April 1955 Popular Electronics
Table of Contents
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
published October 1954 - April 1985. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
energy is a concept that has been investigated by many researchers beginning in
the mid 19th century, when the nature of energy was beginning to be understood from
a truly scientific perspective. Entire theories of universe and matter-antimatter
creation have been published, reviewed and refined. This article from the April
1955 edition (note the month) of Popular Electronics reports on then-current applications of contra-polar
energy. At the time, most such work was performed in secret government laboratories
and at test ranges that were closed to the public and results banned from publication,
but since that time freedom-of-information-act requests have opened much contra-energy
research information for public access.
Negative light. produced by contra-polar energy. removes light
from the area affected.
Any developments in electronics which took place during World War II are still
secret, because of the requirements of military security. However, the announced
policy of the Government is not to apply security classifications to information
which might be of use to the general public unless such classification will serve
an actual military requirement. Also security classifications are removed when the
conditions which originally necessitated them no longer exist. POPULAR ELECTRONICS
is now in a position to reveal to the general public one of the most interesting
phenomena yet discovered in the field of electronics - that of "contra-polar energy."
Those who are familiar with the develop-ment of the atomic bomb will remember
that the feasibility of the bomb was first demonstrated mathematically by Dr. Lise
Meitner, the German mathematician, several years before World War II, and that its
theoretical feasibility was first called to the attention of our Government by Dr.
Albert Einstein. The problem then became one of finding out how to apply the mathematical
formulae. The case of "contra-polar energy" is similar, but, since some of our readers
may be more interested in the applications of the new principle than in the mathematical
basis of it, we shall defer the mathematics to the end of this article.
The photographs on these pages illustrate three simple applications of "contra-polar
energy," which are useful to the general electronic hobbyist and experimenter. In
two cases, where "contra-polar energy" is applied to a soldering iron and an electric
hot plate, heat is not produced, but taken away, and cold results, as proved by
the formation of ice crystals on the soldering iron and freezing of water in the
ice-cube tray. When "contra-polar energy" is applied to an ordinary table lamp,
light is not produced, but taken away, and the area affected by the lamp becomes
dark. (Editors Note: This phenomenon should not be confused with "black light,"
so-called, which actually is merely light without any visible elements. As far as
the human eye is concerned, "black light" is equivalent to zero light; the light
produced by contra-polar energy might be designated "negative light," since it subtracts
from light already present.)
Contra-polar energy makes a "hot plate" act as a "cold plate"
which will remove heat instead of producing it, thus freezing ice cubes as shown.
One of the reasons why atomic energy has not yet become popular among home experimenters
is that an understanding of its production requires a knowledge of very advanced
mathematics. Contra-polar energy, on the other hand, can be explained by simple
algebra. Many of our readers are, no doubt, familiar with the formula for the resonant
frequency of an LC circuit,
This formula involves a square root; elementary algebra tells us that the square
root of a positive number may be either positive or negative. That is, + 4 equals
either + 2 times + 2 or - 2 times - 2, so the square root of + 4 equals either +
2 or - 2. If the square root of LC may be either positive or negative, it follows
that ƒ, the resonant frequency of the circuit, may be either positive or negative.
Now, the reactance of an inductance is proportional to the frequency used; if
the frequency is negative, the reactance would be negative. The current through
an inductance is equal to the voltage divided by the reactance and a negative reactance
would produce a negative current. A small amount of resistance in series with the
inductance would not shift the phase of the current very much and the current through
the resistance would still be negative, or 180 degrees out of phase with the voltage.
Power dissipated in the resistance would be equal to the voltage multiplied by the
current, but if the voltage is positive and the current negative, the power would
be negative. In other words, with an alternating voltage of negative frequency applied
to a large inductance and a small resistance in series, the resistance would not
absorb power, it would deliver power!1 It has been known for some time
that so-called "negative resistance," as in the dynatron2 and transitron3,
would deliver power, but this is the first indication that ordinary positive resistance
also can be made to deliver power4.
Another effect of negative heat: when a soldering iron is plugged
into a socket carrying contra-polar energy, ice crystals are formed.
1 Those of our readers who may be unfamiliar with the foregoing mathematical
relationships between electrical quantities can find an explanation of them in any
2 Albert W. Hull. "The Dynatron - A Vacuum Tube Possessing Negative Electrical
Resistance," Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 6. p. 5, 1918.
3 E. W. Herold, "Negative Resistance and Devices for Obtaining It," Proceedings
of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 23, p. 1201, 1935 .
4 Transactions of the Contra-Polar Energy Commission, Vol. 45, pp. 1324-1346
(Ed. Note - A reprint of a document found in a flying saucer).
In keeping with the first day of April...
Posted April 1, 2013