Module 11—Microwave Principles
Pages i - ix
1-1 to 1-10
, 1-11 to 1-20
1-21 to 1-30
, 1-31 to 1-40
1-41 to 1-50
, 1-51 to 1-60
1-61 to 1-68
, 2-1 to 2-10
2-11 to 2-20
21 to 2-30
2-31 to 2-40
, 2-41 to 2-50
2-51 to 2-60
, 2-61 to 2-66
3-1 to 3-10
, 3-11 to 3-20
AI-1 to AI-6
, Index-1 to Index-2
Assignment 1 - 1-8
Assignment 2 - 9-16
The TWT is a wide-bandwidth, velocity-modulated tube used primarily as an amplifier. The electron beam
is bunched by a signal applied to the HELIX. The bunching causes an energy transfer from the electron beam to the
traveling wave on the helix.
The MAGNETRON is a DIODE OSCILLATOR capable of delivering microwave energy at
very high power levels. Three fields exist within a magnetron that influence operation: (1) the DC ELECTRIC FIELD
between the anode and cathode; (2) the AC ELECTRIC FIELD produced by the oscillating resonant cavities and on the
same plane as the dc field; and (3) the MAGNETIC FIELD produced by the permanent magnet which is perpendicular to
the dc electric field.
Magnetrons are of two basic types, the NEGATIVE-RESISTANCE MAGNETRON and the
ELECTRON-RESONANCE MAGNETRON. A diagram of a magnetron is shown at the right.
SOLID-STATE MICROWAVE DEVICES are becoming increasingly widespread in
microwave equipment with new developments almost daily. Most of the currently available solid-state devices are
two-terminal diodes with the capability to generate or amplify microwave energy. Many of the solid-state devices,
such as the TUNNEL DIODE and the BULK-EFFECT DIODE, apply the property of NEGATIVE RESISTANCE to amplify microwave
signals or generate microwave energy. A characteristic curve illustrating the negative-resistance property of the
tunnel diode is shown at the right.
The VARACTOR is a two-terminal diode that acts as a variable capacitance and is the active element of
PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIERS. The parametric amplifier is a low-noise microwave amplifier that uses variable reactance to
amplify microwave signals. The illustration shows an example of a NONDEGENERATIVE PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q1. THROUGH Q74.
A-1. Impedance decreases.
A-2. Degenerative feedback.
A-3. Transit time causes the grid
voltage and plate current to be out of phase.
A-4. Transit time.
electron will be accelerated.
A-7. By alternately speeding up or slowing down the electrons.
The buncher grids.
A-9. There is no effect.
A-10. The frequency period of the buncher grid signal.
A-11. Velocity modulation.
A-12. The accelerator grid and the buncher grids.
A-13. The catcher cavity.
A-15. Intermediate cavities between the input and output cavities.
A-16. A large negative pulse is
applied to the cathode.
A-17. The middle cavity.
A-18. The bandwidth decreases.
A-20. The reflector or repeller.
A-23. Mode 2.
A-24. Power is reduced.
A-25. The half-power points of the mode.
A-27. Used to focus the electrons into a tight beam.
A-28. The directional
couplers are not physically connected to the helix.
A-29. The traveling wave must have a forward velocity
equal to or less than the speed of the electrons in the beam.
A-30. The helix.
A-32. A magnetic field.
A-33. Anode or plate.
A-34. The resonant cavities.
A-36. The critical value of field strength.
A-38. The negative-resistance
magnetron has a split plate.
A-39. The application of the proper magnetic field.
A-40. To reduce the effects of filament bombardment.
A-41. Rising-sun block.
A-43. Working electrons.
A-44. Greater power output.
A-45. Loops and slots.
A-47. A cookie-cutter tuner.
A-48. Baking in.
A-49. The tunneling action.
A-50. The tuned circuit or cavity frequency.
A-51. To increase the stability.
feedback to the tuned input circuit.
A-53. Stability problems.
A-54. Variable capacitor.
A-56. The low-noise characteristic.
A-57. By varying the amount of capacitance in the circuit.
A-58. Supplies the electrical energy required to vary the capacitance.
A-59. Exactly double the input
A-60. The pump signal of a nondegenerative parametric amplifier is higher than twice the input
A-61. Idler- or lower-sideband frequency.
A-62. The sum of the input frequency and the
A-63. Larger microwave power outputs.
A-64. The electrons become immobile.
A-66. A field of much greater intensity.
A-67. The frequency.
A-69. The negative-resistance property.
A-70. To form a small region of
A-72. Lower forward resistance and low noise.
A-74. A switching device.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current,
to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement
, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading
, Introduction to Generators and Motors
Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits
, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas
, Microwave Principles,
, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros
Introduction to Test Equipment
, Radar Principles,
The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices,
Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics