2010 
Andre Geim and
Konstantin Novoselov 
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the twodimensional
material graphene" 
2009 
Charles K. Kao 
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission
of light in fibers for optical communication" 
2009 
Willard S. Boyle and
George E. Smith 
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit –
the CCD sensor" 
2008 
Makoto Kobayashi and
Toshihide Maskawa 
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry
which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks
in nature" 
2008 
Yoichiro Nambu 
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken
symmetry in subatomic physics" 
2007 
Albert Fert and
Peter Grünberg 
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance" 
2006 
John C. Mather and
George F. Smoot 
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy
of the cosmic microwave background radiation" 
2005 
Roy J. Glauber 
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

2005 
John L. Hall and
Theodor W. Hänsch 
"for their contributions to the development of laserbased
precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb
technique" 
2004 
David J. Gross,
H. David Politzer, and
Frank Wilczek 
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of
the strong interaction" 
2003 
Alexei A. Abrikosov,
Vitaly L. Ginzburg, and
Anthony J. Leggett 
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors
and superfluids" 
2002 
Raymond Davis Jr. and
Masatoshi Koshiba 
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular
for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" 
2002 
Riccardo Giacconi 
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have
led to the discovery of cosmic Xray sources" 
2001 
Eric A. Cornell,
Wolfgang Ketterle and
Carl E. Wieman 
"for the achievement of BoseEinstein condensation in dilute
gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of
the properties of the condensates" 
2000 
Zhores I. Alferov and
Herbert Kroemer 
"for basic work on information and communication technology"
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in highspeed
and optoelectronics" 
2000 
Jack S. Kilby 
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

1999 
Gerardus 't Hooft and
Martinus J.G. Veltman 
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions
in physics" 
1998 
Robert B. Laughlin,
Horst L. Störmer, and
Daniel C. Tsui 
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with
fractionally charged excitations" 
1997 
Steven Chu,
Claude CohenTannoudji, and
William D. Phillips 
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with
laser light" 
1996 
David M. Lee,
Douglas D. Osheroff, and
Robert C. Richardson 
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium3" 
1995 
Martin L. Perl and
Frederick Reines 
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
"for the discovery of the tau lepton" "for the detection of
the neutrino" 
1994 
Bertram N. Brockhouse and
Clifford G. Shull 
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron
scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" "for
the development of neutron spectroscopy" "for the development
of the neutron diffraction technique" 
1993 
Russell A. Hulse and
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. 
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery
that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

1992 
Georges Charpak 
"for his invention and development of particle detectors,
in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" 
1991 
PierreGilles de Gennes 
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order
phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex
forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

1990 
Jerome I. Friedman,
Henry W. Kendall and
Richard E. Taylor 
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic
scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which
have been of essential importance for the development of the
quark model in particle physics" 
1989 
Norman F. Ramsey,
Hans G. Dehmelt, and
Wolfgang Paul 
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method
and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" "for
the development of the ion trap technique" 
1988 
Leon M. Lederman,
Melvin Schwartz, and
Jack Steinberger 
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the
doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the
muon neutrino" 
1987 
J. Georg Bednorz and
K. Alex Müller 
"for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity
in ceramic materials" 
1986 
Ernst Ruska 
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the
design of the first electron microscope" 
1986 
Gerd Binnig and
Heinrich Rohrer 
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

1985 
Klaus von Klitzing 
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" 
1984 
Carlo Rubbia and
Simon van der Meer 
"for their decisive contributions to the large project,
which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators
of weak interaction" 
1983 
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar 
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of
importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" 
1983 
William A. Fowler 
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear
reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements
in the universe" 
1982 
Kenneth G. Wilson 
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with
phase transitions" 
1981 
Nicolaas Bloembergen and
Arthur L. Schawlow 
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

1981 
Kai M. Siegbahn 
"for his contribution to the development of highresolution
electron spectroscopy" 
1980 
James Cronin and
Val Fitch 
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry
principles in the decay of neutral Kmesons" 
1979 
Sheldon Glashow,
Abdus Salam, and
Steven Weinberg 
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak
and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles,
including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

1978 
Pyotr Kapitsa 
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of
lowtemperature physics" 
1978 
Arno Penzias and
Robert Woodrow Wilson 
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

1977 
Philip W. Anderson,
Sir Nevill F. Mott, and
John H. van Vleck 
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the
electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

1976 
Burton Richter and
Samuel C.C. Ting 
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary
particle of a new kind" 
1975 
Aage N. Bohr,
Ben R. Mottelson, and
James Rainwater 
"for the discovery of the connection between collective
motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development
of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on
this connection" 
1974 
Martin Ryle and
Antony Hewish 
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle
for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture
synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the
discovery of pulsars" 
1973 
Leo Esaki and
Ivar Giaever 
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling
phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

1973 
Brian D. Josephson 
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a
supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena
which are generally known as the Josephson effects" 
1972 
John Bardeen,
Leon N. Cooper and
Robert Schrieffer 
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity,
usually called the BCStheory" 
1971 
Dennis Gabor 
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

1970 
Hannes Alfvén and
Louis Néel 
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics
with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism
and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications
in solid state physics" 
1969 
Murray GellMann 
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification
of elementary particles and their interactions" 
1968 
Luis Alvarez 
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics,
in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states,
made possible through his development of the technique of using
hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" 
1967 
Hans Bethe 
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions,
especially his discoveries concerning the energy production
in stars" 
1966 
Alfred Kastler 
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for
studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" 
1965 
SinItiro Tomonaga,
Julian Schwinger, and
Richard P. Feynman 
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics,
with deepploughing consequences for the physics of elementary
particles" 
1964 
Charles H. Townes,
Nicolay G. Basov, and
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov 
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics,
which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers
based on the maserlaser principle" 
1963 
Eugene Wigner 
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus
and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery
and application of fundamental symmetry principles" 
1963 
Maria GoeppertMayer and
J. Hans D. Jensen 
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

1962 
Lev Landau 
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially
liquid helium" 
1961 
Robert Hofstadter 
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic
nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the
structure of the nucleons" 
1961 
Rudolf Mössbauer 
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption
of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the
effect which bears his name" 
1960 
Donald A. Glaser 
"for the invention of the bubble chamber" 
1959 
Emilio Segrè and
Owen Chamberlain 
"for their discovery of the antiproton" 
1958 
Pavel A. Cherenkov,
Il´ja M. Frank, and
Igor Y. Tamm 
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov
effect" 
1957 
Chen Ning Yang and
TsungDao Lee 
"for their penetrating investigation of the socalled parity
laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary
particles" 
1956 
William B. Shockley,
John Bardeen, and
Walter H. Brattain 
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery
of the transistor effect" 
1955 
Willis E. Lamb 
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the
hydrogen spectrum" 
1955 
Polykarp Kusch 
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment
of the electron" 
1954 
Max Born 
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially
for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" 
1954 
Walther Bothe 
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

1953 
Frits Zernike 
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially
for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" 
1952 
Felix Bloch and
E. M. Purcell 
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic
precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

1951 
John Cockcroft and
Ernest T.S. Walton 
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei
by artificially accelerated atomic particles" 
1950 
Cecil Powell 
"for his development of the photographic method of studying
nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made
with this method" 
1949 
Hideki Yukawa 
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis
of theoretical work on nuclear forces" 
1948 
Patrick M.S. Blackett 
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method,
and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics
and cosmic radiation" 
1947 
Edward V. Appleton 
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere
especially for the discovery of the socalled Appleton layer"

1946 
Percy W. Bridgman 
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely
high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in
the field of high pressure physics" 
1945 
Wolfgang Pauli 
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called
the Pauli Principle" 
1944 
Isidor Isaac Rabi 
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties
of atomic nuclei" 
1943 
Otto Stern 
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular
ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

1942 
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the
Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section 
1941 
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the
Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section 
1940 
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the
Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section 
1939 
Ernest Lawrence 
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and
for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial
radioactive elements" 
1938 
Enrico Fermi 
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive
elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related
discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

1937 
Clinton Davisson and
George Paget Thomson 
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of
electrons by crystals" 
1936 
Victor F. Hess 
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation" 
1936 
Carl D. Anderson 
"for his discovery of the positron" 
1935 
James Chadwick 
"for the discovery of the neutron" 
1934 
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund
and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section

1933 
Erwin Schrödinger and
Paul A.M. Dirac 
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

1932 
Werner Heisenberg 
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application
of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic
forms of hydrogen" 
1931 
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this
prize section

1930 
Venkata Raman 
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery
of the effect named after him" 
1929 
Louis de Broglie 
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" 
1928 
Owen Willans Richardson 
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially
for the discovery of the law named after him" 
1927 
Arthur H. Compton 
"for his discovery of the effect named after him" 
1927 
C.T.R. Wilson 
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged
particles visible by condensation of vapour" 
1926 
Jean Baptiste Perrin 
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter,
and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

1925 
James Franck and
Gustav Hertz 
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of
an electron upon an atom" 
1924 
Manne Siegbahn 
"for his discoveries and research in the field of Xray
spectroscopy" 
1923 
Robert A. Millikan 
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and
on the photoelectric effect" 
1922 
Niels Bohr 
"for his services in the investigation of the structure
of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" 
1921 
Albert Einstein 
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially
for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

1920 
Charles Edouard Guillaume 
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision
measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel
steel alloys" 
1919 
Johannes Stark 
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and
the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" 
1918 
Max Planck 
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement
of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta" 
1917 
Charles Glover Barkla 
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation
of the elements" 
1916 
The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this
prize section

1915 
William Bragg and
Lawrence Bragg 
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure
by means of Xrays" 
1914 
Max von Laue 
"for his discovery of the diffraction of Xrays by crystals"

1913 
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes 
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low
temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid
helium" 
1912 
Gustaf Dalén 
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction
with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

1911 
Wilhelm Wien 
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation
of heat" 
1910 
Johannes Diderik van der Waals 
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

1909 
Guglielmo Marconi and
Ferdinand Braun 
"in recognition of their contributions to the development
of wireless telegraphy" 
1908 
Gabriel Lippmann 
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically
based on the phenomenon of interference" 
1907 
Albert A. Michelson 
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic
and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

1906 
J.J. Thomson 
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and
experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity
by gases" 
1905 
Philipp Lenard 
"for his work on cathode rays" 
1904 
Lord Rayleigh 
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important
gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these
studies" 
1903 
Henri Becquerel 
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered
by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" 
1903 
Pierre Curie and
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have
rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena
discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" 
1902 
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and
Pieter Zeeman 
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered
by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation
phenomena"

1901 
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered
by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after
him 