Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Alliance Test Equipment Centric RF Empower RF ISOTEC Reactel RF Connector Technology San Francisco Circuits Anritsu Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products KR Filters LadyBug Technologies Rigol TotalTemp Technologies Werbel Microwave Windfreak Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Withwave RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines RF Cafe Software WhoIs entry for RF Cafe.com Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
Anatech Electronics RF Microwave Filters - RF Cafe

Windfreak Technologies Frequency Synthesizers - RF Cafe

Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low-priced products, all of which I created.

RF Cascade Workbook for Excel

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF Workbench

T-Shirts, Mugs, Cups, Ball Caps, Mouse Pads

These Are Available for Free

Espresso Engineering Workbook™

Smith Chart™ for Excel

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 - RF Cafe

Homepage Archive - August 2022 (page 4)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 of the August 2022 homepage archives.

Sunday the 28th

Wireless Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for August 28th

Wireless Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for August 28th, 2022 - RF CafeThis custom made Wireless Technology theme crossword puzzle from RF Cafe is for August 28th, 2022. "Across" words consisting of five or more letters begin with the first letter of this puzzle's theme. All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword puzzle contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Many Thanks to Centric RF for Their Continued Support!

Centric RF microwave components - RF CafeCentric RF is a company offering from stock various RF and Microwave coaxial components, including attenuators, adapters, cable assemblies, terminations, power dividers, and more. We believe in offering high performance parts from stock at a reasonable cost. Frequency ranges of 0-110 GHz at power levels from 0.5-500 watts are available off the shelf. Order today, ship today! Centric RF is currently looking for vendors to partner with them. Please visit Centric RF today.

Friday the 26th

The Wonderful World of Lids

The Wonderful World of Lids, December 1964 Popular Electronics - RF CafeI have always enjoyed the humor of wife's perspective on her husband's hobby-centric proclivities, be they ham radio, model airplanes, hot rod or vintage cars, or other such entirely worthwhile endeavors. Most times - as with this one - the stories are written by wives, but sometimes they are written by the perpetrator himself from what he perceives as the viewpoint of his wife (e.g., the Carl Kohler pieces). Other times the encounters are entirely fictitious - with enough believability to make you wonder whether it is a true story, where the names have been changed to protect the innocent. In "The Wonderful World of Lids," which appeared in a 1964 issue of Popular Electronics magazines, ham radio aficionado Pheobus Sharney demonstrates his obsession. Interestingly, he mentions the "American Radiator Delay League," which was the title of a spoof article in the April 1933 edition of the American Radio Relay League's QST magazine. BTW, if you don't know what a "lid" is, check out this article entitled "So You Want to Be a Lid..."

Space 5G Is on the Launchpad

Space 5G Is on the Launchpad - RF Cafe"Standard handsets on Earth, in some locations, will soon connect directly to satellites for remote roaming. The next generation of cellphone networks won't just be 5G or 6G - they will be zero g. In April, Lynk Global launched the first direct-to-mobile commercial satellite, and on 15 August a competitor, AST SpaceMobile, confirmed plans to launch an experimental direct-to-mobile satellite of its own in mid-September. Inmarsat and other companies are working on their own low Earth orbit (LEO) cellular solutions as launch prices drop, satellite fabrication methods improve, and telecoms engineers push new network capabilities. LEO satellite systems such as SpaceX's Starlink and Amazon's Kuiper envision huge constellations of satellites. However, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission just rejected SpaceX's application for some of the $9B federal rural broadband fund - in part because the Starlink system requires a $600 ground station..."

Resistive Splitting Pads

Resistive Splitting Pads, April 1951 Radio & Television News - RF CafeDesigning resistive impedance-matched signal splitting networks is nowadays mostly done with the assistance of computer software. In fact, odds are pretty high that the designer either has no idea what the formulas behind the "magic" are, or at least it has been a very long time since working them with pencil and paper. There's no shame in that, though, just as there is no reason to expect someone using a cellphone must know the intricacies of the internal circuits or the network to which it is connected. We've moved past that. For those of us who still appreciate a refresher on the behind-the-scenes calculations being performed at lightning speed within the smartphone or computer, this 1951 Radio & Television News magazine article will be a welcome bit of information...

IPP-1314, 2-8 GHz, 4-Way Combiner

Innovative Power Products (IPP) IPP-1314, 2-8 GHz, 4-Way Combiner - RF CafeInnovative Power Products (IPP), a designer and manufacturer of RF and microwave passive components for more than three decades, is pleased to introduce a new the model IPP-1314 combines four coherent input signals or divides one signal into four. The IPP-1314 is rated up to 300 watts CW of total RF input power, over a 2-8 GHz range. This combiner/divider is produced in a 3.08" x 2.60" x 1.03" package with a type N connector on the sum port and SMA connectors on the other four ports. This coupler has amplitude balance which is less than ±0.3 dB, insertion loss less than 0.8 dB, with phase balance that is less than ±6° and VSWR less than 1.35:1. The IPP-1314 is also RoHS compliant and can be used in commercial and military applications.

R/C Compound Escapements & Servos

R/C Compound Escapements & Servos, February 1955 Popular Electronics - RF CafeEarly "servos" were nothing more than the electromechanical equivalents of rubber band-powered escapement. Rather than energizing a solenoid that would allow the rubber band to turn the control arm, the pulse signal from the receiver would set a motor in motion, and then limit switches would stop it once the predetermined position was reached. They had a number of advantages over rubber-powered escapements in that the power delivered to the control surface was not diminished with every actuation (except from some negligible energy drain from the batteries), they were able to deliver a lot more power, and they took up less real estate inside the fuselage. It was a first step toward today's proportional servos. This 1955 issue of Popular Electronics magazines shows the state of the art in the day...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Thanks Once Again to everythingRF for Long-Time Support!

everything RF Searchable Database - RF CafePlease take a few moments to visit the everythingRF website to see how they can assist you with your project. everythingRF is a product discovery platform for RF and microwave products and services. They currently have 267,269 products from more than 1397 companies across 314 categories in their database and enable engineers to search for them using their customized parametric search tool. Amplifiers, test equipment, power couplers and dividers, coaxial connectors, waveguide, antennas, filters, mixers, power supplies, and everything else. Please visit everythingRF today to see how they can help you.

Thursday the 25th

RC Time-Constant Nomogram

RC Time-Constant Nomogram, July 1965 Electronics World - RF CafeAfter learning Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's law, Norton's theorem, and a few mesh analysis techniques for resistive circuits, electronics students' first foray into the interactions of resistors, capacitors, and inductors is usually time constants. The so-named "RC time constant" is simply multiplication of the values of resistance (ohms) and capacitance (farads) - connected in series - resulting in a time value in seconds. There is nothing special about the time constant other than various rules of thumb which have been designed around it. For instance, 5 RC time constants is considered the time after which a fully discharged capacitor is charged (up to 93.3%, actually), or conversely the time after which a fully charge capacitor is discharged (down to 6.7%). It does so happen that after 1 RC time constant the charge has changed by a factor of 1-e-1 (1-0.368=63.2%). After 5 RC time constants the charge has changed by 1-e-5 = 99.3%. 6 RC time constants yields 99.8%, 7 is 99.9%. 9 RC times constants results in 99.99%. Although not mentioned here...

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafePCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Use it up, Wear it out, Make it do, Or do without

Use it up, Wear it out, Make it do, Or do without, January 1945 Radio News - RF CafePay raises are bad for the country. That was according to the Office of War Information's War Advertising Council's full-page spread in the 1945 edition of Radio News magazine. According to their logic, you requesting or expecting - even accepting - a pay raise was damaging to the country's war effort because the ultimate result was increased prices for end users of products and services. It was an argument against inflation at a time when inflation was low (see BLS chart below). At the time, people had the best interest of the country at heart and, especially with the fate of the free world on the line, were largely willing participants. Having so many family members serving in foreign lands in a battle to beat back the forces of Communism, Marxism, Taoism, and all the other "isms" helped feed the attitude. Can you imagine the response that would be seen from the public today if a similar message emanated from the Government? It would be quite entertaining...

Anatech Electronics Intros 3 Filter Models for August

Anatech Electronics Intros 3 Filter Models for August 2022 - RF CafeAnatech Electronics offers the industry's largest portfolio of high-performance standard and customized RF and microwave filters and filter-related products for military, commercial, aerospace and defense, and industrial applications up to 40 GHz. Three new filter models have been introduced - a 1747 MHz cavity bandpass filter with N-type connectors, a 2025-2125 MHz / 2200-2300 MHz ceramic surface mount duplexer, and a 100-175 MHz / 225-520 MHz LC diplexer with N-type connectors. Custom RF power directional coupler designs can be designed and produced when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements are such that a custom approach is necessary.

Standards of Measurement

Standards of Measurement, September 1942, Radio-Craft - RF CafeBuckle your mental seatbelt before reading this fast-moving rundown of the origins of many measurement standards used in the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system. It reminds me of a video you might see of a physics dude "wowing" an audience of science laymen as he rolls through one topic after another, among them being mass, acceleration, time, electricity, magnetism, solenoids, pendulums, inertia, and gravity. There's nothing you haven't seen and heard before in the first couple chapters of Physics 101 class in the way of equations and drawings, but you'll probably enjoy the review. It appeared in a 1942 issue of Radio-Craft magazine...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

/jobs.htm" target="_top"> Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable /jobs.htm" target="_top">job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Many Thanks to ConductRF for Continued Support!

ConductRF coaxial cables & connectors - RF CafeConductRF is continually innovating and developing new and improved solutions for RF Interconnect needs. See the latest TESTeCON RF Test Cables for labs. ConductRF makes production and test coax cable assemblies for amplitude and phased matched VNA applications as well as standard & precision RF connectors. Over 1,000 solutions for low PIM in-building to choose from in the iBwave component library. They also provide custom coax solutions for applications where some standard just won't do. A partnership with Newark assures fast, reliable access. Please visit ConductRF today to see how they can help your project! 

Wednesday the 24th

Keeping up with New Components

Mac's Service Shop: Keeping up with New Components, February 1966 Electronics World - RF CafeOK, I'm embarrassed once again. In this 1969 issue of Electronics World magazine, a device called a "thyrector" is mentioned the Mac's Service Shop episode entitled, "Keeping up with New Components." It was a totally new word to me. According to Wikipedia a thyrector is a type of transient voltage suppression (TVS) diode, aka a "transil" (another unfamiliar term). Maybe I have heard of both of them, but if so, I don't remember. You might think with all the vintage electronics magazine I have read, along with having been in the field since the 1970's, this wouldn't have caught me by surprise. Interestingly, the title of the article does not mention that it is a Mac's Service Shop story, but it is. Anyway, enjoy the story...

Ohmite Power Resistors Receive Military Certification

Ohmite Power Resistors Receive Military Certification from Defense Logistics Agency - RF CafeOhmite Manufacturing Company, Inc. is pleased to announce its power axial resistors have received the Established Reliability for military standards MIL-PRF39007 Certification from the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). "Designers can rely on the performance of these parts," said Debasis Roy, Global Director of Products for Ohmite. "This certification provides Ohmite with the opportunity to provide another source for power axial resistors with Established Reliability to our customers who need mission-critical parts." Ohmite will begin production of the MIL-PRF39007-certified resistors immediately at its manufacturing facility in Brownsville, Texas. Because of the certification's requirements, these resistors will continue to be manufactured in the United States of America, adding jobs to the Brownsville, TX area. The MIL-PRF39007 certification also enables Ohmite to pursue additional military standard certifications in the future for other products. "To get certified at this level, these parts can have only one failure in many thousand hours of use, a standard requiring the highest quality manufacturing," Dr. Roy said. "We are proud to receive this 'stamp of approval' from the DLA and offer this product to our customers requiring high reliability performance from their power resistors...

"Sweater Girls" Are Really in Demand at This Plant

"Sweater Girls" Are Really in Demand at This Plant, November 1944 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"He no sooner gets alone with a sweater girl than he's trying to pull the wool over her eyes." That's a really old joke that only old guys like me remember. "Sweater Girl" was a term used to describe... how to properly put it... um, you know, the Dolly Parton types... those who have a good singing voice. While that is not the purpose of a sweater girl overtly used in this article from a 1944 edition of Radio-Craft, you can bet the authors intended the term as an eye-catcher. I thought you might need to be apprised of the origin of the term to appreciate the title. You're welcome. See also this National Union Radio and Electronic Tubes advertisement in the October 1944 issue of Radio News magazine...

GMC Hummer EV Has $100 Fillups Too

GMC Hummer EV Has $100 Fillups Too - RF CafeCar & Driver magazine just published an evaluation of the all-electric 2022 Hummer EV. "In our testing, we found that the pickup's massive 212.7-kWh battery pack costs a pretty penny to recharge at a DC fast-charging station. It costs a lot of money to fill up a big pickup truck's gas tank - especially these days. But what if we told you that even an electric pickup truck could crest the $100 mark when it comes time to replenish the battery? That's what we found when we plugged the 2022 GMC Hummer EV in for a fast-charge session. For our charging test, we plugged the Hummer in at an Electrify America station to go from 10% charge to 90 percent charge. At current rates of $0.43 per kWh, adding 80% charge cost us $81, including sales tax. Extrapolating from that, to go from 0% to 100% charge at a DC fast-charging station would cost over $100." Eventually, EV road usage taxes will be added, a la gasoline taxes; pavement and bridges need to be maintained. Careful what you wish for...

Microphones Explained for Beginners

Microphones Explained for Beginners, August 1938 Radio-Craft - RF CafeCarbon button microphones were used in Alexander Graham Bell's first production model telephones. He bought the patent from inventor Emile Berliner because they were superior to Bell's own liquid element microphones. Condenser microphones followed, whose transducer element includes an integral variable capacitor. Interestingly, even though we in the U.S don't refer to capacitors as "condensers" anymore, the name has persisted. Ribbon microphones are inexpensive and bidirectional (front and back of diaphragm). Moving coil microphones are more rugged than previous configurations and are not as prone to weather variations. Crystal microphones utilize piezoelectric properties of a crystal for generating electrical signals. Electret microphones, which came on the scene after this article was written, overwhelmingly dominate the microphone market today because they are used almost exclusively in computers, hearing aides, and mobile devices...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF Electronics Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Symbols Shapes for Visio - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Symbols available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Symbols are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

Thanks to Copper Mountain Technologies for Continued Support

Copper Mountain TechnologiesCopper Mountain Technologies develops innovative and robust RF test and measurement solutions for engineers all over the world. Copper Mountain's extensive line of unique form factor Vector Network Analyzers include an RF measurement module and a software application which runs on any Windows PC, laptop or tablet, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The result is a lower cost, faster, more effective test process that fits into the modern workspace in lab, production, field and secure testing environments.

Tuesday the 23rd

After Class: The Language of Vectors

After Class: The Language of Vectors, May 1960 Popular Electronics - RF CafeWhile posting this "The Language of Vectors" article from a 1960 issue of Popular Electronics magazine, the thought occurred to me whether the terms "vector" and "phasor†" are interchangeable. I know that a vector is an entity defined, ultimately, by both magnitude and direction, but then so is a phasor, so are they the same? According to purists, no, they are not. A phasor is considered a complex scalar quantity (i.e., phasor = real ± j imaginary) which can be alternately described as a vector by translation from rectangular to polar form. The magnitude of a phasor is defined as: magnitude = √(real2 + imaginary2) and the angle of a phasor is defined as: angle = tan-1 (imaginary/real). Mathematical manipulation of phasors is done directly according to complex number rules, whereas manipulation of vectors uses, well, basically the same types of manipulations after, if necessary, converting them to rectangular coordinates. Yes, there are dot products and cross products for vectors, but in the end they are fundamentally the same thing when it comes to mathematics. I'm sure some will argue the point, but both phasor form and vector forms can be used interchangeably...

How to Talk to Non-Hams

How to Talk to Non-Hams, November 1961 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is a pretty funny  "ham-drama" story from a 1961 issue of Popular Electronics magazine that, although fictional, could easily have really happened. I'm not much of a party-goer, but based on what little experience I've had at social functions and the stereotypical electronics nerd behavior often portrayed in movies, the author's scenario likely actually did occur. Maybe he exaggerates just a bit, though. The follow-up situation would be a great gag to play on someone if you ever get the chance. It probably would not be hard to get people to fall for it...

Modelithics Introduces EMA Design Automation as Reseller 

Modelithics® Introduces EMA Design Automation as a Modelithics Reseller - RF CafeModelithics, the industry leader in providing innovative and high-quality custom modeling and measurement services for RF, microwave and millimeter-wave electronic devices is pleased to introduce EMA Design Automation, Inc. (EMA) the world's largest ECAD VAR, as a Modelithics Reseller. "We are seeing dramatic growth in RF and microwave design content from our customers across the globe," said Manny Marcano, President of EMA, "Partnering with Modelithics will allow us to provide our customers a plug-n-play solution to help them accelerate their RF analysis and ensure they are able to achieve first pass success for these critical RF systems and subsystems. As a reseller of Modelithics, EMA will be able to meet the needs of design engineers globally by offering high-accuracy RF and microwave active and passive simulation models..."

Unexpected Phase Transition in Elemental Neodymium

Unexpected Phase Transition in Elemental Neodymium - RF Cafe"Usually, when materials heat up, they become more disordered. Now, researchers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have found evidence for the opposite happening in the element neodymium, which develops long-range order as its temperature increases. The presence of this phase transition could shed light on the behavior of materials known as spin glasses and could also aid the development of devices for information storage or neuromorphic computing. Spin glasses such as neodymium (Nd) are a special class of magnetic materials in which particle spins form random, helix-like patterns below a certain critical temperature (termed the spin glass temperature). They are often considered to be disordered magnets and are different from other such 'frustrated' magnets such as spin ices and spin liquids..."

Behind the Scenes with Next Year's Model

Behind the Scenes with Next Year's Model, August 1934 QST - RF CafeThe expectation of manufacturers to constantly come up with new and better models that outperform last years' models and compel buyers to upgrade is as old as markets themselves. This 1934 QST magazine tongue-in-cheek tale of developers of the "The Dual-Ratio Knee-Action Triple-Hemispheric Multi-Tube Many-Wave Looperdyne" could easily be adopted to describe the prototype lab at Apple, Chevrolet, Panasonic, Microsoft (well, maybe not so much), Hasbro, Lockheed Martin, or Craftsman. Anyone who has worked in the pressure cooker environment of a research, development, and production qualification phases of a project knows all too well the scenario presented here...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Please Visit Triad RF Systems to Thank Them for Their Support

Triad RF SystemsTriad RF Systems designs and manufactures RF power amplifiers and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners (hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave amplifiers and amplifier systems. PA, LNA, bi-directional, and frequency translating amplifiers are available, in formats including tower mount, benchtop, rack mount, and chassis mount. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how they can help your project.

Monday the 22nd

John F. Rider Publisher Servicing Data

John F. Rider Publisher, Inc. - Servicing Data, October 1952 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeA lot of people in the electronics industry are very familiar with [Howard] Sams Photofacts servicing data packets for radios, televisions, tape players, and other items. Probably not many have heard of John F. Rider and the other companies that provided similar information. Many - maybe most -manufacturers printed service manuals for their products, but it was only made available to authorized service and sales representatives, and then at a price. Sams Photofacts were famous for being very comprehensive and accurate, and also provided a level of detail often not included in the manufacturer service packs. If you go to the Sams Technical Publishing website, you will find that they offer John F. Rider material, so evidently Sams acquired the rights to it...

DC-70 GHz Ruggedized Replacement VNA Cables

ConductRF Ruggedized Replacement VNA Coaxial Cables, DC - 70 GHz August 16, 2022 - RF CafePrecision Ruggedized VNA Cables from ConductRF offer RF Engineers great alternatives to costly OEM cables that are now past their best days. We have standards for applications at 18 GHz, 27 GHz, 40 GHz, 50 GHz & 70 GHz. Our torque resistant connector heads and phase stable constructions ensure great performance for many tests to come. ConductRF VNA series provides customers with reliable ruggedized solutions for Lab and Production Vector Network Analyzer testing. With options for 18 GHz, 26.5 GHz, & 40 GHz, these cables offer cost leading alternatives to original OEM VNA cable solutions. VNA Series cables are enhanced with a stainless steel spiral armor, providing protection from excess bending and crushing forces. A black non-conductive outer cover completes the product. These cables are phase stable during flexing and have an operating life cycle of up to 5,000 matings when correctly operated and maintained. Connector options available for male and female interfaces include; 2.4 mm, 2.92 mm, 3.5 mm, SMA and Type-N series. NMD head options that mate to VNA port connectors are available for additional stability for female interfaces in 2.4 mm, 2.92 mm, and 3.5 mm series...

World's First Photon Counter

World's First Photon Counter, December 1947 Radio News - RF CafeDecades before there were highly sensitive CMOS-based light sensors and charge-coupled devices (CCDs), light detection for image capturing was performed by vacuum tubes called photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). They amplify light by releasing electrons in response to a detector surface that answers to photon impingement. PMTs are still more sensitive and of lower noise level than the silicon devices. In fact, super-sensitive elements for many atom smashers and subterranean neutrino detectors still use photomultiplier tubes for that reason. My first encounter with a PMT was as part of a video map rendering system used on the airport surveillance radar (ASR) display that I worked on in the USAF. Air traffic controllers etched an overlay map of the airport area on a plate of coated glass. It was placed in a box that swept a light beam in synchronization...

Uncle Martin's Amazing Box of Dreams

Uncle Martin’s Amazing Box of Dreams - RF CafeBeing of the era of TV watchers in the 1960's, when I first saw this story headline, "My Uncle Martin's Amazing Box of Dreams," and accompanying photograph the first thing that came to mind was Uncle Martin from the Prime Time show entitled "My Favorite Martin," starring Ray Walston and Bill Bixby. It wasn't, as it turns out, but a related theme certainly exists, whether intended or not. I read Mr. Lee Goldberg's story (on the Electronic Design website) in its entirety anyway. With such an enticing thousand-word introduction (i.e., a great picture), no one with an interest in aviation and space exploration history can resist the temptation. It is a very nice tribute to Mr. Goldberg's Uncle Martin. I think you'll enjoy it, too.

Practical Consideration and Application in a Multielement Quad

Practical Consideration and Application in a Multielement Quad, February 1967 QST - RFCafeABS and PVC plastic are the new bamboo for antenna construction. Before the ready and inexpensive availability of the former two insulative products, bamboo was the material of choice for lightweight insulative (at least when dry) support structures. Many of the antenna construction articles like this "Practical Consideration and Application in a Multielement Quad" article in this 1967 issue of QST magazine are typical of the time (and earlier) where bamboo was used to support wire radiator elements, and serve as spacers for ladder wire and matching-phasing networks. Author Fitz-Randolph provides a bit of theory behind the design and includes a table of elements lengths for 10, 15, and 20 meters (28, 21, and 14 MHz, respectively) operation. The tri-band quad antenna requires about 550 feet of wire! An interesting exercise for someone with extra time on his hands would be to plug the dimensions of some of these antennas into a programs like EZNEC and see how the software results compare to the articles' claims...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeNew Scheme rotates all Banners in all locations on the page! RF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 12,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be.

Thanks Again for Windfreak Technologies' Continued Support!

Windfreak TechnologiesWindfreak Technologies designs, manufactures, tests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up / downconverters. Since the conception of WFT, we have introduced products that have been purchased by a wide range of customers, from hobbyists to education facilities to government agencies. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, and Asia. Please contact Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project.

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

Homepage Archive Pages

2024:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2023:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2022:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2021:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2020:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2019:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2018:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2017:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2016:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2015:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2014:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2013:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec

2012:  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 (no archives before 2012)

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 - RF Cafe

Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe

ConductRF Phased Matched RF Cables - RF Cafe