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Test Methodology & Notes

This collection of RF, microwave, and analog test methodology notes from industry, academia, and personal websites will give you a good start in your search for assistance. If you cannot find what you need here, you might want to try a Google search.


Agilent Metrology Forum


"The Metrology Forum offers enlightenment to the uninitiated and soul-food for fellow calibration practitioners." (their words, not mine)

AM Radio Field Strength Measurements


503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR Knowledge of field strength confirms primary coverage over the city of license, quantifies additional areas served by the station, and assures directional protection of distant co-channel stations from Z Technology.

Anritsu Test Notes


Downloadable application notes on RF & microwave test methodology Antenna Pattern Measurements:

(1) Concepts & Techniques


(2) Theory & Equations


The first article of this two-part series explores the basic concepts and techniques of antenna pattern measurement and evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement methods. The concepts relating to near-field and far-field pattern testing are discussed as well. The second article presents the theory and equations governing antenna properties and includes a complete description of a site calibration for pattern-measurement testing. By Dr. Michael D. Foegelle.

Antenna Selection & Use for Outdoor Field Testing


503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR

There are many antenna types available for signal coverage measurement. This application note will discuss some of the factors you should consider in making a selection, from Z Technology.

Bit Error Rate (BER) Testing


From Agilent Technologies

Bluetooth Testing


From Agilent Technologies.

Capacitor S-Parameter Measurements


From Johanson Technology

Delay By Events Trigger Qualifier

boonton.com/products/4400a-4500a/app notes/Delay by Events Trigger 4400A_4500A.pdf

From Boonton.

DTV Signal Coverage Measurements


503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR

From Z Technology.

Implementation Effects on GSM's EDGE Modulation


ETSI Standards by Stephan V. Schell.

Electronic vs. Mechanical Calibration Kits: Calibration Methods and Accuracy


The purpose of this paper is to clarify the differences between electronic and mechanical calibrations and how these differences affect measurement accuracy. From Agilent Technologies.

EMC - Reducing Measurement Uncertainty in EMC Test Laboratories


Compliments of Applied Electromagnetic Technology.

Finding Power/Ground Defects on Connectors - A New Approach

adcontent.reedbusiness.com/chipzlinks/Finding Connector Opens 20070613b-for-TMW-Aug-2008.pdf

Printed circuit boards are steadily becoming faster, and as a result, relatively ordinary defects in connectors and sockets can now have more subtle and damaging effects. At the same time these defects defy detection by conventional technologies. This paper surveys existing tests for these defects and introduces a new solution based on Network Parameter Measurements. By Agilent.

Frequency Counter Measurements


From Agilent Technologies.

Fundamentals of RF & Microwave Power Measurements

my.ece.ucsb.edu/yorklab/Useful Stuff/Tutorials/RFPower_Meas AN64-1B.pdf

Agilent Application Note 64-1B is a major revision of the 1977 edition of AN64-1, which has served for many years as a key reference for RF and microwave power measurement.

Gain Bandwidth Product Tests To Cut Production Costs


From Noisecom.

HSDPA Testing


Test methodologies must evolve as GSM and WCDMA combine with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. Dr. Salim Manji, Spirent Communications -- Test & Measurement World, 2/1/2006.

Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) Measurements of Ferrites

macom.com/Application Notes/pdf/ANI-001.pdf

From M/A-COM.

Intermodulation Measurements Theory


From Maury Microwave

Logic Analyzer Measurements


From Agilent Technologies

Measurement Uncertainty


Agilent Educator's Corner feature.

Measuring Peak-To-Peak Average Power of Digitally Modulated Signals


From Boonton Electronics.

Network Analyzer Calibration


From Agilent Technologies.

Network Analyzer Measurements


From Agilent Technologies.

Noise Figure


Agilent note for using Spectrum Analyzer.

Oscilloscope Measurements


From Agilent Technologies.

Passive Intermod Measurements


From Summitek Instruments.

Power Supply Transient Response Considerations When Testing Portable Wireless Devices


A white paper, compliments of Keithley Instruments, by Kevin Cawley.

Metrology Forum


From Agilent Technologies.

Mixer Noise Measurements


From BesserNet.

Residual BER Measurement


From Agilent Technologies

RF Power Measurements


From Agilent Technologies

Selecting a DMM for Wireless Test Stations


A handy Keithley app note in a flow chart format.

Signal Generators


From Agilent Technologies.

Signal Generators


From Tektronix. "XYZs of Signal Generators" is an extensive document the covers from the basics to advanced techniques.

Spectrum Analyzer Basics


From Agilent Technologies

Spectrum Analyzer Measurements


From Agilent Technologies

Selecting a Spectrum Analyzer for Wireless


It's important to select a spectrum analyzer with the features needed for design and debug of today's wireless products, one that can not only help validate real-life performance, but also troubleshoot highly integrated transmitters. A tutorial by Tektronix.

Spectrum Analyzer Tutorials


This site is intended to explain the fundamentals of swept-tuned, superheterodyne spectrum analyzers and discuss the latest advances in spectrum analyzer capabilities.



800-835-9433 / Beaverton, OR

Test & measurement, communications and video test application notes and technical documents.

Test Equipment Usage: Suggestions for New Engineers


Here's a bit of sage advice from the folks at High Frequency Electronic magazine. This tutorial is directed to inexperienced engineers and engineering students. The suggestions listed here are intended to help them avoid problems and make the best use of modern instruments and the internal “intelligence” built into them.

Testing Amplifier Linearity With Noise Power Ratio


From Noisecom.

Testing Modern Radios


Solutions for designing Software Defined Radios that employ legacy and modern modulation schemes with frequency hopping techniques. By Tektronix.

Uncertainty In Testing


From Agilent Technologies.

Understanding Linear Power Supply Operation


From Agilent Technologies.

Free VNA Calibration White Paper


by Rohde & Swartz

The Basics of ZigBee Transmitter Testing


National Instruments Alliance Partner SeaSolve has developed a test suite including transmit (Tx), receive (Rx) and compliance testing for ZigBee. In this application note, we will describe test methodologies and techniques for each type of testing.

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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

1996 - 2024


Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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