Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering magazine articles Engineering software Engineering smorgasbord RF Cafe Archives RF Cascade Workbook 2018 RF Symbols for Visio - Word Advertising RF Cafe Forums Magazine USAF Radr Shop Sponsor RF Cafe RF Electronics Symbols for Visio RF Electronics Symbols for Office Word RF Electronics Stencils for Visio Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
Berkeley Nucleonics IMS 2022 Booth 9072 - RF Cafe
PCB Directory (Manufacturers)
 

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024

Webmaster:

    Kirt Blattenberger,

    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website:

AirplanesAndRockets.com

RF Cascade Workbook 2018 - RF Cafe

Does a "Fair" Coin Really Exist?
Kirt's Cogitations™ #76

RF Cafe University"Factoids," "Kirt's Cogitations," and "Tech Topics Smorgasbord" are all manifestations of my rantings on various subjects relevant (usually) to the overall RF Cafe theme. All may be accessed on these pages:

 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36

< Previous                      Next >

 

Does a "Fair" Coin Really Exist?

New mathematical analysis has shown that no matter how vigorously a coin is thrown into the air, it is more likely to land on the same face it started out on. Using high speed photography techniques, researchers at U. California and Stanford determined that only a superhuman ability to toss the coin so it spins perfectly about a horizontal axis through the coin's center would product a totally fair result. All other tosses are biased. In experiments, they were surprised to learn that what was believed to have happened by real-time observation often turned out to be quite different than what was revealed on the high-speed film. On many tosses, a coin that was thought to have rotated never rotated at all, but merely wobbled wildly about a horizontal plane. In fact, magicians and charlatans have exploited this effect as an illusion to fool their audiences (or victims). Even with the best series of tosses, the team calculated that the coin would land on its original face 51% of the time. Yet another study has determined that the "heads" side of most coins is slightly heavier than the tails side, producing a bias toward heads. Even so, 1,000 or more tosses is usually required to observe the phenomenon.

Lotus Communication Systems Modular RF Component Building Blocks - RF Cafe
RF Cafe Sponsors
Exodus Advanced Communications Best in Class RF Amplifier SSPAs
Windfreak Technologies Frequency Synthesizers - RF Cafe

Please Support RF Cafe by purchasing my  ridiculously low−priced products, all of which I created.

These Are Available for Free