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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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Homepage Archive - May 2021 (page 2)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 of the May 2021 homepage archives.
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Friday the 14th

Anti Radar Equipment

Anti Radar Equipment, March 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe General Electric TDY-2 was one of the earliest American anti-radar electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems. Having been highly secret technology during World War II, its existence and some details of its operation were revealed in a 1946 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. Declassification of much advanced technology in the post-war years fueled the boom in both commercial and consumer markets, including electronics, communications, automotive, boating, aircraft, appliances, construction, and even manufacturing and distribution. Interestingly, the time taken to get products into the marketplace was longer than a lot of people anticipated, and it caused consternation amongst those hoping to benefit...

PathWave Design 2022

Keysight PathWave Design 2022 - RF CafeKeysight Technologies recently announced the availability of their PathWave Design 2022 software suite. "RF applications are trending towards ever higher millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies. Integration densities now require correct assembly, simulation, and verification of multi-technology RF modules. PathWave Advanced Design System (ADS) enables intelligent integration of modules that interconnect RFIC, MMIC, laminate, wafer-level packaging, antenna, and PCB into dense 3D structures, which can avoid costly hardware failures. With PathWave ADS, you can achieve consistent and timely design wins through RF design verification..."

After Class Feature: Crystals

After Class Feature: Crystals, April 1960 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThe fundamentals of crystals has not changed since this article appeared in a 1960 edition of Popular Electronics magazine, although the way they are grown, cut, trimmed, and packaged has changed fairly significantly. Our understanding of how they work at the atomic level has advanced significantly as well. Nearly every digital device in existence has at least one crystal buried inside it for clock generation, so the number of crystals being manufactured has grown exponentially over the intervening decades. When considering the oscillators circuits shown here, you can mentally replace the vacuum tubes with transistors to get an understanding...

PS Magazine: The Preventative Maintenance Monthly

PS Magazine: The Preventative Maintenance Monthly, Kirt's Cogitations #328 - RF CafeA few times in the past I have mentioned the U.S. Army's long-running comic-book-style of training material for vehicle maintenance. It began in 1940 under the title of The Army Motors and ran through the end of World War II. In June 1951, at the beginning of the Korean War, the publication was re-introduced as PS Magazine - The Preventative Maintenance Monthly, where the "PS" part stands for "Post Script," a la the "p.s." you might put at the end of a written letter. In this case the "p.s." is a post script to the regular Army vehicle maintenance manuals. I recently happened to run across the RadioNerds.com's extensive section on PS Magazine, and it is a treasure trove of downloadable PDF versions of the magazines. As you can see from the cover illustrations and the contents, its appeal was primarily to the predominantly male vehicle maintenance force...

Shielding Aerospace Systems from EMI

Shielding Aerospace Systems from EMI - RF Cafe"For decades, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding has been a consideration and concern to the aerospace and defense industries. But, with the airwaves becoming ever more crowded as devices get smarter and more prolific, EMI has also become a greater consideration for everyone from consumer products manufacturers to the burgeoning U.S. Space Force. Ensuring that on-demand signals are not interfered with or corrupted has made the need for materials that shield EMI more important than ever. EMI, which is caused by one electronic device sending radio frequency or electromagnetic waves intentionally or unintentionally to another device, can disrupt electronic devices, equipment, and systems used in critical medical, military, aerospace, mass transit, vehicular control..."

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Please Thank RF Superstore for Their Continued Support

RF Superstore coaxial cable, connectors, adapters - RF CafeRF Superstore launched in 2017, marking the return of Murray Pasternack, founder of Pasternack Enterprises, to the RF and microwave Industry. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were sold. Partner Jason Wright manages day-to-day operations, while working closely with Mr. Pasternack to develop RF Superstore into a world class RF and microwave component supplier. RF coaxial connectors & adapters, coaxial cable & cable assemblies, surge protectors, attenuators. Items added daily. Free shipping on orders over $25. We're leading the way again!

Thursday the 13th

Bell Telephone Laboratories Lens Antenna

Bell Telephone Laboratories Lens Antenna, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeAt first look this antenna from Bell Telephone Laboratories appears to be a phased array, but in fact it is a "lens" that uses reflecting metal fins to direct incoming and outgoing radio waves into a narrow beam. This is a new approach to the standard method of using a curved (usually parabolic) reflective dish with a feedhorn. No detail is given about how, if at all, the phases of the received signals are phase-adjusted at the point they converge on the back-side waveguide feed. It is sort of akin to the Osgood optical lens used in lighthouses. Shortly after the end of World War II, Bell Telephone Labs began a major effort to interconnect the entire country with microwave relay stations to enhance efficiency and reliability of long distance telephone calls...

ConductRF TSA89 TESTeLINK Flexible RF Cables to 40 GHz

ConductRF Performance TSA89 TESTeLINK Flexible RF Test Cables to 40 GHz, February 16 - RF CafeConductRF announces availability of professional high frequency TSA89 series of RF test cables with performance to 40 GHz. Precision connector choices include; SMA, Type-N, 3.5mm, 2.92mm, & 2.4mm. Key features: High-frequency point to point cable, light weight rugged double-shielded, flexible cable, low loss <0.68 dB/ft @ 40 GHz, low VSWR < 1.35:1 (Typical < 1.25:1), RF leakage >−100 dB to 18 GHz, temperature rated from -55ºC to 125ºC. 100% factory VSWR and insertion loss tested. Wide selection of configurations & lengths. Cables are in stock and available immediately from Digi−Key...

USAF Radar Tech Kenneth Martin Joins Our Vaunted List!

USAF Radar Tech Kenneth Martin Joins Our Vaunted List! - RF CafePlease welcome former USAF radar tech Kenneth Martin our vaunted list on the Radar Shop webpage. Kenneth enlisted in 1965, making him the 2nd-earliest guy in the list. He served in the 2nd Combat Communications Group (2CCG) in Germany, with deployments in the region. If you were once or currently are a USAF radar technician, contact me to be added, too - the others of us appreciate you making yourself "findable." Note: Please let me know if you have schematics for the MPN-13/14 radar system.

Hints and Kinks for the Experimenter

Hints and Kinks for the Experimenter, January 1967 QST - RFCafe"Kink" is not a word you hear very often anymore in reference to having a problem in a process or task, but it turns up fairly regularly in hobby and do-it-yourself types of magazines as "Hints and Kinks" columns. Having a kink in the neck or a kink in the garden hose are more familiar uses of the word. "Kink" appears in the ARRL's QST magazine, my older model airplane magazines, in some of the Popular Electronics magazines, and likely in many others. "Hints and Kinks" type columns typically are collections of ideas submitted by readers explaining how they solved a particular problem or how they came up with a new way of doing something. Some are outdated but many are timeless in their application and usefulness. I put all the ones here in to the latter category...

Top 20 Engineering Schools for Highest Paid Graduates

Top 20 Engineering Schools That Produce the Best-Paid Graduates - RF Cafe"According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, those graduating with engineering degrees are the highest paid new grads in the U.S. The average starting salary for an engineer with a bachelor's degree was $66,521 in 2019. For the Class of 2020, starting salaries were 4% higher - $69,188 on average. With the help of PayScale, we've compiled a list of those engineering schools whose graduates are paid well when they graduate and during their mid-career years. Harry Mudd, Star Trek S1E6 - RF CafeWe've ranked the schools by the highest mid-career salaries of their graduates." Spoiler: #20 is New Jersey Institute of Technology at $65.7k, and #1 is - no surprise - Harvey Mudd College at $91.4k...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Many Thanks to Reactel for Their Long-Time Support!

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Wednesday the 12th

Plug Ugly Eliminator

Plug-Ugly Eliminator, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"Plug-Ugly Eliminator" could refer to a couple possible devices. One might be some sort of cover for hiding electrical cords and plugs where the go into a wall socket. It might also be a move decorative type plug than the standard kind on the end of a line cord. What the Plug-Ugly Eliminator actually is, is an overly complex contraption allowing a radio listener to turn off a radio for a predetermined amount of time when "commercial announcements in which he may have no interest or which may even be offensive to him" begins playing. The "Plug" part of the name is another name for a commercial. Maurice Kay's Plug-Ugly Eliminator, which appeared in the May 1946 issue of Radio-Craft magazine, is another items where if had occurred in an April edition, you might think you were being pranked for April Fools. The drawing certainly has the characteristics of a Rube Goldberg creation...

Electronics Printed on Paper Fully Recyclable

Electronics Printed on Paper Fully Recyclable - RF Cafe"Long-lasting devices written with carbon nanomaterial inks can be remade into new ones when their work is done. With a cocktail of carbon-based inks, engineers have made the first fully printable and recyclable electronic circuits on paper. The sturdy, high-performance devices last for months, and can be decomposed at the end to recover the carbon materials so they can be reused for printing. The recyclable carbon electronics are not meant to supplant silicon, says Aaron Franklin, an electrical and computer engineering professor at Duke University who reported the advance in Nature Electronics. Instead, this is a way to satisfy the thirst for ubiquitous, embedded electronics without sending enormous amounts of often toxic waste..."

How to Choose the Right Protection for Your Circuit

How to Choose the Right Protection for Your Circuit - RF CafeAnalog Devices' Diarmúid Carey has an interesting article on the Electronic Design website entitled, "How to Choose the Right Protection for Your Circuit." This seemingly simple subject often requires a thorough review of potential unintended consequences of overprotecting or underprotecting a circuit that can be subject to a wide range of environments. He begins "Protection subsystems often can inhibit innovation in terms of performance. Devices such as surge stoppers and protection controllers avoid having to implement bulky TVS diodes, and thus help overcome those design challenges. Manufacturers in all industries constantly push cutting-edge performance while trying to balance such innovation against tried-and-true robust solutions. Designers are faced with the difficult task of balancing design complexity, reliability, and cost. One subsystem in particular, electronics protection, rebuffs moves to innovate due to its nature. These systems protect sensitive and expensive downstream electronic devices (FPGAs, ASICs, and microprocessors), requiring a zero-failure rate..."

Lamp Brightness Quiz

Lamp Brightness Quiz, January 1969 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is an electronics Lamp Brightness Quiz for you to try, compliments of Popular Electronics magazine. Intuition from experience goes a long way here, but if all else fails you can work out the details of the rectifier circuits to determine which lamp received the most current. Keep in mind that the diode symbols are not LEDs; it is the 'A,' 'B,' and 'C' symbols inside circles that are the lamps whose brightnesses are being considered. LEDs did exist at the time this quiz was created in 1969, but the circuits would perform differently if in fact LEDs were used for double duty of rectification and illumination. Good luck...

Teledyne Storm Test Leads Offer Extended Life: Storm-Test™

Teledyne Storm Unveils New Cable Family of Test Leads Offering Extended Useful Life: Storm-Test™ - RF CafeTeledyne Storm Microwave announces a new cable product line for Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) test leads and other interconnect testing, Storm-Test™, designed to extend a test lead's useful life while delivering phase stability, critical in precision manufacturing environments where measurement accuracy must be maintained with repeated use over months and years. The Storm-Test series of test leads expands Storm's comprehensive portfolio of cable solutions for test and measurement applications, which includes Accu-Test®, Duratest™, and True Blue®. The new Storm-Test 50 GHz expands the frequency and phase stability performance offered by Storm test cables...

Many Thanks to Electro-Photonics for Their Continued Support

Electro-PhotonicsElectro-Photonics is a global supplier of RF & Microwave components. Their products include SMT hybrid and directional couplers, wire bondable passive components, mounting tabs, filters, transmission lines, and very useful test boards for evaluating components (spiral inductors, single-layer capacitors). The Electro-Photonics team can support your small R&D design requirements with RF & Microwave test fixtures and save you valuable design and characterization time. Please take a moment to visit Electro-Photonics' website and see how your project might benefit.

Tuesday the 11th

Civilian Radio Jobs Wanted - Free Want-Ad Service

Civilian Radio Jobs Wanted - Free Want-Ad Service, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeWhile everyone greatly welcomed the ending of World War II, in its wake was a huge number of people that would be in need of jobs. Many thousands of men had been trained in the field of electronics maintenance and hope to exploit those skills in doing service work in radio, television, industrial controls, and other related fields. Other planned to go into sales, or a combination of both. Some had been in the business prior to either volunteering or getting drafted into the war, but not all could expect to simply pick up where they had left off. In order to assist the country's servicemen in transitioning into civilian life, Radio-Craft magazine provided a free service where individuals could list their qualifications, along with contact information - effectively an abbreviated resume posting venue...

New for 2021! RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Stencils are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

The Electrical Circuit Diagram

The Electrical Circuit Diagram, Basic Navy Training Courses, NAVPERS 10622, Chapter 4 - RF CafeWhile listening to the radio the other day, I heard a guy who is very technically astute and is a Ham radio operator pronounce the word "schematic" as "skem-E'-at-ik." He wasn't just joking because he kept saying it that way throughout the show. It came to mind while posting this chapter entitled, "The Electrical Circuit Diagram," and I thought you might appreciate it (especially if you also routinely mispronounce the word). But I digress... The U.S. Navy over the years has produced a number of series of training courses for electricity, communications, mechanics, navigation, etc., that are held in high regard by the military and private industry. Graduates of the courses who served a term of enlistment performing equipment maintenance have always been preferred by employers looking for high quality technicians...

LadyBug - Here We Grow (and Move) Again!

LadyBug - Here We Grow (and Move) Again! - RF CafeExciting things are happening at LadyBug Technologies and we want to share some important news with you. Loyalty from customers like you has fueled continued growth, making a move to a larger facility necessary. This is our third move in response to consistent growth since our inception. With this move, we double our space, allowing additional product design engineers and manufacturing employees. One of the main reasons for our expansion is the demand for new products. We are adding 2 members to our engineering team at the time of the move and plan to add additional personnel shortly thereafter. We plan to deliver new products at a significantly faster pace. This includes our new small form factor measurement system with wide bandwidth pulse measurement capability. This is just one of many exciting developments. Look for additional news about us in the future...

Congress to Designate National Amateur Radio Operators Day

Congress to Designate National Amateur Radio Operators Day - RF Cafe"The U.S. Congress is reportedly taking steps to officially recognize the important contributions made by amateur radio operators. According to an article on the website of the ARRL, Congresswoman Debbie Lesko (AZ) has introduced a bipartisan resolution to designate April 18, 2022 as National Amateur Radio Operators Day. April 18th is the anniversary of the founding of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) which was established in 1925. The resolution cites the Amateur Radio Emergency Service for providing 'invaluable emergency communications services following recent natural disasters, including, but not limited to, helping coordinate disaster relief efforts following Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Maria and other extreme weather disasters.' Lesko had introduced a similar bill last year..."

Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

Kirt's Cogitations #215: Disruptive Disruptions

Kirt's Cogitations #215: Disruptive Disruptions"Disruptive" is the early 21st century buzzword. Merely placing the adjective in the vicinity of any noun or phrase elevates the topic to a level reserved for only the most outside-of-the-box, ground-breaking, awe-inspiring events. Any technology described as disruptive, that is to say, as a "disruptive technology," is certain to cause a hush to fall across the room where it is introduced. Captains of industry are humbled at the announcement. Kings kneel in the presence of said disruptiveness. No amount of adulation, worship, exaltation and praise is sufficient to acknowledge its progenitor(s). Seriously, though, although the term "disruptive technology" is grossly overused, it is an accurate description of a technology that represents a concept so unique that it literally changes the direction of an industry. Consider these examples in history...

Monday the 10th

FM Carrier Stabilization

FM Carrier Stabilization, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeHere is another instance of an article which, if it had been in an April magazine issue, you might be justified in thinking it might be a gag. "FM Carrier Stabilization," a 1946 Radio-Craft feature, centers around the use of a General Electric (GE) GL−2H21 "Phasitron" vacuum tube. Be assured that it is a real component, developed to address the difficulties in achieving frequency modulation (FM) requirements set forth by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) at what was really the dawn of the FM commercial broadcast radio era. Only a little over a decade had passed since Major Armstrong announced his broadband FM invention, and radio stations were planning to adopt the superior (to AM) form of broadcasting at a rapid rate, following the end of World War II. The Phasitron was GE's solution to the problem of maintaining the average...

Broadest Frequency Range Detected with Quantum Receiver

Broadest Frequency Range Detected with Quantum Receiver - RF Cafe"A new quantum sensor can analyze the full spectrum of radio-frequency and real-world signals, unleashing new potential for soldier communications, spectrum awareness, and electronic warfare. Army researchers built the quantum sensor, which can sample the radio-frequency spectrum - from zero frequency up to 20 GHz - and detect AM and FM radio, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and other communication signals. HOW IT WORKS The Rydberg sensor uses laser beams to create highly excited Rydberg atoms directly above a microwave circuit to boost and home in on the portion of the spectrum being measured. The Rydberg atoms are sensitive to the circuit's voltage, enabling..."

The River Sniffer

Carl and Jerry, The River Sniffer, July 1962 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn "The River Sniffer," our intrepid sleuthing heroes Carl and Jerry, the creation of John T. Frye, apply their electronics prowess and lessons remembered from chemistry class at Parvoo University in order to catch polluters who are dumping chemicals into the river where they like to fish. I always like being reminded of something long forgotten when reading an article from vintage magazines like this 1962 issue of Popular Electronics, and this one did not disappoint. Do you recall what 'pH' stands for as a measure acidity or alkalinity? It means 'potential Hydrogen ion concentration.' Don't thank me if it jogged your memory as well - thank Carl and Jerry...

RF Cascade Workbook 2018

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

Antenova's Free Tool to Optimise PCB Antenna Placement

Antenova Offers Free Tool to Optimise Antenna Placement on a PCB - RF CafeAntenova Ltd, the UK-based manufacturer of antennas and RF antenna modules for M2M and the Internet of Things, has created a new software tool to help designers place antennas in a wireless design. The tool displays the optimum position for embedded antennas on the PCB, depending upon the dimensions of the PCB and the specifications of the antennas. It places each individual antenna on the PCB in the best location for signal strength. Antenova has developed this tool to assist product designers who do not have access to antenna skills in-house. The tool should help designers to place the antenna in the best position early in the design process and achieve a working wireless design more easily. It can be used for one single antenna, or up to three antennas...

IEEE Webinar: "RF Exposure in the Time of Conspiracies" on May 12th

Break out the tinfoil hats and get set to attend the IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR) webinar entitled, "RF Exposure in the Time of Conspiracies." The 1-hour event is set to get under way at 1800 UTC on Wednesday, May 12. COMAR is a group of experts on health and safety issues related to electromagnetic fields, from power line through microwave frequency ranges. Its primary focus is on biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. "The real idea behind the webinar is to highlight some of the news articles, comments, etc. that purport to declare the hazardous nature of exposure to weak RF fields, such as those posed by new 5G wireless communications base stations, explain how they are not scientifically based and, possibly, some ideas on how to better communicate what we really know about potential health effects," said COMAR chair Ric Tell, K5UJU.

Please Visit NorthEast RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

NorthEast RF - RF CafeNorthEast RF's comprehensive antenna testing services include linear | circular polarized antenna measurements and OTA cellular device pre-compliance. Up to 18" diameter and <10 kg weight. Antennas can be rapidly evaluated and optimized using our fast near field spherical system. Test results supplied in data file with pattern viewer software. A picture of the test configuration is included to help aligned axis. Our selection of human head and hand phantoms are ideal for verification of body worn devices. Turnaround time is usually 3-days.

Sunday the 9th

Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th

Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th has many words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. Also, it contains at least six (6) instances of this puzzle's theme word. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF Systems - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

  
   

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