude of mechanical vibration becomes too great, and the
crystal may crack. Overloading the crystal affects the frequency of vibration because the power
dissipation and crystal temperature increase with the amount of load current. Crystals as Tuned
A quartz crystal and its equivalent circuit are shown in figure 2-20, views (A) and (B). Capacitor C2, inductor
L1, and resistor R1 in view (B) represent the electrical equivalent of the quartz crystal in view (A). Capacitance
C1 in (view B) represents the capacitance between the crystal electrodes in view (A). Depending upon the circuit
characteristics, the crystal can act as a capacitor, an inductor, a series-tuned circuit, or a parallel-tuned
Figure 2-20A.—Quartz crystal and equivalent circuit.
Figure 2-20B.—Quartz crystal and equivalent circuit.
At some frequency, the reactances of equivalent capacitor C1 and inductor L will be equal and the
crystal will act as a series-tuned circuit. A series-tuned circuit has a minimum impedance at resonance (figure
2-21). Above resonance the series-tuned circuit acts INDUCTIVELY, and below resonance it acts CAPACITIVELY. In
other words, the crystal unit has its lowest impedance at the series-resonance frequency. The impedance increases
as the frequency is lowered because the unit acts as a capacitor. The impedance of the crystal unit also increases
as the frequency is raised above the series-resonant point because the unit acts as an inductor. Therefore, the
crystal unit reacts as a series-tuned circuit.
Figure 2-21.—Frequency response of a crystal.
Since the series-tuned circuit acts as an inductor above the resonant point, the crystal unit becomes
equivalent to an inductor and is parallel with the equivalent capacitor C1 (view (B) of figure 2-20). At some
frequency above the series-resonant point, the crystal unit will act as a parallel-tuned circuit. A parallel-tuned
circuit has a MAXIMUM impedance at the parallel-resonant frequency and acts inductively below parallel resonance
(figure 2-21). Therefore, at some frequency, depending upon the cut of the crystal, the crystal unit will act as a
The frequency stability of crystal-controlled oscillators depends on the Q of the
crystal. The Q of a crystal is very high. It may be more than 100 times greater than that obtained with an
equivalent electrical circuit. The Q of the crystal is determined by the cut, the type of holder, and the accuracy
of grinding. Commercially produced crystals range in Q from 5,000 to 30,000 while some laboratory experiment
crystals range in Q up to 400,000.
Crystal-Controlled Armstrong Oscillator
The crystal-controlled Armstrong oscillator
(figure 2-22) uses the series-tuned mode of operation. It works much the same as the Hartley oscillator except
that frequency stability is improved by the crystal (in the feedback path). To operate the oscillator at different
frequencies, you simply change crystals (each crystal operates at a different frequency).
Figure 2-22.—Crystal-controlled Armstrong oscillator.
Variable capacitor C1 makes the circuit tunable to the selected crystal frequency. C1 is capable of
tuning to a wide band of selected crystal frequencies. Regenerative feedback from the collector to base is
through the mutual inductance between the transformer windings of T1. This provides the necessary
180-degree phase shift for the feedback signal. Resistors R B, RF, and RC provide the base and collector bias
voltage. Capacitor CE bypasses ac variations around emitter resistor RE.
At frequencies above and below
the series-resonant frequency of the selected crystal, the impedance of the crystal increases and reduces the
amount of feedback signal. This, in turn, prevents oscillations at frequencies other than the series-resonant
Crystal-Controlled Pierce Oscillator
The crystal-controlled PIERCE OSCILLATOR uses a
crystal unit as a parallel-resonant circuit. The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator. They operate
in the same way except that the crystal unit replaces the parallel-resonant circuit of the Colpitts.
Figure 2-23 shows the common-base configuration of the Pierce oscillator. Feedback is supplied from the collector
to the emitter through capacitor C1. Resistors RB, RC, and RF provide the proper bias conditions for the circuit
and resistor RE is the emitter resistor. Capacitors C1 and CE form a voltage divider connected across the
output. Since no phase shift occurs in the common-base circuit, capacitor C1 feeds back a portion of the output
signal to the emitter without a phase shift. The oscillating frequency is determined not only by the crystal but
also by the parallel capacitance caused by capacitors C1 and CE. This parallel capacitance affects the oscillator
frequency by lowering it. Any change in capacitance of either C1 or CE changes the frequency of the oscillator.
Figure 2-23.—Pierce oscillator, common-base configuration.
Figure 2-24 shows the common-emitter configuration of the Pierce oscillator. The resistors in the
circuit provide the proper bias and stabilization conditions. The crystal unit and capacitors C1 and C2 determine
the output frequency of the oscillator. The signal developed at the junction between Y1 and C1 is 180 degrees out
of phase with the signal at the junction between Y1 and C2. Therefore, the signal at the Y1-C1 junction can be
coupled back to the base of Q1 as a regenerative feedback signal to sustain oscillations.
Figure 2-24.—Pierce oscillator, common-emitter configuration.
Q-18. What is the impedance of a crystal at its resonant frequency when it is used in the parallel
Q-19. What is the impedance of a crystal at its resonant frequency when it is used in the series
mode? PULSED OSCILLATORS
A sinusoidal (sine-wave) oscillator is one that will
produce output pulses at a predetermined frequency for an indefinite period of time; that is, it operates
continuously. Many electronic circuits in equipment such as radar require that an oscillator be turned on for a
specific period of time and that it remain in an off condition until required at a later time. These circuits are
referred to as PULSED OSCILLATORS or RINGING OSCILLATORS. They are nothing more than sine-wave oscillators that
are turned on and off at specific times.
Figure 2-25, view (A), shows a pulsed oscillator with the
resonant tank in the emitter circuit. A positive input makes Q1 conduct heavily and current flow through L1;
therefore no oscillations can take place. A negative-going input pulse (referred to as a gate) cuts off Q1, and
the tank oscillates until the gate ends or until the ringing stops, whichever comes first.
Figure 2-25A.—Pulsed oscillator.
Figure 2-25B.—Pulsed oscillator.
The waveforms in view (B) show the relationship of the input gate and the output signal from the pulsed
oscillator. To see how this circuit operates, assume that the Q of the LC tank circuit is high enough to prevent
damping. An output from the circuit is obtained when the input gate goes negative (T0 to T1 and T2 to T3). The
remainder of the time (T1 to T2) the transistor conducts heavily and there is no output from the circuit. The
width of the input gate controls the time for the output signal. Making the gate wider causes the output to be
present (or ring) for a longer time. Frequency of a Pulsed Oscillator
frequency of a pulsed oscillator is determined by both the input gating signal and the resonant frequency of the
tank circuit. When a sinusoidal oscillator is resonant at 1 megahertz, the output is 1 million cycles per second.
In the case of a pulsed oscillator, the number of cycles present in the output is determined by the gating pulse
If a 1-megahertz oscillator is cut off for 1/2 second, or 50 percent of the time, then the output
is 500,000 cycles at the 1 -megahertz rate. In other words, the frequency of the tank circuit is still 1
megahertz, but the oscillator is only allowed to produce 500,000 cycles each second.
The output frequency
can be determined by controlling how long the tank circuit will oscillate. For example, suppose a negative input
gate of 500 microseconds and a positive input gate of 999,500 microseconds (total of 1 second) are applied. The
transistor will be cut off for 500 microseconds and the tank circuit will oscillate for that 500 microseconds,
producing an output signal. The transistor will then conduct for 999,500 microseconds and the tank circuit will
not oscillate during that time period. The 500 microseconds that the tank circuit is allowed to oscillate will
allow only 500 cycles of the 1-megahertz tank frequency.
You can easily check this frequency by using the following formula:
One cycle of the 1-megahertz resonant frequency is equal to 1 microsecond.
Then, by dividing the time for 1 cycle (1 microsecond) into gate length (500 microseconds), you will get
the number of cycles (500).
There are several different varieties of pulsed oscillators for different
applications. The schematic diagram shown in figure 2-25, view (A), is an emitter-loaded pulsed oscillator. The
tank circuit can be placed in the collector circuit, in which case it is referred to as a collector-loaded pulsed
oscillator. The difference between the emitter-loaded and the collector-loaded oscillator is in the output signal.
The first alternation of an emitter-loaded npn pulsed oscillator is negative. The first alternation of the
collector- loaded pulsed oscillator is positive. If a pnp is used, the oscillator will reverse the first
alternation of both the emitter-loaded and the collector-loaded oscillator.
You probably have noticed by
now that feedback has not been mentioned in this discussion. Remember that regenerative feedback was a requirement
for sustained oscillations. In the case of the pulsed oscillator, oscillations are only required for a very short
period of time. You should understand, however, that as the width of the input gate (which cuts off the
transistor) is increased, the amplitude of the sine wave begins to decrease (dampen) near the end of the gate
period because of the lack of feedback. If a long period of oscillation is required for a particular application,
a pulsed oscillator with regenerative feedback is used. The principle of operation remains the same except that
the feedback network sustains the oscillation period for the desired amount of time.
that are turned on and off at a specific time are known as what type of oscillators?
Q-21. What is the
polarity of the first alternation of the tank circuit in an emitter-loaded npn pulsed
From your study of oscillators, you should know that the oscillator will oscillate at the resonant
frequency of the tank circuit. Although the tank circuit is resonant at a particular frequency, many other
frequencies other than the resonant frequency are present in the oscillator. These other frequencies are referred
to as HARMONICS. A harmonic is defined as a sinusoidal wave having a frequency that is a multiple of the
fundamental frequency. In other words, a sine wave that is twice that fundamental frequency is referred to as the
What you must remember is that the current in circuits operating at the resonant frequency is relatively large in
amplitude. The harmonic frequency amplitudes are relatively small. For example, the second harmonic of a
fundamental frequency has only 20 percent of the amplitude of the resonant frequency. A third harmonic has perhaps
10 percent of the amplitude of the fundamental frequency.
One useful purpose of harmonics is that of
frequency multiplication. It can be used in circuits to multiply the fundamental frequency to a higher frequency.
The need for frequency-multiplier circuits results from the fact that the frequency stability of most oscillators
decreases as frequency increases. Relatively good stability can be achieved at the lower frequencies. Thus, to
achieve optimum stability, an oscillator is operated at a low frequency, and one or more stages of multiplication
are used to raise the signal to the desired operating frequency.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current,
to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement
, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading
, Introduction to Generators and Motors
Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits
, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas
, Microwave Principles,
, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros
Introduction to Test Equipment
, Radar Principles,
The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices,
Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics