Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Alliance Test Equipment Centric RF Empower RF ISOTEC Reactel RF Connector Technology San Francisco Circuits Anritsu Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products KR Filters LadyBug Technologies Rigol TotalTemp Technologies Werbel Microwave Windfreak Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Withwave RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines RF Cafe Software WhoIs entry for RF Cafe.com Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
Anatech Electronics RF Microwave Filters - RF Cafe

Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe

everythingRF RF & Microwave Parts Database (h1)

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low−priced products, all of which I created.

RF Cascade Workbook for Excel

RF & Electronics Symbols for Visio

RF & Electronics Symbols for Office

RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

RF Workbench

T-Shirts, Mugs, Cups, Ball Caps, Mouse Pads

These Are Available for Free

Espresso Engineering Workbook™

Smith Chart™ for Excel

RF Electronics Shapes, Stencils for Office, Visio by RF Cafe

Evolution of an Integrated Circuit
June 1966 Radio-Electronics

June 1966 Radio-Electronics

June 1966 Radio-Electronics Cover - RF Cafe[Table of Contents]

Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles from Radio-Electronics, published 1930-1988. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.

The first time I ever saw a silicon boule was in my semiconductor physics course at the University of Vermont, circa 1989. For some reason that class gave me trouble. I got a B+ grade, but that was after spending an inordinate amount of time with it. Energy level diagrams, doping, and the equations behind them never quite found a good home in my gray matter. Fortunately, the world has not missed my participation in semiconductor development. When this "Evolution of an Integrated Circuit" article appeared in Radio-Electronics magazine in 1966, germanium was still a fairly large player in the semiconductor world. Silicon began to overtake germanium as the primary semiconductor material in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Germanium was the first material used to create transistors in the 1940s, but it had some limitations, such as its high sensitivity to temperature and its low ability to amplify signals. Silicon, on the other hand, had better electrical properties and was more stable, making it a more practical material for creating electronic devices.

Evolution of an Integrated Circuit

Microcircuits are probably the hottest news in electronics this month, especially since they are being introduced as low-cost items available through ordinary distribution channels. This accessibility should speed their use in consumer products and trigger a raft of experimenters' projects. Here is how IC's are manufactured in quantity - the best way to lower their prices.

Photos courtesy Fairchild Semiconductor Div.

Integrated circuit begins same as other semiconductors: ingot of monocrystalline silicon - RF Cafe

Integrated circuit begins same as other semiconductors: ingot of monocrystalline silicon, "grown" at 1425°C (melt point) in oxygen-free atmosphere.

Diffusion steps in IC fabrication - RF Cafe

Diffusion steps in IC fabrication:

After the first diffusion, following step is to deposit a crystal layer over entire silicon slice. A smooth epitaxial layer is produced this way.

Next, isolation diffusions - to keep electronic signals from leaking from one segment to another - are developed in the integrated chip.

Other diffusion steps develop a number of transistors, diodes, and resistors. Each element is an integral part of original chip.

Still more steps are needed in the diffusion process to complete development of circuit portions. Result is a chip full of active elements.

Evaporation apparatus like this is used for depositing interconnects - RF Cafe

Evaporation apparatus like this is used for depositing interconnects.

IC chips are soldered to headers - RF Cafe

IC chips are soldered to headers, and thin connecting wires are welded from the bonding points on each integrated-circuit chip to the termination points on the headers. There are different shapes of headers, depending on what style of final packaging is to be used for the integrated microcircuit. Girl above is moving integrated-circuit chip into position for spot-welding the tiny wire leads to the bonding pads at the outer perimeter of the chip - a delicate task that requires of the assembly operator precision, especial care and coordination.

Flat package is already finding considerable use in computers - RF Cafe

... of the TO-5 variety. The flat package is already finding considerable use in computers, and will undoubtedly be put into consumer products when micro-circuits become available that need the additional connections. As you can see from the preceding photographs, the means for producing cheap microcircuits is already available. It now remains only for the designers to develop new IC's and ways to use them in consumer goods.

Slices of silicon are coated with a layer of photosensitive material and exposed to ultra-violet light  - RF Cafe

Slices of silicon are coated with a layer of photosensitive material and exposed to ultra-violet light passing through a mask. The patterns which are thus impressed on the silicon substrate form shapes which will then be etched away, leaving behind areas for the many diffusions that are part of the manufacturing process. Mask alignment is simplified by projection-type magnifying viewers shown being used here in IC production.

Diffusion is in quartz-tube furnaces - RF Cafe

Diffusion is in quartz-tube furnaces. Special gases react with the silicon material to create the desired electrical qualities in the chip.

Metallic deposits over and among elements link IC components - RF Cafe

Metallic deposits over and among elements link IC components.

Finished chips rest in honeycomb-like carrier awaiting packaging - RF Cafe

Finished chips rest in honeycomb-like carrier awaiting packaging.

Powerful microscope for viewing, and special equipment for handling - RF Cafe

Powerful microscope for viewing, and special equipment for handling, make final assembly job easier for workers.

Familiar TO-5 transistor can - RF Cafe

The familiar TO-5 transistor can is frequently used as housing for IC's, This packaging is ordinarily merely for convenience in mounting, since a typical integrated circuit chip is tiny in comparison; if there were room for leads, a dozen IC's could be enclosed in a single TO-5 package. The one pictured above is an epoxy-plastic housing placed over a ceramic base. In quantities, integrated circuits in these package types can be sold for considerably less than $5. The "dual-in-line" at right was developed for handling IC's whose lead requirements are greater than can be adapted easily to a package. ...

 

 

Posted April 5, 2023

RF Electronics Shapes, Stencils for Office, Visio by RF Cafe
Werbel Microwave (power dividers, couplers)

Axiom Test Equipment - RF Cafe

Cafe Press