April 1945 QST
Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles
QST, published December 1915 - present (visit ARRL
for info). All copyrights hereby acknowledged.
While recently watching the classic film
"The Longest Day," about the June 6,
1944 D-Day invasion, I paid particular attention to the electronics being featured.
During World War II, means of communications were nowhere near as ubiquitous
as they are today with cellphones, the Internet, and readily affordable, high
quality portable Ham gear. Large, heavy radio, teletype, and radar gear made
portable by equally large and heavy batteries, often significantly hampered
progress under fire. As illustrated in the movie, relying on easily cut or blown
up landlines caused significant loss of strategic capability. Thousands of experienced
Amateur Radio operators provided the Allied forces with out-of-the-gate communicators
and electronics technicians. Many had, prior to enlisting, donated some of their
equipment and components to the Department of War for use, ultimately, in securing
Servicemen relied on the various forms of public and government media to
get their messages through to home, and censoring crews removed information
deemed potentially compromising. Even commercial radio and television (TV being
a newcomer to homes - the very few which had them) had relatively limited access
to first-hand news from the front. Ham operators possessed the advantage of
already being part of an established comms network.
QST magazine did a top-notch job of keeping its readers apprised
of the situation during war years by publishing multiple articles every month
that addressed issues related to the war effort. This article from the April
1945 edition is a prime example.
Hams in Combat - Invasion Hams
It was a long, hard trek from the Normandy beachhead to
Germany - the route the invasion hams of VII Corps traveled.
By Capt. John Brawley, SC, W9GYZ (W1LVQ)
Many were the hams who landed in the initial stages of the invasion of France.
Some waded through the surf at H−hour, carrying radio equipment with which to
establish the first com-munications from the assault forces to the head-quarters
ships. Some manned the sets aboard those ships and communicated with the various
elements of the invasion forces, including the air-borne troops who had parachuted
with their equipment down behind the enemy lines some-time before H-hour.
The airborne link was probably one of the most important QSOs ever held by
radio. The suspense and tension aboard the floating headquarters was terrific
as the hour grew nearer for radio silence to be broken by the paratroopers.
Operators strained their ears for the first dit dah signifying that the airborne
forces had landed successfully. For many it was their first combat experience
and their first live messages. But when the tension was broken and signals started
coming through, these opera-tors copied them. They were handed messages to transmit
- and they sent them. QRM mounted - but these lads fought through and over and
around it. Searching out the signals, they stuck to them with the tenacity of
a DX hound on the trail of an XU. They weren't all hams, by any means - but
they were all well-trained operators, and they did a superb job.
There were many other communications needs to be met. There was the great
concentration of ships to be controlled by radio and blinker; there was split-second
firing data to be radioed to the warships from shore fire-control parties; there
was the enormously complex job of control by the convoy commanders and the beachmasters
to time the arrival of landing craft at the beach where they would disgorge
their cargoes of men and materiel. There were calls for air support, and there
was the tremendous job of coordinating the fighting forces on the beaches.
One radioman off a headquarters ship started ashore shortly after H-hour.
He was carrying a portable voice set. As he neared the beach the LCVP was forced
aground. He made his way ashore through waist-deep water, only to find that
his radio set had been damaged by the brine. Without hesitation he climbed aboard
the first returning craft and went back for another set. Again he plunged through
enemy fire to the beach, where he put the set in operation. Twice through that
withering fire - and not a scratch!
Major Charles T. Wesner, ex-W9BIM, waded to the beach with a radio set under
each arm and a bottle of scotch tucked into the front of his trench coat. There
was considerable unfriendly activity on the beach, and in his haste to clear
the area he lost the bottle of scotch. Needless to say, he did not tarry long
enough to pick it up. "It was a snap decision," declared the major, "but the
scotch had to go. War certainly is hell!"
Later Major Wesner and I together "liberated" a town in. Belgium. Armored
units had been advancing ahead of us all day. The natives were deliriously happy
to see the Allies come and the Germans go. Belgian, American and British flags
decorated the streets. Hastily prepared banners were strung up, reading: "Welcome
les Liberateurs" and" Viva les Americans." Crowds of civilians lined the roadsides,
waving, cheering, heaping our vehicles with fruit and flowers, shout-ing "Viva
la Amerique! Vive les Allies! Vive las Belgique!" In fact, they yelled "!Jive"
everything. Seeing "PRESTONE '44" lettered on the radiators of our vehicles,
they shouted, "Viva la Presume!'
Major Wesner and I rode our jeep gaily through the holiday atmosphere. After
a while we arrived at this little village. Although we didn't know it then,
we were the first Americans to enter the town. Before long we were stopped by
a civilian. Although we spoke no French and he spoke no English, we soon realized
that the villagers wanted us to join them in the celebration. We permitted ourselves
to be dragged (ahem l) to the civilian's home. From the basement he brought
dusty bottles of champagne, while his wife took shiny glasses from the cupboard.
People began coming in from all over the village. By the time the champagne
was poured there were more cus-tomers than there was wine. Everyone shook hands
and kissed everyone else.
The problem of language didn't bother us very long. I raised my glass and
shouted, "Hello CQ! CQ twenty-meter 'phone!" "Vive la Amerique!" they responded
in unison, and we all had another round of drinks. Major Wesner raised his glass
and said, "Brawley, we'd better be on our way." "Vive la Belgique!" they yelled,
and then we had a round of kisses.
Personally, while I hold no strong objection to unpremeditated kissing I
do feel that, even on the spur of the moment, it is my privilege to select my
opponent. But such was not the case here. I was constantly pursued by an elderly
gentle-man who hadn't shaved for several days. Each time I spotted a likely
subject and moved closer to make myself available, I was intercepted by the
oldster with the "five-o'clock shadow."
We weren't accustomed to such demonstrative people. When we left our jeep
looked like a float in a Mardi Gras parade. It was covered with wreaths, bouquets,
streamers and flags. The Belgians are surely a friendly and hospitable race.
We have a versatile radio crew in the VII Corps. The first press news from
the beachhead was flashed back on c.w. by our operators with their 399. As fast
as the reporters handed in their copy it was transmitted direct to London.
We also furnished radio facilities for psycho-logical warfare purposes. During
the peninsular campaign, when the fortress of Cherbourg was being assaulted
by VII Corps, we took SCR-399s up to the front lines and broadcast an ultimatum
to the enemy. Handling the technical side of these broadcasts were T/4 John
F. Wilson, T/4 Albert Yokym, W8SGW, and T/4 James Coleman. To insure a proper
audience, we picked up German operational frequencies and put the 399s right
on zero-beat. Then our interpreters read the ultimatum in German, Polish and
Russian. The broadcasts went on all night. To prevent the enemy from pinpointing
our transmitters and knocking them (and us) out with artillery fire, we stopped
in anyone spot only long enough for one brief transmission.
Since I have been in the service I have yet to meet a ham who has not been
benefited by his amateur experience. Nor have I met one ham who hasn't been
able to contribute something tangible to his branch of service. There are many
others to whom immense credit must go, as well - the technicians and commercial
operators who made radio a business instead of a hobby, and those men who learned
radio in the service schools.
We were the first Americans to enter the town ... and the
villagers wanted us to celebrate with them.
Take, for example, Major Gene M. Ranvier, the radio engineer who interviewed
me upon my arrival in Iceland. The memory of our meeting is still vivid. He
chose to discuss the design and application of a proposed v.h.f. automatic relay
circuit. The only image the words "automatic relay" conveyed to me was that
of a mythical ambidextrous operator who could copy with his right hand and simultaneously
transmit with his left. To add to my confusion, Major Ranvier then threw in
a few queer-sounding geographical locations, such as "Hvalfjordur" (pronounced
KWAL-four-ther) and "Budayeyri," by way of orientation.
"Amazing, isn't it?" was all I could say when he had finished.
Major Ranvier did much for radio communications in Iceland. When he didn't
have the proper spare parts for repairs, he improvised, often by redesigning
the circuits to fit the available parts. He had a most practical, common-sense
approach to a problem which invariably produced results.
While in Iceland I also met Glen Davidson, W9DDU; John R. Swink, WSTEF; Wm.
Brooks, WSFKT; Walter H. Bales, W9ADH; James A. Shanks, W9JCI, and Joseph Palm,
OPLO. There were others, too, but their calls slip my memory. We fought the
battle of boredom and the peculiar atmospherics that play havoc with all radio
communications in Iceland. In the postwar era, when you QSO Iceland, don't be
surprised if the TF suddenly does a fade-out in the middle of a QSO. The air
goes completely dead in a matter of seconds. Sometimes it stays dead for several
hours; sometimes for only a short while. The result is un-predictable, intermittent
communication. We usually blamed the northern lights for this phenomenon. In
fact, we blamed the aurora for almost every radio trouble - including power
Iceland is cold and stormy in the winter months - and so is the North Atlantic!
No one knows this better than Lt. James A. Shanks, W9JCI, who spent several
hours in a small lifeboat after his ship was torpedoed somewhere off the coast
of Iceland. The torpedo hit during the early morning hours, in pitch dark and
bitter cold. The ship listed badly but Lt. Shanks and other passengers launched
lifeboats before the ship went down. They drifted in darkness through the rough
seas for over four hours. Soaked to the skin by spray, by dawn they were nearly
frozen. W9JCI almost qualified for Silent Keys before their flares were sighted
by a Coast Guard cutter.
Another Signal Corpsman, Lt. William Valen-tine, was aboard the ship with
W9JCI. When the torpedo struck he made his way below deck to the sick bay to
help get the patients into the lifeboats. Disregarding his own safety, Valentine
stayed aboard until all the launchable boats were filled. By then the ship was
sinking fast. A few seconds before it went down Valentine climbed to the bridge,
cut loose a small life raft, and slid with it into the sea. He was picked up
several hours later, nearly dead from exposure and fa-tigue - but on the raft
with him were three other survivors he had fished from the sea. Upon reach-ing
Iceland Lt. Valentine was awarded the Soldiers' Medal. His citation read "for
extraordinary heroism" - and justly so.
However, Iceland isn't always a land of ice and snow. In the summer it is
a beautiful place where the sun shines twenty-three hours each day. The Icelanders
are an intelligent, progressive people. Indeed, at times I felt they were a
bit too progressive. Once I paid 20 kronur for a bunch . of grapes. To satisfy
my curiosity, I counted the individual grapes and divided by the rate of exchange.
They had cost me the equivalent of ten cents each! Another time I bought a genuine
hand-made Icelandic souvenir in a curio store. It seemed a steal at 150 kronur
($10.00) - until I found, marked inconspicuously on the bottom, the label "Made
in U. S. A."
Icelandic hams seemed to be a scarce in person as they used to be on the
air. Unscrupulous DXer that I am, if I could have found one I'd have tried to
snare a QSL card - or at least arrange a postwar schedule. In the past I've
spent many fruitless hours at Babler Park in St. Louis County pounding out answers
to Icelandic CQs on 14-Mc. c.w. But even in Iceland I couldn't raise a TF.
There are other foreign hams whom I hope to meet in person while I am in
Europe - particularly ON4HC, whom I once talked to from W9JWJ at Ferguson, Mo.
The fact that I couldn't work him on the same band at home, with 300 watts as
compared with W9JWJ's 30, is better not discussed. I think he discovered that
W9JWJ. is a YL and picked his QSO accordingly.
The following amateurs of VII Corps are currently living on the German side
of the Siegfried line:
W1BLO, Pvt. Eugene J. Gaumont, SC
W1GKJ, M/Sgt. Lionel Simon, SC
W4EVH, S/Sgt. Ralph Jenkins, SC
W4IDI, Cpl. Edward Talley, SC
Colonel John H. Sampson, FA
W5KHZ, CWO Hilton J. Allen, AUS
Chester E. Riker. FA
W8UBF, T /3 Mitchell A. Paniwozik, SC
Irving E. Olsen, SC
W9YVR-ex- W5GQQ, Capt. Alexander S. Turner, SC
1st Lt. Francis X. Knopp, SC
K5GQO-ex-W2MAP-KA1US, WOJG, William R. Scott,
OPLO, T/Sgt. Joseph T. Palm, SC
Obviously, the hams mentioned in this account represent only a fraction of
the total of those doing their bit in the ETO. Even in VII Corps undoubtedly
there are other hams who have not been included but who have also experienced
the long, hard trek of VII Corps from the Normandy beachhead to the interior
Posted February 4, 2021(original 4/1/2011)