Module 11—Microwave Principles
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Assignment 1 - 1-8
Assignment 2 - 9-16
Figure 1-76.—Faraday rotation.
Q-59. Ferrite devices are useful in microwave applications because they possess what properties?
Q-60. Which of the two types of electron motion (orbital movement and electron spin) is more important in the explanation of magnetism?
Q-61. The interaction between an external field and the binding force of an atom causes electrons to do what?
Q-62. The resonant frequency of electron wobble can be changed by variation of what force?
Q-63. Rotating the plane of polarization of a wavefront by passing it through a ferrite device is called what?
This chapter has presented information on waveguide theory and application. The information that follows summarizes the important points of this chapter.
WAVEGUIDES are the primary methods of transporting microwave energy. Waveguides have fewer losses and greater power-handling capability than transmission lines. The physical size of the waveguides becomes too great for use at frequencies less than 1000 megahertz. Waveguides are made in three basic shapes, as shown in the first illustration. The wide, or "a," dimension determines the frequency range of the waveguide, and the narrow, or "b," dimension determines power-handling capability as shown in the second illustration. Waveguides handle a small range of frequencies both above and below
the primary operating frequency. Energy is transported through waveguides by the interaction of electric and magnetic fields, abbreviated E FIELD and H FIELD, respectively. The density of the E field varies at the same rate as the applied voltage. If energy is to travel through a waveguide, two BOUNDARY CONDITIONS must be met: (1) An electric field, to exist at the surface of a conductor, must be perpendicular to the conductor, and (2) a varying magnetic field must exist in closed loops parallel to the conductors and perpendicular to the electric field.
WAVEFRONTS travel down a waveguide by reflecting from the side walls in a zigzag pattern, as shown in the figure. The striking angle, or angle of incidence (θ), is the same as the angle of reflection (θ), causing the reflected wavefront to have the same shape as the incident wavefront. The velocity of wavefronts traveling down a waveguide is called the GROUP VELOCITY because of the zigzag path of these wavefronts. The group velocity is slower than the velocity of wavefronts through space.
The MODES in waveguides are divided into two categories: (1) the TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC (TE) mode and (2) the TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC (TM) mode. Subscripts are used to complete the
description of the various TE and TM modes. The dominant mode for rectangular waveguides is shown in the figure.
WAVEGUIDE INPUT/OUTPUT METHODS are divided into three basic categories: PROBES, LOOPS, and SLOTS. Size, shape, and placement in the waveguide are critical factors in the efficiency of all three input/output methods.
WAVEGUIDE/IMPEDANCE MATCHING is often necessary to reduce reflections caused by a MISMATCH between the waveguide and the load. Matching devices called IRISES, shown in the illustration, are used to introduce either capacitance or inductance (or a combination of both) into a waveguide. Conductive POSTS and SCREWS can also be used for impedance matching in waveguides.
WAVEGUIDE TERMINATIONS prevent standing waves at the end of a waveguide system. They
are usually specially constructed HORNS or absorptive loads called DUMMY LOADS.
WAVEGUIDE PLUMBING refers to the bends, twists, and joints necessary to install waveguides. E bends, H bends, and twists must have a radius greater than two wavelengths. The CHOKE JOINT, shown in the figure, is most often used to connect two pieces of waveguide. The ROTATING JOINT is used when a waveguide must be connected to a rotating load such as an antenna.
DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS are devices that permit the sampling of the energy in a waveguide. Directional couplers may be constructed to sample energy in one direction only or in both directions. The energy removed by the directional coupler is a small sample that is proportional to the magnitude of the energy in the waveguide. An example of a directional coupler is shown in the illustration.
A RESONANT CAVITY is any space completely enclosed by conductive walls that can contain oscillating electromagnetic fields and can possess resonant properties. Several cavity shapes are shown in the illustration.
WAVEGUIDE JUNCTIONS are of several basic types. The T-JUNCTION may be either of the E- TYPE or the H-TYPE. The effect on the input energy depends upon which arm is used as the input. The MAGIC-T HYBRID JUNCTION, shown at the right, is a combination of the E- and H-type T junctions.
FERRITE DEVICES combine magnetic properties with a high resistance to current flow. Ferrites are constructed from compounds of ferrous metal oxides to achieve the desired characteristics. The fact that the spin axes of electrons will wobble at a natural resonant frequency when subjected to an external magnetic field is the basic principle of operation of ferrite devices. The position of a typical ferrite device within a waveguide is shown in the figure.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q1. THROUGH Q63.
A-1. Microwave region.
A-2. Electromagnetic field theory.
A-3. The electromagnetic fields are completely confined.
A-4. Conductive material.
A-5. Copper loss.
A-6. Skin effect.
A-8. Physical size.
A-9. The characteristics of the dielectric of a capacitor.
A-10. A shorted quarter-wave section called a metallic insulator.
A-11. The "a" dimension.
A-12. The bus bar becomes wider.
A-13. Energy will no longer pass through the waveguide.
A-14. The interaction of the electric and magnetic fields.
A-15. The relative strength of the field.
A-16. Magnetic lines of force must form a continuous closed loop.
A-17. The H lines cancel.
A-18. The field must be perpendicular to the conductors.
A-19. Decrease to zero.
A-20. The angles are equal.
A-21. Cutoff frequency.
A-23. Group velocity.
A-24. Mode of operation.
A-25. Dominant mode.
A-26. 1.71 times the diameter.
A-27. Transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM).
A-31. Size and shape.
A-32. Slots and apertures.
A-33. Standing waves that cause power losses, a reduction in power-handling capability, and an increase in frequency and sensitivity.
A-34. Metal plates.
A-36. As a shunt resistance.
A-38. Characteristic impedance.
A-39. Absorb all energy without producing standing waves.
A-42. Greater than 2 wavelengths.
A-43. Choke joint.
A-44. Improperly connected joints or damaged inner surface.
A-45. Sampling energy within a waveguide.
A-46. 1/4 wavelength.
A-47. Absorb the energy not directed at the pick-up probe and a portion of the overall energy.
A-48. The wavefront portions add.
A-49. The reflected energy adds at the absorbent material and is absorbed.
A-50. Size and shape of the cavity.
A-51. Probes, loops, and slots.
A-52. The area of maximum H lines.
A-53. E-type and H-type.
A-54. The junction arm extends in a direction parallel to the H lines in the main waveguide.
A-55. E-type and H-type.
A-56. Low power-handling capability and power losses.
A-57. Basic E-type junctions.
A-58. High-power duplexes.
A-59. Magnetic properties and high resistance.
A-60. Electron spin.
A-61. Wobble at a natural resonant frequency.
A-62. The applied magnetic field.
A-63. Faraday rotation.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current,
to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement
, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading
, Introduction to Generators and Motors
Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits
, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas
, Microwave Principles,
, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros
Introduction to Test Equipment
, Radar Principles,
The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices,
Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics