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Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)
Module 10—Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines,
and Antennas
Chapter 2:  Pages 2-41 through 2-47

Module 10—Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas
Pages i - ix, 1-1 to 1-10, 1-11 to 1-20, 1-21 to 1-30, 1-31 to 1-40,
1-41 to 1-47, 2-1 to 2-10, 2-11 to 2-20, 2-21 to 2-30, 2-31 to 2-40,
2-40 to 2-47, 3-1 to 3-10, 3-11 to 3-20, 3-21 to 3-30, 3-31 to 3-40,
3-41 to 3-50, 3-51 to 3-58, 4-1 to 4-10, 4-11 to 4-20, 4-21 to 4-30,
4-31 to 4-40, 4-41 to 4-50, 4-51 to 4-60, Index

 
SURFACE WAVES travel along the contour of the Earth by diffraction.
 

Surface Waves - RF Cafe


 
SPACE WAVES can travel through the air directly to the receiving antenna or can be reflected from the surface of the Earth.
 

Space Waves - RF Cafe


 
SKY WAVES, often called ionospheric waves, are radiated in an upward direction and returned to Earth at some distant location because of refraction.
 
NATURAL HORIZON is the line-of-sight horizon.
 
RADIO HORIZON is one-third farther than the natural horizon.
 
The IONOSPHERE consists of several layers of ions, formed by the process called ionization.
 
IONIZATION is the process of knocking electrons free from their parent atom, thus upsetting electrical neutrality.
 
RECOMBINATION is the opposite of ionization; that is, the free ions combine with positive ions, causing the positive ions to return to their original neutral atom state.
 
 

2-41




The D LAYER is the lowest region of the ionosphere and refracts signals of low frequencies back to Earth.
 
The E LAYER is present during the daylight hours; refracts signals as high as 20 megahertz back to Earth; and is used for communications up to 1500 miles.
 

Layers of the ionosphere - RF Cafe


 
The F LAYER is divided into the F1 and F2 layers during the day but combine at night to form one layer. This layer is responsible for high-frequency, long-range transmission.
 
The CRITICAL FREQUENCY is the maximum frequency that a radio wave can be transmitted vertically and still be refracted back to Earth.
 


 
The CRITICAL ANGLE is the maximum and/or minimum angle that a radio wave can be transmitted and still be refracted back to Earth.
 
 

2-42



 

Critical Angle - RF Cafe


 
SKIP DISTANCE is the distance between the transmitter and the point where the sky wave first returns to Earth.
 
SKIP ZONE is the zone of silence between the point where the ground wave becomes too weak for reception and the point where the sky wave is first returned to Earth.
 

Skip Zone - RF Cafe


 
FADING is caused by variations in signal strength, such as absorption of the rf energy by the ionosphere.
 
 

2-43




MULTIPATH FADING occurs when a transmitted signal divides and takes more than one path to a receiver and some of the signals arrive out of phase, resulting in a weak or fading signal.
 

Multipath Fading


 
Some TRANSMISSION LOSSES that affect radio-wave propagation are ionospheric absorption, ground reflection, and free-space losses.
 
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI), both natural and man-made, interfere with radio communications.
 
The MAXIMUM USABLE FREQUENCY (MUF) is the highest frequency that can be used for communications between two locations at a given angle of incidence and time of day.
 
The LOWEST USABLE FREQUENCY (LUF) is the lowest frequency that can be used for communications between two locations.
 

Lowest Usable Frequency - RF Cafe


 

2-44




OPTIMUM WORKING FREQUENCY (FOT) is the most practical operating frequency and the one that can be relied on to have the fewest problems.
 
PRECIPITATION ATTENUATION can be caused by rain, fog, snow, and hail; and can affect overall communications considerably.
 
TEMPERATURE INVERSION causes channels, or ducts, of cool air to form between layers of warm air, which can cause radio waves to travel far beyond the normal line-of-sight distances.
 

Temperature Inversion - RF Cafe


 
TROPOSPHERIC PROPAGATION uses the scattering principle to achieve beyond the line-of-sight radio communications within the troposphere.
 

Tropospheric Propagation - RF Cafe


 

2-45




ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q1. THROUGH Q48.


 
A1.   Induction field and radiation field.
 
A2.   Induction field.
 
A3.   Radiation field.
 
A4.   Fundamental frequency.
 
A5.   Harmonic frequency or harmonics.
 
A6.   30 meters.

A7.   5 megahertz.
 
A8.   Vertically polarized.
 
A9.   Direction of wave propagation.
 
A10.   Shifting in the phase relationships of the wave.
 
A11.   Troposphere, stratosphere, and ionosphere.
 
A12.   Stratosphere.
 
A13.   Whether the component of the wave is travelling along the surface or over the surface of the earth.
 
A14.   Radio horizon is about 1/3 farther.
 
A15.   Sea water.
 
A16.   (a) electrical properties of the terrain (b) frequency (c) polarization of the antenna
 
A17.   High energy ultraviolet light waves from the sun.
 
A18.   D, E, F1, and F2  layers.
 
A19.   D layer is 30-55 miles, E layer 55-90 miles, and F layers are 90-240 miles.
 
A20.   Thickness of ionized layer.
 
A21.   Critical frequency.
 
A22.   (a) density of ionization of the layer (b) frequency (c) angle at which it enters the layer
 
A23.   A zone of silence between the ground wave and sky wave where there is no reception.
 
A24.   Where ionization density is greatest.
 
A25.   A term used to describe the multiple pattern a radio wave may follow.
 
A26.   Selective fading.
 
A27.   Natural and man-made interference.
 
 

2-46




A28.   Natural.
 
A29.   Man-made.

A30.   (a) filtering and shielding of the transmitter (b) limiting bandwidth (c) cutting the antenna to the correct frequency
 
A31.   (a) physical separation of the antenna (b) limiting bandwidth of the antenna (c) use of directional antennas
 
A32.   Regular and irregular variations.
 
A33.   Regular variations can be predicted but irregular variations are unpredictable.
 
A34.   Daily, seasonal, 11-year, and 27-days variation.
 
A35.   Sporadic E, sudden disturbances, and ionospheric storms.
 
A36.   MUF is maximum usable frequency.  LUF is lowest usable frequency.  FOT is commonly known as optimum working frequency.
 
A37.   MUF is highest around noon. Ultraviolet light waves from the sun are most intense.
 
A38.   When LUF is too low it is absorbed and is too weak for reception.
 
A39.   Signal-to-noise ratio is low and the probability of multipath propagation is greater.
 
A40.   Frequent signal fading and dropouts.
 
A41.   FOT is the most practical operating frequency that can be relied on to avoid problems of multipath, absorbtion, and noise.
 
A42.   They can cause attenuation by scattering.
 
A43.   It can cause attenuation by absorbtion.
 
A44.   It is a condition where layers of warm air are formed above layers of cool air.
 
A45.   It can cause VHF and UHF transmission to be propagated far beyond normal line-of-sight distances.
 
A46.   Troposphere.
 
A47.   VHF and above.
 
A48.   Near the mid-point between the transmitting and receiving antennas, just above the radio horizon.
 
 

2-47



Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current, Introduction to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques, and Schematic Reading, Introduction to Generators and Motors, Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies, Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies, Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas, Microwave Principles, Modulation Principles, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros, Introduction to Test Equipment, Radio-Frequency Communications Principles, Radar Principles, The Technician's Handbook, Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices, Introduction to Digital Computers, Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics

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