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Homepage Archive - January 2021 (page 3)

See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 of the January 2021 homepage archives.

Thursday the 21st

Radio Lands the Plane

Radio Lands the Plane, August 1938 Radio News - RF CafeConsidering that only three-and-a-half decades had passed since the brothers Wright first flew their eponymous "Flyer" off the sands of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, it is pretty impressive to think that by 1938 the majority of commercial air transport planes were under the able control of electromechanical apparatus(es?). Rudder, elevator, aileron, and throttle, driven by electrical servomechanisms rather than human hands and feet, responded to the signals to analog computers fed data from onboard barometer, accelerometer, level, and compass sensors, and from ground-based radio directional beams. That was for mostly straight and level flight from one fixed waypoint to another. An ability to program vectored flight paths came later. This "Radio Lands the Plane" article discusses progress being made in the realm of completely automated landings. As can be seen, the framework for modern instrument landings systems was being laid...

Withwave Intros 2.92 mm to SMPM Adapter Series (DC to 40 GHz)

Withwave Intros 2.92 mm to SMPM Adapter Series (DC to 40 GHz) - RF CafeWithwave's precision 2.92 mm to SMPM mm Adapter Series are designed based on precision microwave interconnection technologies. These adapter series are manufactured to precise microwave specifications and constructed with male and female gender on both side. The precision microwave connector interfaces ensure an excellent microwave performance up to 40 GHz. VSWR is 1.2:1 (max), M-M, M-F, F-F, F-M interface combinations, passivated stainless steel body. Useful in laboratory and productions test setups, prototyping, and production interconnections...

Electronic Devices Printed Using Graphene Inkjet Process

Next-Gen Electronic Devices Printed Using Graphene-Based Inkjet Process - Airplanes and Rockets"A team at the University of Nottingham used graphene, a material with high electrical conductivity, in an ink-jet printing process to build up mesh together electronic structures that can perform functions such as converting light into electricity. Related: New 2D Materials Show Promise for Future Electronic Devices The approach demonstrates a new way to use the material for 3D printing processes as well as provides insight into the design of next-generation electronic devices, researchers said. Led by Professor Mark Fromhold, head of the university's School of Physics and Astronomy, the team used quantum mechanical modeling to identify how electronics move through 2D-material layers..."

Microwaves Part II: Generation of Microwaves

Microwaves Part II: Generation of Microwaves, August 1945, Radio-Craft - RF CafeThe Barkhausen-Kurz (B-K) oscillator is credited as being the first high power microwave generator that exploited the electron transit time effect. It was developed in 1920 by German physicists Heinrich Georg Barkhausen and Karl Kurz. As this article's author points out, the vacuum tube and supporting circuits were difficult to produce and were not very well understood theoretically. Shortly thereafter, the magnetron and klystron tubes came along and dominated the high power microwave generation realm. Included in Part II of "Microwave - Generation of Microwaves" is a good, brief explanation of the operation of both B-K and magnetron circuits...

Get Your Custom-Designed RF Cafe Gear!

Custom-Designed RF-Themed Cups, T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks (Cafe Press) - RF CafeThis assortment of custom-designed themes by RF Cafe includes T-Shirts, Mouse Pads, Clocks, Tote Bags, Coffee Mugs and Steins, Purses, Sweatshirts, and Baseball Caps. Choose from amazingly clever "We Are the World's Matchmakers" Smith chart design or the "Engineer's Troubleshooting Flow Chart." My "Matchmaker's" design has been ripped off by other people and used on their products, so please be sure to purchase only official RF Cafe gear. My markup is only a paltry 50¢ per item - Cafe Press gets the rest of your purchase price. These would make excellent gifts for husbands, wives, kids, significant others, and for handing out at company events or as rewards for excellent service. It's a great way to help support RF Cafe. Thanks...

Please Visit Anatech in Appreciation of Their Support!

Anatech Electronics logo - RF CafeAnatech Electronics (AEI) manufactures and supplies RF and microwave filters for military and commercial communication systems, providing standard LP, HP, BP, BS, notch, diplexer, and custom RF filters, and RF products. Standard RF filter and cable assembly products are published in our website database for ease of procurement. Custom RF filters designs are used when a standard cannot be found, or the requirements dictate a custom approach for your military and commercial communications needs. Sam Benzacar's monthly newsletters address contemporary wireless subjects. Please visit Anatech today to see how they can help your project succeed. 

Wednesday the 20th

Microwaves Part I - Introductory and General

Microwaves Part I - Introductory and General, July 1945 Radio & Television News - RF CafeIn 1945 when this series was published in Radio-Craft magazine, microwaves were pretty much the realm of corporate and university research laboratories and - often coincidentally - secret Department of War projects. Radar was the primary application, although some work was being done on high bandwidth communications by the aforementioned entities, in some cases following in the footsteps of amateur radio operator's discoveries about how the higher frequencies were affected by the ionized layers of the Earth's atmosphere. Immediately following the end of World War II, the government began declassifying a lot of information learned about microwave, and magazines were fast to pick up on it. In fact, there were instances where editors saw fit to write columns asserting their right to do so when criticisms were heaped upon them by readers accusing them of divulging critical security-related...

Axiom Blog: Welcome the New Year by Upgrading Your Test Gear

Axiom Blog: Welcome the New Year by Upgrading Your Test Gear - RF CafeAxiom Test Equipment, an electronic test equipment rental and sales company has published a new blog post entitled "Welcome the New Year by Upgrading Test Gear," that tells you how to determine when it's time to upgrade your test equipment. Learn about the different opportunities and think about what requirements you have coming up in order to recognize the right time and equipment to upgrade. Test instrument upgrades provide opportunities for improvement: to make up for what is missing in an instrument or test setup, be it measurement speed, accuracy, bandwidth, sensitivity, resolution, even more measurement channels. Other times, equipment becomes obsolete and prompts an upgrade to newer equipment that is still supported by the manufacturer or gives you increased performance...

BAE Systems Developing Weapon Data Link Radio for Hypersonic Weapons - RF Cafe"U.S. military researchers needed a weapon data link radio to help steer hypersonic weapons to their targets. Officials of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in Arlington, Va., announced a $4 million contract to BAE Systems last month to develop two weapon data link prototypes for test and integration of the future hypersonic Tactical Boost Glide (TBG) vehicle. The TBG program is a joint DARPA and U.S. Air Force effort to develop technologies for future air-launched, tactical-range hypersonic boost glide systems. Boost glide uses a rocket to accelerate a weapon payload to high speeds, after which the payload then separates from the rocket and glides unpowered to its destination..."

It's a Man's Job Behind That Microphone

It's a Man's Job Behind That Microphone, April 1932 Radio News - RF CafeThe old-time radio broadcasts available on the Internet are obviously recorded version of shows made long ago. However, back in the day those shows were originally performed live in front of microphones and recorded in a broadcast studio. With a cast of two or three or even more, the actors would voice their lines with as much talent and effort as those performing for movies. The crew usually included a group of people responsible for creating background sound effects like horses running, car horns tooting, airplanes buzzing by, and dogs barking. All was done real-time with split-second timing required to pull it off and sound convincing. Radio audiences were unaware of all the work required as they sat intently listening to the Adventures of the Lone Ranger and The Shadow. Behind the scenes were dozens of engineers and technicians tending local radio broadcasting equipment and all-important telephone landlines used for synchronizing stations across the country...

Triad RF Systems Ends 2020 with Record Results

Triad RF Systems Ends 2020 with Record Results - RF CafeTriad is pleased to announce that it continued to outperform revenue projections in the second half of 2020. The year's record-high revenue and orders were driven by the company's rapidly growing reputation as a premier supplier of feature-rich, ultra-efficient radios, RF/microwave bi-directional amplifiers, custom multi-functional amplifier systems, CubeSat frequency converters and amplifiers and wideband amplification for EW and counter UAS systems. Triad delivered some of the highest data-rates and longest-range ISR wireless links available for Unmanned Land, Sea, and Air Systems this year. Triad achieved several financial and operational goals in 2020 and positioned itself for future growth with the introduction of its new line of amplified radios, investment in operations, and the addition of key team members...

Many Thanks to Res-Net Microwave for Continuing Support!

Res-Net Microwave Components - RF CafeRes-Net Microwave has a complete line of precision RF & microwave components including attenuators, terminations, resistors, and diode detectors for commercial, military, and space applications. Products range from the small flange type to large 2,000 watt connectorized power attenuators and/or terminations at frequencies up to 26.5 GHz. In-house photo etch and laser trim capability. The company is a leader in development and production of the films required for these type of RF/microwave components. Please check out Res-Net Microwave's website to see how they can help with your current project.

Tuesday the 19th

Electric Space Ships

Electric Space Ships, January 1951 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeWe've all heard of a Van de Graaff (Robert J.) electrostatic generator, but have you heard of a Wommelsdorf (Heinrich) generator (aka influence machine)? I hadn't prior to reading this article entitled "Electric Space Ships" from a 1951 issue of Radio-Electronics magazine. It took careful reading to get my head around the propulsion scheme detailed by Professor Hermann. At first I thought he was describing electric propulsion, but in fact his machine uses electrical energy generated from the sun to accelerate some form of liquid propellant via static electric charges. Therefore, this is not a system capable of indefinitely sustaining itself and its payload (which includes human inhabitants). In fact, the good professor proposes a geostationary refueling station above the Earth...

Bound-Charge Engineering: Developing Nanowire Transistors

Bound-Charge Engineering: A New Strategy to Develop Nanowire Transistors - RF Cafe"In recent years, physicists and electronic engineers have been trying to identify materials that could be used to fabricate new types of electronic devices. 1-D and 2-D materials have been found to have particularly advantageous characteristics, particularly for the development of new generations of nanoelectronics (electronic components at the nano scale). Such 1-D and 2-D materials, such as graphene, monolayer molybdenum disulfide, silicon nanowires and silicon nanosheets, could also play a crucial role within the semiconductor industry, as they could help to develop increasingly small transistors. Despite their well-documented advantages, emerging low-dimensional materials can have a relatively small amount of so-called free charges compared to 3-D materials. In the context of electronic components, a free charge is an electron or hole..."

Lead RF Design Engineer Needed by Copper Mountain Technologies

/2021/rf-design-engineer-copper-mountain-technologies-lead-1-18-2021.htm" target="_top"> Lead RF Design Engineer Needed by Copper Mountain Technologies - RF CafeCopper Mountain Technologies (CMT) is seeking a /2021/rf-design-engineer-copper-mountain-technologies-lead-1-18-2021.htm" target="_top"> Lead RF Design Engineer to develop new VNAs for customers all over the world. Our USB VNAs are next generation analyzers designed to meet the needs of 21st Century engineers. Our VNAs include an RF measurement module and a processing module, a software application which runs on a Windows or Linux PC, connecting to the measurement hardware via USB interface. The Lead RF Design Engineer will lead a team of engineers developing new USB VNAs, meeting new customer requirements, and evolving current product line. This individual will work closely with product management, manufacturing and other engineering teams to ensure delivery of quality solutions to customers. Take this opportunity to join a great company. Preferred location for this position...

Censorship vs. Radio Progress

Censorship vs. Radio Progress, December 1942 Radio-Craft - RF CafeHaving spent a lot of my career working for defense electronics companies in classified programs, I am somewhat torn between sympathizing with Hugo Gernsback from his perspective as editor of Radio-Craft and what I know is a valid reason for guarding certain technological information for the sake of military advantage. It is often the case that people who have had no exposure to the 'black' side of industry cannot appreciate the need for it. Their argument postulates that suppressing knowledge does more harm than good because an opportunity for more people to gain from breakthroughs will result in more rapid advancement in technology While that is true, the downside is that the enemy rarely feels obliged to reciprocate in the same manner, and will exploit your generosity...

Skyworks & ASUS Launch World's 1st Ultra-Fast Wi-Fi 6E Router

Skyworks Partners with ASUS to Launch World's First Ultra-Fast Wi-Fi 6E Extended Band Router - RF CafeSkyworks Solutions, an innovator of high-performance analog semiconductors connecting people, places and things, today announced that its high-performance Wi-Fi 6E front-end modules are featured on the world's first ultra-fast Wi-Fi 6E gaming router from ASUS. Utilizing the FCC's newly allocated 6~7 GHz extended band to double the capacity of traditional Wi-Fi, the Wi-Fi 6E standard enables faster connectivity and supports an increased number of connected users meeting the unprecedented demand for increased video conferencing, online gaming, streaming TV, AR/VR, home security cameras and online exercise apps. An established leader in the networking market, ASUS is the first to deliver the increased and wider bandwidth 160 MHz channels of Wi-Fi 6E with its ROG Rapture GT-AXE11000 gaming router...

Please Thank Centric RF for Continued Support!

Centric RF microwave components - RF CafeCentric RF is a company offering from stock various RF and Microwave coaxial components, including attenuators, adapters, cable assemblies, terminations, power dividers, and more. We believe in offering high performance parts from stock at a reasonable cost. Frequency ranges of 0-110 GHz at power levels from 0.5-500 watts are available off the shelf. Order today, ship today! Centric RF is currently looking for vendors to partner with them. Please visit Centric RF today.

Monday the 18th

National Union Radio Corporation Tubes

National Union Radio Corporation, March 1944 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"Necessity is the mother of invention," is an oft-heard maxim that is validated continually. Such was the case, as pointed out here in this National Union Radio Corporation ad which appeared in a 1944 issue of Radio-Craft magazine. The development of many new metal alloys was required in order to obtain the kind of performance and reliability needed in ever-evolving electronics products. Already available metals for filaments, coils, grid wires, getters, electron guns and many other constituents of vacuum tubes that are subject to high temperatures (many hundreds of degrees) and mechanical conditions (unequal coefficients of expansion, for example, which can cause stress fractures), were not sufficient for the task. Metallurgists had their work cut out for them...

Empower RF Systems Intros Rugged L-Band Satcom Uplink SSPA

Empower RF Systems Intros Rugged L-Band SSPA for Satcom Uplink - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems' tactical up-armored Model 2224 is a compact SSPA operating from 1 to 2 GHz, delivering 150 Watts CW output. The amplifier includes a fast Tx/Rx switch and is designed for rugged outdoor and tactical deployment of data com links. The all-weather heavy duty NEMA 4 enclosure houses a complete amplifier system using our Next Generation architecture so all the local and remote control, monitoring, protections and user remote GUI are identical to our COTS rack systems. The 2224 comes complete with internal directional coupler, internal forward and reverse power sampling and an easy to use remote web GUI. In depth health monitoring can be viewed remotely and pushed out via the Ethernet port...

Promote Your Company on RF Cafe for as Little as $40/mo.

Sponsor RF Cafe for as Little as $40 per Month - RF CafeRF Cafe typically receives 8,000-15,000 website visits each weekday and about half that on weekends. RF Cafe is a favorite of engineers, technicians, hobbyists, and students all over the world. With more than 13,000 pages in the Google search index, RF Cafe returns in favorable positions on many types of key searches, both for text and images. New content is added on a daily basis, which keeps the major search engines interested enough to spider it multiple times each day. Items added on the homepage often can be found in a Google search within a few hours of being posted. I also re-broadcast homepage items on LinkedIn. If you need your company news to be seen, RF Cafe is the place to be. Advertising begins at $40/month.

An Experimental Station on Wheels

An Experimental Station on Wheels, July 1935 QST - RF CafeThe high-tech vehicle you see here was state-of-the-art in 1935 when engineers at the Cruft Laboratory at Harvard University outfitted it to do radio research. The story appeared in QST magazine. The mission of the mobile unit is to enable laboratory equipment to be carried into the field to make observations on various radio phenomena. Clad with copper and chromium fittings, the vehicle contained transmitting and receiving equipment along with various test equipment that included a high stability frequency reference. In the article a "tungar" charger is mentioned. A tungar vacuum tube is a high current rectifier with a tungsten element and an argon gas filler...

Identifying Common vs. Differential Mode Noise

Optimizing EMI Input Filters for Switched Mode Power Supplies - RF CafeRhode & Schwarz has published a whitepaper entitled "Optimizing EMI Input Filters for Switched Mode Power Supplies," which includes an interesting analysis of differential mode versus common mode noise. "The conducted emissions of the converter where no filter components are applied is shown in Fig. 4-1. The top part of the measurement window illustrates the differential noise emissions (M1) whereas the bottom window shows the common mode noise (M2). The math which is required to distinguish between the two modes is set in the math channel menu and visible on the right. The time domain signals are not shown in detail in the main window because the frequency domain is the focus in this case study..."

Please Welcome NextPCB as a New RF Cafe Supporter!

NextPCB - RF CafeNextPCB is one of the most experienced PCB manufacturers in China, has specialized in the PCB and assembly industry for over 15 years. NextPCB provides the most innovative printed circuit boards and assembly technologies in the highest quality standards, turnaround time as fast as 24 hours, the lowest manufacturer direct prices, and the most dedicated customer service in the industry. Turnkey service without a broker including components sourcing, PCB prototyping, manufacturing, assembly, quality testing, and final shipment. Certified by IATF16949, ISO9001, ISO14001, UL, CQC, RoHS and REACH.

Sunday the 17th

Radio Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 17th

Radio Technology Theme Crossword Puzzle for January 17th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Radio Technology Theme crossword puzzle for January 17th contains only words and clues related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

Friday the 15th

Biggest "Portable" Radio

Biggest "Portable" Radio, July 1945 Radio-Craft - RF Cafe"Portable" is a matter of perspective when it comes to large systems. Anything that can be put on wheels and moved over land is technically portable, but the speed at which it can be brought into operation once relocated is what really defines whether something is portable or not. To be truly portable, all of the requisite support equipment must travel with it; e.g., electric generators, fuel, water, food, personnel facilities (if needed), etc. The MPN-14 portable airport surveillance radar (ASR) and precision approach radar (PAR) unit I worked on in the USAF truly qualified since it was entirely self-contained and the necessary power generators were supplied by a separate shop within the 5th Combat Communications Group to which I belonged. Other shops provided creature comfort facilities, ground-based and satellite radio communications, tactical air navigation (TACAN), security, and managerial services. A few times each year we had what were called "Healthy Strikes" where claxons would sound in the barracks...

CMT Webinar: Materials Measurement at 5G Frequencies

Copper Mountain Technologies Master Class Webinar: Materials Measurement at 5G Frequencies - RF CafeOn Wednesday, January 20th at 2:00 PM EST (GMT -5:00), Copper Mountain Technologies will present another of its VNA Master Class Webinar series entitled "Materials Measurement at 5G Frequencies." This webinar will demonstrate the use of free-space spot probes to characterize materials at 20 to 40 GHz, of interest to new 5G millimeter wave frequencies. A table-top measurement system using CMT's S5243 VNA will be used to determine transmission and/or reflection of materials. From these measurements, the webinar will discuss the calculation of dielectric properties of measured materials. The agenda consists of free space measurement description, example measurements & dielectric calculation and a Q&A session at the end...

Why Radio Astronomers Need Quiet in a WA Desert

Why Radio Astronomers Need Quiet in a WA Desert - RF CafeHa, I thought WA referred to Washington state, but not so. It's a good thing because I was going to accuse them of using a phony photo that includes the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds which are not visible from Washington! "A remote outback station about 800 km north of Perth in Western Australia is one of the best places in the world to operate telescopes that listen for radio signals from space. It's the site of CSIRO's Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) and is home to three telescopes (and soon a fourth when half of the Square Kilometre Array, the world's largest radio telescope, is built there). But it's important these telescopes don't pick up any other radio signals generated here on Earth that could interfere with their observations. That's why the observatory was set up with strict rules on what can and can't be used on site..."

Hi Tide in the Tweeter

Hi Tide in the Tweeter, October 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeBefore the current generation began destroying its hearing with smartphone earbuds, their parents and grandparents (that includes mine) destroyed our hearing with ridiculously powerful loudspeakers, often in boom boxes perched on shoulders right next to the ears (not me). The "concert hall" - or concert auditorium - experience has been long sought-after since recorded music has been available, which has only been about a century. As evidenced by the sudden increase in articles and advertisements in my growing collection of vintage electronics magazines, the early and mid 1950s saw a sudden swell of articles promoting the equally swelling supply of high fidelity (hi-fi) recording and playback equipment hitting the markets. Subjects ranging from homebuilt projects to reports of top end commercially products filled the pages each month. Television saw the same treatment in the late 1950s and early 1960s. All, of course, relied on vacuum tubes - with just enough relatively expensive semiconductors...

Qorvo Unleashes Full 6 GHz Performance with New Wi-Fi 6E FEMs

Qorvo® Unleashes Full 6 GHz Performance with New Wi-Fi 6E FEMs - RF CafeQorvo, a leading provider of innovative solutions that connect and power the world, today introduced two Wi-Fi 6E front end modules (FEMs) designed to maximize throughput and range in high-bandwidth applications such as 8K video streaming, online gaming and virtual reality. Wi-Fi 6E is an extension of Wi-Fi 6 that operates in the recently opened 6 GHz frequency band, in addition to the traditional 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. Wi-Fi 6E triples Wi-Fi capacity with contiguous spectrum to accommodate 7 additional 160 MHz-wide channels or 14 additional 80 MHz channels. Qorvo's Wi-Fi 6E FEMs unleash the full potential of this new spectrum, delivering leading linearity performance and maximizing throughput and capacity at peak permissible indoor power levels. The Qorvo QPF4656 and QPF4632 deliver robust and rugged performance with world-class energy...

Thanks to ConductRF for Long-Time Support!

ConductRF coaxial cables & connectors - RF CafeConductRF is continually innovating and developing new and improved solutions for RF Interconnect needs. See the latest TESTeCON RF Test Cables for labs. ConductRF makes production and test coax cable assemblies for amplitude and phased matched VNA applications as well as standard & precision RF connectors. Over 1,000 solutions for low PIM in-building to choose from in the iBwave component library. They also provide custom coax solutions for applications where some standard just won't do. A partnership with Newark assures fast, reliable access. Please visit ConductRF today to see how they can help your project! 

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