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Tech Groups & Associations
Antique Wireless Association (AWA)
The Antique Wireless Association (AWA) is an organization that was founded in
1952 to preserve the history of radio communication and the development of
wireless technology. The AWA was established by a group of individuals who were
interested in collecting and restoring antique radio equipment.
The AWA's founders recognized the importance of preserving the history of
radio technology, which had played a critical role in the development of
communication and broadcasting. They also saw the need to create a community of
people who shared their passion for antique radios and related technology.
The AWA has grown significantly since its inception, and it now boasts a
membership of over 4,000 individuals from around the world. The organization is
headquartered in Bloomfield, New York, and has several chapters throughout the
United States and internationally.
The AWA is involved in a range of activities related to antique radio
technology, including the restoration and preservation of antique radios and
related equipment, the publication of research and articles related to radio
history, and the organization of conferences and events focused on antique radio
Better Business Bureau (BBB)
The BBB was founded in 1912 as the National Vigilance Committee for the
Promotion of Ethical Business Practices in Advertising. It was later renamed the
Better Business Bureau in 1921. The organization was established in response to
concerns about fraudulent and deceptive advertising practices, with the goal of
improving consumer trust in the marketplace.
In the early years, the BBB primarily focused on combating misleading
advertising. It worked to establish standards for truthful advertising and to
expose businesses that engaged in deceptive practices. Over time, the BBB's role
expanded to include mediation and resolution of consumer complaints.
One of the key features of the BBB is its accreditation program, which allows
businesses to become BBB-accredited after meeting certain standards of trust and
transparency. Accredited businesses can display the BBB logo to demonstrate
their commitment to ethical business practices. The accreditation process
involves a review of the company's history, adherence to BBB standards, and
resolution of consumer complaints.
The BBB also assigns ratings to businesses based on various factors,
including complaint history, transparency, and customer reviews. These ratings
help consumers make informed decisions when choosing businesses to engage with.
In recent years, the BBB has faced criticism regarding the credibility and
relevance of its ratings system. Some critics argue that the BBB's accreditation
process and ratings may not accurately reflect a business's reputation or
ethical practices. Additionally, there have been concerns raised about the
transparency and effectiveness of the complaint resolution process.
It's worth noting that the BBB is not a government agency and does not have
legal authority over businesses. Its role is primarily to provide information
and mediation services to consumers and businesses.
Committee of Ten
Million to Oppose All-Number Calling
The Committee of Ten Million to Oppose All-Number Calling was an organization
that was formed in 1960 in the United States in response to the increasing use of
all-number dialing for telephone calls. Like the Anti-Digit Dialing League, the
Committee of Ten Million believed that all-number calling was impersonal and dehumanizing,
and that it threatened to erode the community and social values that were associated
with traditional letter-and-number dialing.
The organization was founded by Reverend John "Jolly John" H. Griffin, an African
American Baptist minister from Louisiana who was also a civil rights activist. Griffin
believed that all-number calling was part of a larger trend of technological dehumanization
and that it disproportionately affected minority communities, who were more likely
to rely on telephone services as a means of communication.
The Committee of Ten Million used a variety of tactics to oppose all-number calling,
including public demonstrations, letter-writing campaigns, and legal action. They
also tried to raise public awareness about the issue by distributing pamphlets,
staging mock funerals for the traditional dialing system, and organizing boycotts
of telephone services.
Despite their efforts, all-number dialing eventually became the standard for
telephone calls in the United States and in many other countries around the world.
However, the Committee of Ten Million is remembered as an important voice in the
history of telecommunications and as an early example of grassroots activism against
Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) is a trade association that was founded
in 1924 in the United States. Its primary aim is to promote the interests of the
electronic components and systems industry, including manufacturers, suppliers,
and distributors of electronic components, as well as manufacturers of electronic
equipment and systems.
The EIA was formed as a response to the growing demand for electronic components
and equipment, and to provide a platform for companies in the industry to collaborate
and share information. Over the years, the EIA has played a significant role in
shaping the electronic industry, by developing standards for electronic products
and systems, promoting the industry through research and advocacy, and fostering
innovation and growth.
One of the key contributions of the EIA has been the development of industry
standards, which have helped to ensure the compatibility and interoperability of
electronic products and systems. The EIA's standards activities have covered a wide
range of topics, including interfaces, dimensions, performance, and safety. The
EIA has also been instrumental in the development of global standards for the electronics
industry, through its participation in international standards organizations such
as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO).
In addition to standards development, the EIA has also been involved in advocacy
and research activities aimed at promoting the interests of the electronics industry.
For example, the EIA has conducted research on various aspects of the industry,
including market trends, technology trends, and economic impacts. The EIA has also
been a strong advocate for policies and regulations that support the growth and
competitiveness of the industry, such as promoting fair trade practices and protecting
intellectual property rights.
The EIA has undergone several changes over the years, including mergers and acquisitions,
but its commitment to promoting the interests of the electronics industry has remained
strong. Today, the EIA is a global organization with members from around the world,
and it continues to play a vital role in shaping the future of the electronics industry.
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC),
founded in 1906, is an international
standards organization that develops and publishes international standards for
all electrical, electronic, and related technologies. The IEC is made up of
national committees from countries all around the world, which work together to
develop and promote international standards.
The IEC's work covers a wide range of fields, including power generation and
distribution, electronics, telecommunications, and renewable energy. The
organization is responsible for developing and publishing many important
international standards, including those for electrical safety, electromagnetic
compatibility, and energy efficiency.
The IEC is one of the oldest and most respected international standards
organizations in the world. It was founded in 1906 and is headquartered in
Geneva, Switzerland. Today, it continues to play a critical role in promoting
international standardization in the field of electrical and electronic
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association that was formed in 1963
through the merger of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) and
the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE). However, the history of the IEEE can be
traced back to the late 1800s, when the AIEE was founded.
The AIEE was founded in 1884 by a group of American electrical engineers,
with the goal of advancing the theory and practice of electrical engineering.
The organization held its first technical conference in 1885 and published its
first journal, the Transactions of the AIEE, in 1886. Over the years, the AIEE
grew in membership and influence, becoming a leading professional association
for electrical engineers.
Meanwhile, in 1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was founded, with
the goal of promoting the development of radio engineering and its applications.
Like the AIEE, the IRE held technical conferences and published journals, and it
grew in membership and influence over the years.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the fields of electrical engineering and radio
engineering began to overlap more and more, as electronics became increasingly
important in both areas. As a result, the AIEE and IRE began to collaborate more
closely, and in 1963, they merged to form the IEEE.
Today, the IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization,
with over 400,000 members in more than 160 countries. The organization is
dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity, and it sponsors
many conferences, journals, and other publications that disseminate cutting-edge
research and development in a wide range of fields, including electrical
engineering, computer science, and telecommunications.
National Television System Committee (NTSC)
The National Television System Committee (NTSC) was established by the U.S. Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in 1940 to address the need for a standardized analog
television system in the United States. By March 1941, the committee issued a technical
standard for black-and-white television, building upon a recommendation from the
Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA) in 1936. This standard recommended 525 scan
lines, striking a compromise between RCA's 441-line standard and the desires of
Philco and DuMont for higher line counts. Additionally, it proposed a frame rate
of 30 frames per second, interlaced into two fields, an aspect ratio of 4:3, and
the innovative use of frequency modulation (FM) for sound signals.
In the 1950s, the NTSC was reassembled to tackle color television standardization.
CBS had briefly gained FCC approval for a 405-line field-sequential color television
system in 1950, but this system was incompatible with existing black-and-white receivers.
It utilized a rotating color wheel, reducing scan lines to 405 and increasing the
field rate to 144, resulting in an effective frame rate of 24 frames per second.
Legal battles ensued, and this system faced significant setbacks, with regular broadcasts
lasting only a few months before being halted due to manufacturing bans during the
The competition between CBS's 405-line color system and RCA's efforts led to
regulatory confusion. RCA, Philco, and other companies worked together to develop
a new color standard that would be compatible with existing black-and-white sets.
In December 1953, the FCC unanimously approved what is now known as the NTSC color
television standard (RS-170a), which introduced a color subcarrier at 3.579545 MHz
to add color information while maintaining compatibility. This standard, with its
adjusted horizontal line rate of around 15,734 lines per second and a frame rate
of approximately 29.970 frames per second, set the stage for the widespread adoption
of color television.
The development of the NTSC standard marked a significant milestone in television
history, establishing the technical groundwork for color broadcasting. Despite the
challenges posed by competing systems like CBS's 405-line color approach, the NTSC's
commitment to backward compatibility and collaboration among industry players ultimately
led to its widespread acceptance, shaping the trajectory of television technology
for decades to come.
The inclusion of "ALL" in the logo signifies that the NTSC standard was designed
to be compatible with a wide range of television receivers and broadcasting equipment.
It was intended to ensure that television signals transmitted in the NTSC format
could be received and displayed properly on various television sets, regardless
of the manufacturer or specific model.
The term "NewSpace" referred to a growing sector of the space industry that
encompasses private companies and startups working on innovative space
technologies and services. These companies are distinct from traditional
government space agencies like NASA and ESA. NewSpace companies focus on
commercial spaceflight, satellite deployment, space tourism, asteroid mining,
space habitats, and more.
Satellites play a crucial role in NewSpace ventures. They are used for
various purposes, including telecommunications, Earth observation, climate
monitoring, navigation, scientific research, and national security. NewSpace
companies often design, build, and launch their satellites into space to offer
services or data to government entities, businesses, and the public.
Private Companies and Startups: NewSpace refers to a subset of the space
industry that is driven by private companies and startups rather than
traditional government space agencies. These companies operate with more
flexibility and agility, often adopting innovative business models and
approaches to space activities.
Innovative Space Technologies: NewSpace companies are at the forefront of
developing new and cutting-edge technologies for space exploration, research,
and commercial applications. These technologies encompass a wide range of
fields, including propulsion systems, materials science, spacecraft design,
advanced manufacturing techniques, and more.
Commercial Spaceflight: One of the primary areas of focus for NewSpace
companies is commercial spaceflight. They aim to provide access to space for
various customers, including satellite operators, scientific researchers,
governments, and even individuals. Reusable rocket technology, pioneered by
companies like SpaceX, has significantly lowered the cost of launching payloads
into space and has opened up new opportunities for commercial space ventures.
Satellite Deployment: NewSpace companies are actively involved in designing,
building, and deploying satellites for a multitude of applications. This
includes communication satellites for global internet connectivity, Earth
observation satellites for environmental monitoring, and navigation satellites
for GPS and other location-based services.
Space Tourism: Some NewSpace companies are working on space tourism ventures,
aiming to offer suborbital or orbital spaceflights to private individuals or
researchers. The goal is to make space travel accessible to a broader range of
people and promote the idea of space exploration for non-professional
Asteroid Mining: Mining asteroids for valuable resources, such as precious
metals and water, is another area of interest for NewSpace companies. The
potential availability of these resources in space could have significant
implications for future space missions and even Earth's economy.
Space Habitats: NewSpace companies are researching and developing
technologies to establish sustainable habitats in space. These habitats could be
used for long-duration space missions, lunar bases, or even colonies on other
planets, such as Mars.
Space Research and Scientific Missions: Some NewSpace companies partner with
scientific organizations and researchers to carry out space missions focused on
advancing scientific knowledge. These missions may involve studying celestial
bodies, conducting experiments in microgravity, or exploring the cosmos in
The emergence of the NewSpace sector has brought a wave of excitement and
innovation to the space industry. These companies are challenging traditional
norms and pushing the boundaries of what is possible in space exploration and
utilization. As they continue to evolve and mature, their contributions are
likely to have a lasting impact on the future of space activities and humanity's
relationship with the cosmos.
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe (RFE) is a broadcasting organization that was initially established
during the Cold War as a way to provide uncensored news and information to audiences
living in countries behind the Iron Curtain, particularly those under the influence
of the Soviet Union. The organization was funded and supported by the United States
The idea behind Radio Free Europe was to counter the state-controlled media in
communist countries and provide an alternative source of news and information. The
broadcasts aimed to provide accurate news, information about the world, and discussions
on topics that were often censored or distorted by the local governments.
The original broadcasts began in the early 1950s, and over time, Radio Free Europe
expanded its coverage and established additional services targeting specific countries
and regions. Some of the notable regions covered by Radio Free Europe included Eastern
Europe, the Balkans, the Soviet Union, and the Middle East.
After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the
early 1990s, the focus and structure of Radio Free Europe evolved. The organization
shifted its emphasis from countering communist propaganda to supporting independent
journalism and providing accurate news and information in countries undergoing political
transitions and facing challenges to press freedom.
Radio Free Europe, along with its sister organization Radio Liberty, continued
to operate as part of the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) until 2018, when
they were reorganized into a single corporate entity known as Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty (RFE/RL). RFE/RL continues to provide news, information, and analysis to
audiences in countries where press freedom is restricted or under threat.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded
international multimedia agency that provides news, information, and cultural programming
to audiences outside the United States. It is part of the U.S. Agency for Global
Media (USAGM), an independent agency of the U.S. government. VOA was established
in 1942 during World War II with the aim of countering Nazi propaganda and promoting
American values and policies abroad. It initially broadcast in German, and later
expanded to other languages. Today, VOA broadcasts in more than 40 languages, including
English, targeting a global audience. VOA operates through radio, television, and
digital platforms, reaching millions of people worldwide. Its programming covers
a wide range of topics, including news, current affairs, culture, education, and
entertainment. VOA strives to provide accurate and objective reporting, offering
diverse perspectives on global events and issues. As a U.S. government-funded entity,
VOA is subject to the principles of the VOA Charter, which mandates that it provide
accurate, objective, and comprehensive news and information. The agency aims to
promote democracy, freedom of expression, and the values of a free press. It's worth
noting that while VOA is funded by the U.S. government, it operates independently
and maintains editorial independence. Its journalists and broadcasters are expected
to adhere to professional journalistic standards and avoid promoting any particular
political agenda. Overall, VOA plays a significant role in international broadcasting,
providing news and information to audiences worldwide and serving as a platform
for dialogue and understanding between different cultures and nations.