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Homepage Archive - December 2022 (page 2)

See Page  1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the December 2022 homepage archives.
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Wednesday the 14th

Mac's Service Shop: Electric Shock

Mac's Service Shop: Electric Shock, December 1965 Electronics World - RF CafeConcern over electrical shock is a good attitude to adopt for just about any item that plugs into an outlet. Much has been done to mitigate the opportunity for personal injury since this Mac's Service Shop article entitled "Electric Shock" appeared in a 1965 issue of Electronics World magazine. At the time, there were still older radios and televisions that had an internal metal chassis which could be at the line voltage (usually 110-120 V) depending on which way the power cord was plugged into the wall. Polarizing wall receptacle slots (neutral on left is taller, hot on right is smaller) helped to assure that a lamp socket, for instance would have the outside area of the screw-in socket was at neutral and not hot, thus minimizing the chance of receiving a shock. Adding a safety ground to power cords that bonded to user accessible metal parts was a good first step, but at least in the early days many receptacles did not have the third hole to accept the ground prong. The only option for people determined to use the device was to cut off the ground prong or use an adapter. The better option was to assure no metal components were external to the product, and even adopting a "double insulated" practice where at least two layers of insulation stood between the user and the potentially...

PE Developmental Project: Laser Beam Communicator

Popular Electronics Exclusive Developmental Project: Laser Beam Communicator, May 1970 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThe ambition of amateur hobbyists has always amazed me. In practically every area of technology, amateurs have contributed significantly to the effort of pushing back the frontiers of ignorance by developing new applications, improving existing products, and demonstrating to commercial companies a need for new features or products. Many of those innovative hobbyists make a living in the field they choose for off-hours recreation. As a heavy reader of technology and hobby magazines of all sorts, I know this to be true for musicians, boaters, pilots, radio operators, gardeners, science experimenters, woodworkers, and many others. Levels of quality of finished products are awesome in the master class competitions. The amount of money spent by some for their "hobbies" is shocking. This laser communications article from the May 1970 Popular Electronics magazine is a prime example of that. The author uses off-the-shelf components to construct both the transmitter and receiving components. A quick tally of the most expensive parts...

USAF Basic Training - Kirt Blattenberger

USAF Basic Training - Kirt Blattenberger - Airplanes and RocketsDuring this time of year 44 solar orbits ago (yikes!), I was "enjoying" my fifth week of USAF Basic Training. It marked the transition from a trade in residential and commercial electrical wiring to a career in electronics. November 9, 1978 was a date which will live in infamy - for me, anyway. That was the day I left my comfortable, oblivious 20-year-old existence as an electrician in Mayo, MD, and boarded a Delta Airlines flight to San Antonio, Texas. About six months earlier I had signed up under the Delayed Enlistment program. I was on my way to becoming a fully trained and qualified Weather Equipment Specialist, a career field chosen based on my keen interest in weather phenomena, aviation, and aerospace. The plan was to survive six weeks of Basic Training (BT) at Lackland Air Force Base, TX, and then go on to technical school at Chanute AFB, IL. My first official act was to carry along with me a sealed envelope containing the data of all enlistees boarding the flight from BWI airport, to be surrendered to the sergeant who would ask for it upon arrival in San Antonio. I was psyched. Following deboarding at SAT, a uniformed person directed our troupe to a staging area while awaiting a bus for the ride to Lackland AFB. We were to stand quietly, looking forward. It was a small sampling of what was to come. After what seemed like a long bus ride, we drove past the guard house at the gate, rode to some building and were led into a dining hall for grub...

Many Thanks to Anatech Electronics for Long-Time Support!

Anatech Electronics logo - RF CafeAnatech Electronics (AEI) manufactures and supplies RF and microwave filters for military and commercial communication systems, providing standard LP, HP, BP, BS, notch, diplexer, and custom RF filters, and RF products. Standard RF filter and cable assembly products are published in our website database for ease of procurement. Custom RF filters designs are used when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements dictate a custom approach for your military and commercial communications needs. Sam Benzacar's monthly newsletters address contemporary wireless subjects. Please visit Anatech today to see how they can help your project succeed. 

Who Really Invented the Thumb Drive?

Who Really Invented the Thumb Drive? - RF CafeTo be honest, I didn't know a controversy existed over "Who Really Invented the Thumb Drive?" It certainly doesn't seem to be on the level of whether A. Bell or E. Gray invented the telephone, or whether it was the Wrights or Whitehead who first succeeded in powered flight. Evidently, though, some technophiles debate the thumb drive issue with passion, or else the IEEE's Spectrum magazine would not likely have devoted an article to the subject. It begins: "Thumb drive, USB drive, memory stick: Whatever you call it, it's the brainchild of an unsung Singapore inventor. In 2000, at a trade fair in Germany, an obscure Singapore company called Trek 2000 unveiled a solid-state memory chip encased in plastic and attached to a Universal Serial Bus (USB) connector. The gadget, roughly the size of a pack of chewing gum, held 8 megabytes of data and required no external power source, drawing power directly from a computer when connected. It was called the ThumbDrive. That device, now known by a variety of names - including memory stick, USB stick, flash drive, as well as thumb drive - changed the way computer files are stored and transferred. Today it is familiar worldwide..."

Jacob's Staff = Log Periodic Antenna?

Jacob's Staff = Log Periodic Antenna? - RF CafeA decade ago, I featured a quilt made by Sara Schechner that depicted the 26" Alvan Clark telescope. She later contacted me about having learned of its appearance on RF Cafe. Sara is the curator of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University, and holds a PhD from Harvard. She wrote a book in 1997 entitled, "Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology." It includes an extensive collection of ancient drawings and etchings of astronomical events such as comets, meteors, super novae, and solar system conjunctions, as well as implications of such phenomena in significant world events. While reading it, I ran across this etching depicting "Archimedes beholding both [planets and comet] in his Jacobs Staff." The first thing that struck me in the image is that the Jacob's Staff looks an awful lot like a log periodic antenna. Could Archimedes actually be pointing a directional radio frequency antenna at the comet in an attempt to communicate with alien beings in a starship, rather than using it to determine the celestial coordinates of the object? Maybe aliens provided it to him...

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every stencil symbol has been built to fit proportionally on the included A-, B-, and C-size drawing page templates (or use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, schematics, test equipment, racks (EIA 19", ETSI 21"), and more. Test equipment and racks are built at a 1:1 scale so that measurements can be made directly using Visio built-in dimensioning objects. Page templates are provided with a preset scale (changeable) for a good presentation that can incorporate all provided symbols...

Many Thanks to Exodus Advanced Communications for Their Support

Exodus Advanced Communications - RF CafeExodus Advanced Communications is a multinational RF communication equipment and engineering service company serving both commercial and government entities and their affiliates worldwide. Power amplifiers ranging from 10 kHz to 51 GHz with various output power levels and noise figure ranges, we fully support custom designs and manufacturing requirements for both small and large volume levels. decades of combined experience in the RF field for numerous applications including military jamming, communications, radar, EMI/EMC and various commercial projects with all designing and manufacturing of our HPA, MPA, and LNA products in-house.

Tuesday the 13th

Computer Lingo - Today's New Machine Languages

Computer Lingo - Today's New Machine Languages, December 1968 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeIf you were around during the Y2K era, which was from about the middle of the 1990's through the last day of the 20th century, you had to have heard about the looming disaster being caused by outdated computer software, hardware, and firmware that would not be capable of properly handling the rollover of dating years from 19xx to 20xx. The programming languages mentioned in this 1968 "Computer Lingo - Today's New Machine Languages" Radio-Electronics magazine articles were all still present to some degree at the end of the 1900's. One of the biggest problems was that limited size data fields (often 8-bit words) led many - actually most - early mainframe systems to assume the "19" part of a year, so after midnight of December 31st, 1999, the next day would be interpreted as January 1st, 1900 rather than 2000. Any date-dependent function would fail utterly, and possibly cause a catastrophic result. Electric grids, waterworks, industrial processing plants, accounting departments, and other such entities would be in chaos. The problem was not limited to large mainframe computers. Many embedded processors in systems and individual products were destined to fail as well. Even personal computers would suffer date-related failures...

Story of Tesla's Tower, His Coil, and EMI

Story of Tesla's Tower, His Coil, and EMI - RF Cafe"This article presents the amazing development of the Tesla coil, its issues with electromagnetic interference, and how the coil is still being used today. Steve Taranovich writes in Electronics Design: "When I lived in Long Island, N.Y., I had a most interesting experience when visiting Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower location. The tower stood tall from 1901 to 1917, on a 200-acre plot, in this remote location on the North Shore of Long Island. It wasn't far from my home for most of my life. Now just imagine a relatively small Tesla coil able to generate an electromagnetic field that could induce electrical currents in nearby conductors. Imagine how much havoc this could wreak on present-day computers, communications, building wiring, and other electronics. Tesla's Tower would be far more powerful than a small, experimental coil tested in a lab..."

Project Cyclone

Project Cyclone, April 1955 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIncreasing women's roles and interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) careers has been a major effort by schools in the last couple decades in an attempt to "remove barriers," both real and perceived, inhibiting entrance into the fields. There are still many realms of STEM that women have avoided, but computer programming and mathematics are examples their representation having seen steady increases. Dr. Frances Bauer can be seen in this 1955 Popular Electronics magazine story on Project Cyclone, which reports on her role programming what was at the time one of the largest computers in the world. Her work ran the gamut between civil engineering on bridge projects to predicting missile flight paths for the military. You might recall the U.S. Navy's Grace Hopper, who is credited with coining the term "bug" for computers...

R&S Liquid Cooled Air Traffic Control over Greenland

Rohde & Schwarz Delivers Liquid Cooled Air Traffic Control over Greenland - RF CafeIn the summer of 2023, Rohde & Schwarz will be delivering low-maintenance and compact R&S SK4105 shortwave transmitters to Naviair, the Danish air navigation service provider that handles air traffic in the lower airspace from the Flight Information Center (FIC) in Greenland. Greenland’s airspace is huge and transmitter stations are placed in remote locations. Naviair operates several HF and VHF radio systems at strategic points along the Greenlandic coast. The Flight Information Center (FIC) in Nuuk, Greenland, is responsible for primary communications. Its legacy HF transmitters will soon be replaced with the new, high power R&S SK4105 shortwave transmitters...

E.F. Johnson Christmas Ad

E. F. Johnson Christmas Ad, December 1953 QST - RF Cafe"Merry Christmas!" Here is a 2-page advertisement run by the E.F. Johnson company in the December 1953 issue of the ARRL's QST magazine. E.F. Johnson was a major player in amateur radio, and then later Citizens Band (CB) radio. They also manufactured a large array of point-to-point commercial radio products (Land Mobile Radio Service, LMRS, and Commercial Mobile Radio Service, CMRS), as well a large line of RF connectors and adapters. The wireless automatic meter reading (AMR) industry was pretty much born out of a very capable group of engineers, technicians, assembly workers, and managers at E.F. Johnson's facility in Waseca, Minnesota. They occupied a portion of the very large building where E.F. Johnson manufactured its many products (back when Americans actually built electronics equipment). The break-off company was originally named Enscan, and was later bought by Itron. Sensus is another major AMR product maker...

RF Cascade Workbook

RF Cascade Workbook - RF Cafe RF Cascade Workbook is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Many Thanks to Berkeley Nucleonics for Continued Support!

Berkeley Nucleonics Corp - RF CafeBerkeley Nucleonics Corporation (BNC) is a leading manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test, measurement, and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, BNC initially developed custom pulse generators. We became known for meeting the most stringent requirements for high precision and stability, and for producing instruments of unsurpassed reliability and performance. We continue to maintain a leadership position as a developer of custom pulse, signal, light, and function generators. Our designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, and automated testing procedures.

Monday the 12th

Integrated Circuits: What's Available?

Integrated Circuits: What's Available?, November 1965 Electronics World - RF CafeThe November 1965 issue of Electronics World magazine featured a set of articles reporting on the fledgling semiconductor industry. The title of this one, "Integrated Circuits: What's Available?" would require volumes to print today, but at the time the selection could be summed up with a relatively small amount of paper and ink. Author Donald Lancaster exuberantly and correctly predicted some of the many products and uses that miniaturization and capability the burgeoning technology would enable. Among them he cites desk[top] computers priced lower than mechanical adding machines, picture-on-the-wall TV, truly portable communications, vehicular anti-collision devices, precision counters, clocks, and controls. That's impressive foresight. That's pretty impressive. He further mentions extended (compared to vacuum tubes) temperature and frequency ranges, along with greater mechanical robustness. Of course prices would rapidly drop not only for the semiconductor devices themselves, but for the accompanying parts and products they are designed into...

Future "Top Guns" Include Uncrewed Jets Flying Formation

Future "Top Guns" Include Uncrewed Jets Flying Formation - RF Cafe"Maverick's next wingman might be a drone. Make that four or five collaborative combat aircraft, or CCA, working together to execute a set of 'plays' with minimal direction from a human pilot, who 'quarterbacks' the mission from a formation positioned near those drones. That's the vision of the U.S. Air Force for its sixth-generation fighter, and one of the service's seven operational imperatives for the future force, specifically 'Defining the Next Generation Air Dominance (NGAD) System-of-Systems.' In March 2022, during the Air Force Association's Warfare Symposium, Secretary of the Air Force Frank Kendall said during his keynote address that 'NGAD must be more..."

Luigi Galvani - 200th Anniversary

Luigi Galvani - 200th Anniversary, December 1937 Radio-Craft - RF CafeAs with the article in this month's issue of Radio-Craft magazine (December 1937), the reference to a 200th anniversary is understated by 78 years for 2015. Luigi Galvani was sort of the Benjamin Franklin of biology in that just as Franklin demonstrated that lightning was a form of electricity, Galvani showed that signals sent from the brains to the appendages of animals were electrical in nature. In my high school days in the 1970s, we duplicated his experiment by making deceased frogs' legs twitch when motivated by a D cell. Today, such an exercise would likely be met with demonstrations by animal rights people (whose lives, BTW, have probably in some way been improved as a result of previous such experiments). But, I digress. Mr. Galvani's name is now paid attribution through the many words based on it, such as galvanization, galvanometer (mechanical meter movement), galvanic corrosion (eroding of dissimilar metals)...

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

/jobs.htm" target="_top"> Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable /jobs.htm" target="_top">job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

Many Thanks to Withwave for Long−Time Support!

Withwave RF & Microwave Components - RF CafeWithwave manufactures an extensive line of metrology quality coaxial test cable assemblies, connectors (wave-, end-, vertical-launch, board edge, panel mount), calibration kits (SOLT), a fully automated 4-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrator, between- and in-series connector adaptors, attenuators, terminations, DC blocks, torque wrenches, test probes & probe positioner. Special test fixtures for calibration and multicoax cable assemblies. Frequency ranges from DC through 110 GHz. Please contact Withwave today to see how they can help your project succeed.

Sunday the 11th

Electronics Themed Crossword for December 11th

Electronics Themed Crossword Puzzle for December 11th, 2022 - RF CafeThis is your custom made Electronics Themed crossword puzzle for December 11th, 2022. All RF Cafe crossword puzzles are custom made by me, Kirt Blattenberger, and have only words and clues related to electronics, electricity, radio, radar, RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Anatech Electronics for Long-Time Support!

Anatech Electronics logo - RF CafeAnatech Electronics (AEI) manufactures and supplies RF and microwave filters for military and commercial communication systems, providing standard LP, HP, BP, BS, notch, diplexer, and custom RF filters, and RF products. Standard RF filter and cable assembly products are published in our website database for ease of procurement. Custom RF filters designs are used when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements dictate a custom approach for your military and commercial communications needs. Sam Benzacar's monthly newsletters address contemporary wireless subjects. Please visit Anatech today to see how they can help your project succeed. 

Friday the 9th

Electronics-Themed Comics c1956

Electronics-Themed Comics January 1956 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThis set of electronics-themed comics from a 1956 issue of Radio−Electronics magazine hits on a variety of topics that were big in the day. Computers were coming into the public realm rather than just being a sci-fi wonder. Home personal computers were still a couple decades away, but mainframes were being imposed on the public through accounting and merchandising venues, rather than just curiosities of research laboratories. The "large screen" 27" television cabinet was necessarily deep enough to park a car in because cathode ray tubes (CRT's) were used, not flat screen plasma, LCD, or LED displays. Look closely at the captionless hospital scene to see what's going on there. Finally, as usual, the trials and travails of the typical TV repairman is included...

TeraByte InfraRed Delivery Fastest Laser Link from Space

TeraByte InfraRed Delivery (TBIRD) Fastest Laser Link from Space - RF Cafe"In May 2022, the TeraByte InfraRed Delivery (TBIRD) payload onboard a small CubeSat satellite was launched into orbit 300 miles above Earth's surface. Since then, TBIRD has delivered terabytes of data at record-breaking rates of up to 100 gigabits per second - 100 times faster than the fastest internet speeds in most cities - via an optical communication link to a ground-based receiver in California. This data rate is more than 1,000 times higher than that of the radio-frequency links traditionally used for satellite communication and the highest ever achieved by a laser link from space to ground. And these record-setting speeds were all made possible by a communications payload roughly the size of a tissue box. MIT Lincoln Laboratory conceptualized the TBIRD mission in 2014 as a means of providing unprecedented capability to science missions at low cost. Science instruments in space today routinely generate more data than can be returned to Earth over typical space-to-ground communications links..."

International Geophysical Year First Day Cover

International Geophysical Year First Day Cover - RF CafeAn avid philatelist in my teens and twenties, I collected, along with other stamp varieties, many First Day Covers, which are specially designed envelopes bearing a new stamp design and are postmarked in the city, on the day which they are formally released. Last night I finally got around to digging out my First Day Cover commemorating The International Geophysical Year (IGY), released on May 31, 1957, in Chicago, Illinois. The IGY (actually IGYaaH - IG year-and-a-half) began on July 1, 1957 and ran through December 31, 1958. It was the dawn of space / high altitude flight and there was a great need to learn as much as possible about the physics of the upper atmosphere and the void of space. The USSR successfully flew their first three Sputnik satellites and the U.S. was scrambling to get Echo into orbit (finally on August 12, 1960, after the end of IGY). "During this time, more than 5,000 scientists and engineers of more than 60 nations are conducting intensive investigation and study of the earth, the atmosphere and the sun. Into these 18 months are crammed 30 or 40 ordinary years of research as science attempts...

The Ear and High Fidelity

The Ear and High Fidelity, March 1959 Popular Electronics - RF CafeJust as optimizing the transmission path between an RF transmitter and receiver helps guarantee the best possible fidelity in receiving an exact copy of the transmitted signal, so, too, does optimizing the signal path for an audio signal help guarantee a faithful replicate of the original sound. This article from the March 1959 edition of Popular Electronics magazine is a primer on the topic of understanding how the human ear perceives sound, and how to best facilitate a good match between the speaker and the ear drum. In the era, home-base hi-fi equipment was a big deal, as was building out listening areas for optimal performance. Room floor, wall and ceiling materials and finishes, dimensions, and placement of furniture, window coverings, wall decorations, etc., were all taken into account for serious audiophiles...

Linear Integrated Circuits

Linear Integrated Circuits, November 1965 Electronics World - RF CafeHere is a sample of what passed as big news in the electronics world in 1965 as reported in none other than Electronics World magazine. Linear integrated circuits were beginning to be designed into commercial products and a lot of effort and money was invested in promoting the newfangled technology to the public. Prices were rapidly falling as acceptance increased. The truth is the vast majority of the general public had no idea what the difference was between vacuum tube and semiconductor equipped radios, televisions, phonographs, tape recorders, etc., from a performance standpoint. What they did notice was the smaller size, lack of warm-up time, and lower power consumption (i.e., less heat). Prices were about the same at the beginning of the technology transition. Some anti-semiconductor naysayers tried to argue that at least with tube equipment you had a chance of fixing a malfunctioning unit simply by replacing a $1 tube, but failed to note that the equivalent semiconductor product almost never experienced a failure. Of course there were some crappy transistorized products, but that was the exception rather than the rule...

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office™

RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols for Office™ r2 - RF CafeIt was a lot of work, but I finally finished a version of the "RF & Electronics Schematic & Block Diagram Symbols" that works well with Microsoft Office™ programs Word™, Excel™, and Power Point™. This is an equivalent of the extensive set of amplifier, mixer, filter, switch, connector, waveguide, digital, analog, antenna, and other commonly used symbols for system block diagrams and schematics created for Visio™. Each of the 1,000 or so symbols was exported individually from Visio in the EMF file format, then imported into Word on a Drawing Canvas. The EMF format allows an image to be scaled up or down without becoming pixelated, so all the shapes can be resized in a document and still look good. The imported symbols can also be UnGrouped into their original constituent parts for editing. Check them out!

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafeThe leading website for the PCB industry. PCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

Thursday the 8th

Linear Integrated Circuits

Linear Integrated Circuits, November 1965 Electronics World - RF CafeHere is a sample of what passed as big news in the electronics world in 1965 as reported in none other than Electronics World magazine. Linear integrated circuits were beginning to be designed into commercial products and a lot of effort and money was invested in promoting the newfangled technology to the public. Prices were rapidly falling as acceptance increased. The truth is the vast majority of the general public had no idea what the difference was between vacuum tube and semiconductor equipped radios, televisions, phonographs, tape recorders, etc., from a performance standpoint. What they did notice was the smaller size, lack of warm-up time, and lower power consumption (i.e., less heat). Prices were about the same at the beginning of the technology transition. Some anti-semiconductor naysayers tried to argue that at least with tube equipment you had a chance of fixing a malfunctioning unit simply by replacing a $1 tube, but failed to note that the equivalent semiconductor product almost never experienced a failure. Of course there were some crappy transistorized products, but that was the exception rather than the rule...

Quantum Teleportation Opens "Wormhole in Space-Time"

Quantum Teleportation Opens a "Wormhole in Space-Time" - RF Cafe"The equivalent to a wormhole in space-time has been created on a quantum processor. Researchers in the U.S. used an advanced quantum teleportation protocol to open the wormhole and send quantum signals through it. By studying the dynamics of the transmitted quantum information, the team gained insights into gravitational dynamics. The experiment could be further developed to explore quantum gravity or string theory. A wormhole is a bridge in space-time that connects two different locations. While wormholes are consistent with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, they have not been observed by physicists. Unlike wormholes in science fiction, they are not traversable – meaning things cannot pass through them. Although general relativity forbids travelling through a wormhole, it is theorized that exotic matter..."

Lafayette Chassis Model B−100 Radio Service Data Sheet

Lafayette Chassis Model B-100 (Table Model B-103; Console Models B-101, B-102) Radio Service Data Sheet, August 1941 Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe Radio Service Data Sheets that were published in Radio−Craft magazine usually seem to have more information included than those published in other magazines, at least in the same era (1940-ish). It might have to do with how much material is provided by the manufacturer rather than a decision by the magazine editors. Either way, here are the schematics, chassis layout, and service info for the Lafayette Model B−100 through B−103. As with most radios built in the era, the woodwork and artistic design of the cabinet are exquisite. There are still people searching for such data, but fortunately the Internet is making it much easier to locate. None of the three models show up on eBay as of this writing...

Anatech Intros 3 Filters for December 2022

Anatech Electronics Intros 3 Filter Models for December 2022 - RF CafeAnatech Electronics offers the industry's largest portfolio of high-performance standard and customized RF and microwave filters and filter-related products for military, commercial, aerospace and defense, and industrial applications up to 40 GHz. Three new filter models have been introduced - a 650 MHz LC lowpass filter with a maximum passband 1 dB insertion loss (SMA connectors), a 30 MHz LC lowpass filter with a minimum passband return loss of 15 dB (N connectors), and a 3800 MHz lowpass filter with a maximum insertion loss of 1 dB (SMA connectors). Custom RF power filter and directional couplers designs can be designed and produced with required connector types when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements are such that a custom approach is necessary...

Portable Satellite Communications Link

Portable Satellite Communications Link, February 1967 Electronics World - RF CafeHere you are - portable satellite communications in the mid 1960s per this photo from Electronics World magazine. It has a unique "cloverleaf" ganged parabolic antenna array with phasing control. Today, we have "manpack" type systems which use compact antennas that can be quickly assembled and disassembled in any environment, along with receivers that have sensitivities much greater than the type shown here. As the name implies, they are transportable in backpack form. Software-defined radio (SDR) technology facilitates programmable modulation and frequency band operation. The Mark V AN/TSC-54 Satellite Communications Link Terminal featured here operated at 8/7.5 GHz up/down. An information page for the Mark V AN/TSC-54 can be found on the GlobalSecurity.org website, which includes in part, "It is completely transportable in two C-130 cargo aircraft." I guess the definition of "portable" has changed a bit since then...

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems is the technological leader in RF & microwave power amplifier solutions for EW, Radar, Satcom, Threat Simulation, Communications, and Product Testing. Our air and liquid cooled amplifiers incorporate the latest semiconductor and power combining technologies and with a patented architecture we build the most sophisticated and flexible COTS system amplifiers in the world. Solutions range from tens of watts to hundreds of kilowatts and includes basic PA modules to scalable rack systems.

Post Your Engineer & Technician Job Openings on RF Cafe for Free

/jobs.htm" target="_top"> Engineering Job Board - RF CafeRF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable /jobs.htm" target="_top">job openings. HR department employees and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from RF Cafe's high quality visitors...

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Windfreak Technologies SynthHD PRO - RF Cafe

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

Copyright  1996 - 2026

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website: AirplanesAndRockets.com

My Daughter's Website: EquineKingdom

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