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Test Methodology & Notes

This collection of RF, microwave, and analog test methodology notes from industry, academia, and personal websites will give you a good start in your search for assistance. If you cannot find what you need here, you might want to try a Google search.















Dynamic Tests for A/D Converter Performance
This article describes useful theory and techniques for evaluating the dynamic performance of A/D converters. From Burr-Brown.

Agilent Metrology Forum
"The Metrology Forum offers enlightenment to the uninitiated and soul-food for fellow calibration practitioners." (their words, not mine)

AM Radio Field Strength Measurements
503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR Knowledge of field strength confirms primary coverage over the city of license, quantifies additional areas served by the station, and assures directional protection of distant co-channel stations from Z Technology.

Anritsu Test Notes
Downloadable application notes on RF & microwave test methodology Antenna Pattern Measurements:
(1) Concepts & Techniques
(2) Theory & Equations The first article of this two-part series explores the basic concepts and techniques of antenna pattern measurement and evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement methods. The concepts relating to near-field and far-field pattern testing are discussed as well. The second article presents the theory and equations governing antenna properties and includes a complete description of a site calibration for pattern-measurement testing. By Dr. Michael D. Foegelle.

Antenna Selection & Use for Outdoor Field Testing
503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR
There are many antenna types available for signal coverage measurement. This application note will discuss some of the factors you should consider in making a selection, from Z Technology.

Application Notes & Technical Pages

From Agilent Technologies.

Bit Error Rate (BER) Testing
From Agilent Technologies
 
Bluetooth Testing

From Agilent Technologies.

Capacitor S-Parameter Measurements
From Johanson Technology

dB or Not dB?
Application note from Rohde & Schwarz on how and when to use dB. "Everything you ever wanted to know about decibels but were afraid to ask.

Delay By Events Trigger Qualifier
From Boonton.

DTV Signal Coverage Measurements
503-614-9800 / Beaverton, OR
From Z Technology.

Implementation Effects on GSM’s EDGE Modulation
ETSI Standards by Stephan V. Schell.

Electronic vs. Mechanical Calibration Kits: Calibration Methods and Accuracy
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the differences between electronic and mechanical calibrations and how these differences affect measurement accuracy. From Agilent Technologies.

EMC - Reducing Measurement Uncertainty in EMC Test Laboratories
Compliments of Applied Electromagnetic Technology.

EMC Measurement Uncertainty Guide
From Schaffner.

Finding Power/Ground Defects on Connectors - A New Approach
Printed circuit boards are steadily becoming faster, and as a result, relatively ordinary defects in connectors and sockets can now have more subtle and damaging effects. At the same time these defects defy detection by conventional technologies. This paper surveys existing tests for these defects and introduces a new solution based on Network Parameter Measurements. By Agilent.

Frequency Counter Measurements

From Agilent Technologies.

Function / Arbitrary Waveform Generators
From Agilent Technologies

Fundamentals of Real-Time Spectrum Analysis
This document describes how the RTSA works and provides a basic understanding of how it can be used to solve many measurement problems associated with modern RF signals. By Tektronix.

Fundamentals
of RF & Microwave Power Measurements


Agilent Application Note 64-1B is a major revision of the 1977 edition of AN64-1, which has served for many years as a key reference for RF and microwave power measurement.

Gain Bandwidth Product Tests To Cut Production Costs
From Noisecom.

HSDPA Testing

Test methodologies must evolve as GSM and WCDMA combine with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. Dr. Salim Manji, Spirent Communications -- Test & Measurement World, 2/1/2006.

Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) Measurements of Ferrites
From M/A-COM.

Intermodulation Measurements Theory
From Maury Microwave

Logic Analyzer Measurements

From Agilent Technologies

Measurement Uncertainty

Agilent Educator's Corner feature.

Measuring Peak-To-Peak Average Power of Digitally Modulated Signals
From Boonton Electronics.
Network Analyzer Calibration
From Agilent Technologies.

Network Analyzer Measurements

From Agilent Technologies.

Noise Figure
Agilent note for using Spectrum Analyzer.
 
Oscilloscope Measurements

From Agilent Technologies.

Oscilloscope Measurements, Mixed Signal
Engineers are working with “mixed-signal” designs, which contain a substantial mix of both analog and digital technology. Designers increasingly want equipment that allows them to time-correlate both the analog and digital domains in a single instrument. Traditionally mixed-signal analysis was accomplished by using a standalone oscilloscope and a logic analyzer; a two-box solution. The need to correlate analog and digital waveforms has led to the development of the mixed signal oscilloscope.

Passive Intermod Measurements
From Summitek Instruments.

Power Supplies Tutorial
From Agilent Technologies

Power Supply Transient Response Considerations When Testing Portable Wireless Devices
A white paper, compliments of Keithley Instruments, by Kevin Cawley.

Metrology Forum
From Agilent Technologies.

Mixer Noise Measurements

From BesserNet.

Residual BER Measurement

From
Agilent Technologies

RF Emission Testing Guide
From Schaffner.

RF Immunity Testing Guide
From Schaffner.

RF Power Measurements

From Agilent Technologies

Selecting a DMM for Wireless Test Stations
A handy Keithley app note in a flow chart format.

Signal Generators

From
Agilent Technologies.

Signal Generators
From Tektronix. "XYZs of Signal Generators" is an extensive document the covers from the basics to advanced techniques.

Spectrum Analyzer Basics

From
Agilent Technologies

Spectrum Analyzer Measurements

From Agilent Technologies

Selecting a Spectrum Analyzer for Wireless
It's important to select a spectrum analyzer with the features needed for design and debug of today's wireless products, one that can not only help validate real-life performance, but also troubleshoot highly integrated transmitters. A tutorial by Tektronix.

Spectrum Analyzer Tutorials
This site is intended to explain the fundamentals of swept-tuned, superheterodyne spectrum analyzers and discuss the latest advances in spectrum analyzer capabilities.

Tektronix
800-835-9433 / Beaverton, OR
Test & measurement, communications and video test application notes and technical documents.

Test Equipment Usage: Suggestions for New Engineers
Here's a bit of sage advice from the folks at High Frequency Electronic magazine. This tutorial is directed to inexperienced engineers and engineering students. The suggestions listed here are intended to help them avoid problems and make the best use of modern instruments and the internal “intelligence” built into them.

Testing Amplifier Linearity With Noise Power Ratio
From Noisecom.

Testing Modern Radios
Solutions for designing Software Defined Radios that employ legacy and modern modulation schemes with frequency hopping techniques. By Tektronix.

Test Plan for Mobile Station Over the Air Performance
CTIA Certification Program. Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association Method of Measurement for Radiated RF Power and Receiver Performance.

Transient Immunity Testing Guide
From Schaffner

Uncertainty In Testing
From Agilent Technologies.

Understanding Linear Power Supply Operation
From Agilent Technologies.

Free VNA Calibration White Paper
by Rohde & Swartz

The Basics of ZigBee Transmitter Testing
National Instruments Alliance Partner SeaSolve has developed a test suite including transmit (Tx), receive (Rx) and compliance testing for ZigBee. In this application note, we will describe test methodologies and techniques for each type of testing.
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