60 years ago, when this article
was originally published in Popular Electronics magazine, most computers
were constructed either of gears or of vacuum tubes. The
in the photo below was a breakthrough for having been built entirely of transistors.
Even with its "compact" size compared to is successor the
ENIAC, the total
computational power and programmability was orders of magnitude less than that of my handheld
calculator, whose size is largely dictated not by the volume of the electronic circuits,
but by the size of the display and the need for input keys larges enough to press
reliably. Doesn't the photo of Pascal's calculator of 1642 look like it could be
a modern 19" rack-mount chassis, complete with handles?
February 1960 Popular Electronics
Table of Contents
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
published October 1954 - April 1985. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
Computers Yesterday and Today
Far from bursting on the scene fully developed,
computers have been in a state of constant evolution for over 300 years
By Dick Yates
The nameless Neolithic man who hacked out the first wheel may well be the world's
most celebrated caveman, but for sheer creative genius he had a strong rival in
one of his less publicized contemporaries: the hairy character who first discovered
that by manipulating his own fingers he could "describe" all quantities between
one and ten. By so doing, he not only founded the science of mathematics (whose
decimal system, based on varying powers of ten, is forever linked to the fact that
human beings have ten fingers), but at the same time he was operating the world's
first digital computer.
After this world-shaking discovery, it was only a question of time before counters
other than fingers came into use - columns of pebbles laid on the ground, pellets
of bronze or ivory that slid back and forth on a grooved board, beads strung on
wires within a frame. All these devices gradually evolved into the abacus - the
standard calculating instrument of all the civilizations of antiquity, and still
widely in use throughout the Far East.
Each of the abacus' parallel bead-strung wires represents one place in the notation
system (units, tens, hundreds, and thousands) and each holds two groups of beads:
one of five beads, each representing a single unit of that power; and one of two
beads, each representing five units. Learning to use an abacus takes time, but surprisingly
enough, an experienced operator can perform computations as fast as a man working
a modern desk calculator.
Early Calculating Machines
Only after the passage of many centuries was the first major advance over the
abacus made. In 1642, the French philosopher and scientist Blaise Pascal - then
only 19 years old - invented the first true adding machine; Pascal's calculator
was the first in a long and illustrious line of mechanical calculating devices.
Twenty years later, in England, Sir Samuel Morland developed a more compact calculator
that could multiply (by cumulative addition) as well as add and subtract. And in
1682, the German Wilhelm Leibnitz perfected a machine that could perform all four
basic arithmetical functions as well as the extraction of square roots. Leibnitz'
principles are still employed in modern calculating machines, the only major difference
being the introduction of electric power to speed up the movement of the mechanical
Pascal's calculator of 1642. The device was "programed" by turning
the bottom wheels. Each revolution of a wheel caused the adjoining wheel on the
left to advance one notch, or digit. The numbers behind the little windows provided
"read-out." The six wheels on the left operated on the decimal system and could
handle numbers up to 999,999. The two divisions at far right were for use in adding
so us and deniers, French money of the time.
Another great name in the development of automatic computation is that of Charles
Babbage, a mathematics professor at England's Oxford University, who in 1812 designed
what he called a "difference engine" for mechanically performing advanced mathematical
calculations "without mental intervention." Neither that machine nor a later Babbage
invention, the "analytical engine," proved practical for general manufacture because
of the technological limitations of the period, but Babbage's designs remain valid
today. The logical organization of many modern electronic computers bears a remarkable
similarity to those of his "engines."
The next important development was the mechanical tabulator capable of simultaneously
registering horizontal and vertical sums and of processing large amounts of data
rapidly in sequence. The first of these machines, designed as an aid to statistical
analysis, was invented in 1872 by Charles Seaton, then chief clerk of the United
States Bureau of the Census. This was followed in 1887 by the work of Dr. Herman
Hollerith, also a Census Bureau official, who adapted a punched-paper control system
to statistical work. His punched-card methods, together with those developed in
1890 by another American, James Powers, laid the groundwork for the now-familiar
punched-card tabulating systems.
As early as 1919, electronics came tentatively onto the scene, when an article
by W. H. Eccles and F. W. Jordan, published in the first issue of Radio Review,
described an electronic "trigger circuit" that could be used for automatic counting.
But the Eccles-Jordan circuit, like the Babbage difference engine, was ahead of
Then came World War II. Under the pressure of military needs for ballistics data
on newly developed weapons, the new science of electronic data processing came into
its own. The intensive effort of those years produced two basic types of electronic
computers - analog and digital - and the distinction is an important one to bear
in mind, Analog systems differ from digital ones in that they use varying physical
and electrical magnitudes (voltages, light intensities, shaft positions and the
like) as factors analogous to mathematical values, rather than pulses representing
Just as the abacus is a simple digital computer, the slide rule (on which mathematical
values are expressed in terms of linear relationships) is an analog device. So is
the automobile speedometer, whose mechanism does not actually count the revolutions
of the wheel and repeatedly divide to determine the number of miles per hour, but
rather senses the rate of revolution and interprets that rate in terms of a reading
on a miles-per-hour dial.
Most of the wartime needs were for analog computers, many of which were successfully
built under government contract at a number of American universities. In certain
cases, however, machines were required which would provide answers to ballistics
equations faster and with greater precision than analog systems were capable of
doing. It was the attempt to fulfill these specifications that gave rise to the
development of digital computing systems.
In 1944, at Harvard University, Dr. H. H. Aiken completed a semi-electronic system
called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, known also as the Harvard Mark
I, for the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance. And in the next few years Dr. Aiken built
three improved models, known as the Harvard II, Mark III and Mark IV.
ENIAC, the first "all-electronic" digital computer, was installed
in 1945 at the University of Pennsylvania.
The modern trend in computer design is typified by Remington
Rand's latest Univac model. Use of transistors makes the entire system extremely
compact and even more reliable than tube-operated computers.
Meanwhile, a second major contribution was progressing at the University of Pennsylvania's
Moore School of Engineering. Early in 1943, an associate professor of electronics
named Dr. J. W. Mauchly gave the Army Ordnance department the design for a general-purpose,
all-electronic digital computer called the ENIAC, which was ultimately completed
in 1945. The first problem assigned to the ENIAC was a calculation in nuclear physics
which would have taken 100 man-years to solve by conventional methods. The ENIAC
came up with the answer in two weeks, of which only two hours were spent in actual
computation, the remainder being devoted to operational details and reviews of the
ENIAC represented the first major break with the past in that it was entirely
electronic except for its means of "input" and "output" (the process of feeding
data into the machine and of delivering the results); unlike the Mark I, however,
it was not automatically sequenced. Modern computers can thus be said to have evolved
from a wedding of the techniques employed in ENIAC and Mark I.
Other pioneer work during the war and immediate postwar years included projects
at such organizations as: Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study, where outstanding
developments were made by the late Dr. John von Neumann; Bell Laboratories: M.I.T.;
and the National Bureau of Standards.
After the war, Dr. Mauchly joined in partnership with Prof. J. Presper Eckert,
who had been chief engineer of the ENIAC project, and the two men formed a company
in Philadelphia to develop new computers and promote their use in commercial applications.
The Eckert-Mauchly firm, which later became a subsidiary of Remington Rand Inc.
(now, in turn, a division of Sperry Rand Corporation), was responsible for the development
of the Univac in 1950.
Generally regarded as the most successful electronic data processor in the world
today, and certainly the most famous, the large-scale Univac system was the first
to handle both numerical and alphabetical information equally well. It was also
the first to divorce the complex input and output problems from the actual computation
operation. Particularly important was another major innovation from an earlier Eckert-Mauchly
model: the Univac was wholly self-checking. It checked its own accuracy in each
step of each computation and thus eliminated the need for running problems through
a second time for verification. With the Univac, electronic data processing came
The many post-Univac computers produced in the past few years have further opened
a new era in man's ability to organize and make use of factual information. Electronic
computation has already brought about substantial changes in patterns of living,
and scarcely a week goes by without someone's finding a new use for computers, a
new way in which electronic data automation can be applied to eliminate the drudgery
of making complex calculations "by hand." Meanwhile, rapid strides are being made
in the further refinement and development of computers themselves, particularly
in the miniaturization and improvement of their components through the use of smaller
and more reliable transistors, resistors, diodes, etc.
In the first tumult of publicity about computers during the early fifties (particularly
when the Univac won national prominence for successfully predicting the outcome
of the 1952 Presidential election), the misleading term "giant brain" caused a good
deal of confusion-and some uneasiness - with its implication that science had given
birth to a thinking device superior to the human mind. Nowadays, most people know
better. They know that, by human standards, the "giant brain" is a talented "idiot,"
that it is wholly dependent on instructions and thus can't really think at all-that
it is, in other words, only a machine. This simmering down of the public's "gee-whiz"
attitude toward computers is a healthy sign, for no tool can ever be truly useful
if it inspires awe in its users instead of trust.
To the same end, it's a good idea to think of the computer in its historical
perspective - not as an overnight phenomenon, but as the fruit of a practical science
with its roots far in the past. Pascal, Leibnitz, Babbage and the others, if they
were alive today, would probably not be astonished by the "miracle" of electronic
data processing. More likely, they would simply be pleased to find that their pioneer
work had been brought to fulfillment.
Posted November 27, 2020
(updated from original post on 9/29/2011)