Module 10—Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas
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If you know the directions of the E and H components, you can use the "right-hand rule" (see figure 2-6) to determine the direction of wave propagation. This rule states that if the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger of the right hand are extended so they are mutually perpendicular, the middle finger will point in the direction of wave propagation if the thumb points in the direction of the E field and the forefinger points in the direction of the H field. Since both the E and H fields reverse directions simultaneously, propagation of a particular wavefront is always in the same direction (away from the antenna).
Figure 2-6.—Right-hand rule for propagation.
Q8. If a transmitting antenna is placed close to the ground, how should the antenna be polarized to give the greatest signal strength?
Q9. In the right-hand rule for propagation, the thumb points in the direction of the E field and the forefinger points in the direction of the H field. In what direction does the middle finger point?
Within the atmosphere, radio waves can be reflected, refracted, and diffracted like light and heat waves.
Radio waves may be reflected from various substances or objects they meet during travel between the transmitting and receiving sites. The amount of reflection depends on the reflecting material. Smooth metal surfaces of good electrical conductivity are efficient reflectors of radio waves. The surface of the Earth itself is a fairly good reflector. The radio wave is not reflected from a single point on the reflector but rather from an area on its surface. The size of the area required for reflection to take place depends on the wavelength of the radio wave and the angle at which the wave strikes the reflecting substance.
When radio waves are reflected from flat surfaces, a phase shift in the alternations of the wave occurs. Figure 2-7 shows two radio waves being reflected from the Earth's surface. Notice that the positive and negative alternations of radio waves (A) and (B) are in phase with each other in their paths toward the Earth's surface. After reflection takes place, however, the waves are approximately 180 degrees out of phase from their initial relationship. The amount of phase shift that occurs is not constant.
It depends on the polarization of the wave and the angle at which the wave strikes the reflecting surface. Radio waves that keep their phase relationships after reflection normally produce a stronger signal at the receiving site. Those that are received out of phase produce a weak or fading signal. The shifting in the phase relationships of reflected radio waves is one of the major reasons for fading. Fading will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
Figure 2-7.—Phase shift of reflected radio waves.
Another phenomenon common to most radio waves is the bending of the waves as they move from one medium into another in which the velocity of propagation is different. This bending of the waves is called refraction. For example, suppose you are driving down a smoothly paved road at a constant speed and suddenly one wheel goes off onto the soft shoulder. The car tends to veer off to one side. The change of medium, from hard surface to soft shoulder, causes a change in speed or velocity. The tendency is for the car to change direction. This same principle applies to radio waves as changes occur in the medium through which they are passing. As an example, the radio wave shown in figure 2-8 is traveling through the Earth's atmosphere at a constant speed. As the wave enters the dense layer of electrically charged ions, the part of the wave that enters the new medium first travels faster than the parts of the wave that have not yet entered the new medium. This abrupt increase in velocity of the upper part of the wave causes the wave to bend back toward the Earth. This bending, or change of direction, is always toward the medium that has the lower velocity of propagation.
Figure 2-8.—Radio wave refraction.
Radio waves passing through the atmosphere are affected by certain factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and density. These factors can cause the radio waves to be refracted. This effect will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter.
A radio wave that meets an obstacle has a natural tendency to bend around the obstacle as illustrated in figure 2-9. The bending, called diffraction, results in a change of direction of part of the wave energy from the normal line-of-sight path. This change makes it possible to receive energy around the edges of an obstacle as shown in view A or at some distances below the highest point of an obstruction, as shown in view B. Although diffracted RF energy usually is weak, it can still be detected by a suitable receiver. The principal effect of diffraction extends the radio range beyond the visible horizon. In certain cases, by using high power and very low frequencies, radio waves can be made to encircle the Earth by diffraction.
Figure 2-9.—Diffraction around an object.
Q10. What is one of the major reasons for the fading of radio waves which have been reflected from a surface?
THE EFFECT OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE ON RADIO WAVES
This discussion of electromagnetic wave propagation is concerned mainly with the properties and effects of the medium located between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna. While radio waves traveling in free space have little outside influence affecting them, radio waves traveling within the Earth's atmosphere are affected by varying conditions. The influence exerted on radio waves by the Earth's atmosphere adds many new factors to complicate what at first seems to be a relatively simple problem. These complications are because of a lack of uniformity within the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric conditions vary with changes in height, geographical location, and even with changes in time (day, night, season, year). A knowledge of the composition of the Earth's atmosphere is extremely important for understanding wave propagation.
The Earth's atmosphere is divided into three separate regions, or layers. They are the TROPOSPHERE, the STRATOSPHERE, and the IONOSPHERE. The layers of the atmosphere are illustrated in figure 2-10.
Figure 2-10.—Layers of the earth's atmosphere.
The troposphere is the portion of the Earth's atmosphere that extends from the surface of the Earth to a height of about 3.7 miles (6 km) at the North Pole or the South Pole and 11.2 miles (18 km) at the
equator. Virtually all weather phenomena take place in the troposphere. The temperature in this region decreases rapidly with altitude, clouds form, and there may be much turbulence because of variations in temperature, density, and pressure. These conditions have a great effect on the propagation of radio waves, which will be explained later in this chapter.
The stratosphere is located between the troposphere and the ionosphere. The temperature throughout this region is considered to be almost constant and there is little water vapor present. The stratosphere has relatively little effect on radio waves because it is a relatively calm region with little or no temperature changes.
The ionosphere extends upward from about 31.1 miles (50 km) to a height of about 250 miles (402 km). It contains four cloud-like layers of electrically charged ions, which enable radio waves to be propagated to great distances around the Earth. This is the most important region of the atmosphere for long distance point-to-point communications. This region will be discussed in detail a little later in this chapter.
Q11. What are the three layers of the atmosphere?
Q12. Which layer of the atmosphere has relatively little effect on radio waves?
RADIO WAVE TRANSMISSION
There are two principal ways in which electromagnetic (radio) energy travels from a transmitting antenna to a receiving antenna. One way is by GROUND WAVES and the other is by SKY WAVES. Ground waves are radio waves that travel near the surface of the Earth (surface and space waves). Sky waves are radio waves that are reflected back to Earth from the ionosphere. (See figure 2-11.)
Figure 2-11.—Ground waves and sky waves.
The ground wave is actually composed of two separate component waves. These are known as the SURFACE WAVE and the SPACE WAVE (fig. 2-11). The determining factor in whether a ground wave component is classified as a space wave or a surface wave is simple. A surface wave travels along the surface of the Earth. A space wave travels over the surface.
SURFACE WAVE.—The surface wave reaches the receiving site by traveling along the surface of the ground as shown in figure 2-12. A surface wave can follow the contours of the Earth because of the process of diffraction. When a surface wave meets an object and the dimensions of the object do not exceed its wavelength, the wave tends to curve or bend around the object. The smaller the object, the more pronounced the diffractive action will be.
Figure 2-12.—Surface wave propagation.
As a surface wave passes over the ground, the wave induces a voltage in the Earth. The induced voltage takes energy away from the surface wave, thereby weakening, or attenuating, the wave as it moves away from the transmitting antenna. To reduce the attenuation, the amount of induced voltage must be reduced. This is done by using vertically polarized waves that minimize the extent to which the electric field of the wave is in contact with the Earth. When a surface wave is horizontally polarized, the electric field of the wave is parallel with the surface of the Earth and, therefore, is constantly in contact with it. The wave is then completely attenuated within a short distance from the transmitting site. On the other hand, when the surface wave is vertically polarized, the electric field is vertical to the Earth and merely dips into and out of the Earth's surface. For this reason, vertical polarization is vastly superior to horizontal polarization for surface wave propagation.
The attenuation that a surface wave undergoes because of induced voltage also depends on the electrical properties of the terrain over which the wave travels. The best type of surface is one that has good electrical conductivity. The better the conductivity, the less the attenuation. Table 2-2 gives the relative conductivity of various surfaces of the Earth.
Table 2-2.—Surface Conductivity
Another major factor in the attenuation of surface waves is frequency. Recall from earlier discussions on wavelength that the higher the frequency of a radio wave, the shorter its wavelength will be. These high frequencies, with their shorter wavelengths, are not normally diffracted but are absorbed by the Earth at points relatively close to the transmitting site. You can assume, therefore, that as the frequency of a surface wave is increased, the more rapidly the surface wave will be absorbed, or attenuated, by the Earth. Because of this loss by attenuation, the surface wave is impractical for long- distance transmissions at frequencies above 2 megahertz. On the other hand, when the frequency of a surface wave is low enough to have a very long wavelength, the Earth appears to be very small, and diffraction is sufficient for propagation well beyond the horizon. In fact, by lowering the transmitting frequency into the very low frequency (vlf) range and using very high-powered transmitters, the surface wave can be propagated great distances. The Navy's extremely high-powered vlf transmitters are actually capable of transmitting surface wave signals around the Earth and can provide coverage to naval units operating anywhere at sea.
SPACE WAVE.—The space wave follows two distinct paths from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna—one through the air directly to the receiving antenna, the other reflected from the ground to the receiving antenna. This is illustrated in figure 2-13. The primary path of the space wave is directly from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. So, the receiving antenna must be located within the radio horizon of the transmitting antenna. Because space waves are refracted slightly, even when propagated through the troposphere, the radio horizon is actually about one-third farther than the line-of-sight or natural horizon.
Figure 2-13.—Space wave propagation.
Although space waves suffer little ground attenuation, they nevertheless are susceptible to fading. This is because space waves actually follow two paths of different lengths (direct path and ground reflected path) to the receiving site and, therefore, may arrive in or out of phase. If these two component waves are received in phase, the result is a reinforced or stronger signal. Likewise, if they are received out of phase, they tend to cancel one another, which results in a weak or fading signal.
Q13. What is the determining factor in classifying whether a radio wave is a ground wave or a space wave?
Q14. What is the best type of surface or terrain to use for radio wave transmission?
Q15. What is the primary difference between the radio horizon and the natural horizon?
Q16. What three factors must be considered in the transmission of a surface wave to reduce attenuation?
The sky wave, often called the ionospheric wave, is radiated in an upward direction and returned to Earth at some distant location because of refraction from the ionosphere. This form of propagation is relatively unaffected by the Earth's surface and can propagate signals over great distances. Usually the high frequency (HF) band is used for sky wave propagation. The following in-depth study of the ionosphere and its effect on sky waves will help you to better understand the nature of sky wave propagation.
STRUCTURE OF THE IONOSPHERE
As we stated earlier, the ionosphere is the region of the atmosphere that extends from about 30 miles above the surface of the Earth to about 250 miles. It is appropriately named the ionosphere because it consists of several layers of electrically charged gas atoms called ions. The ions are formed by a process called ionization.
Ionization occurs when high energy ultraviolet light waves from the sun enter the ionospheric region of the atmosphere, strike a gas atom, and literally knock an electron free from its parent atom. A normal atom is electrically neutral since it contains both a positive proton in its nucleus and a negative orbiting electron. When the negative electron is knocked free from the atom, the atom becomes positively charged (called a positive ion) and remains in space along with the free electron, which is negatively charged. This process of upsetting electrical neutrality is known as IONIZATION.
The free negative electrons subsequently absorb part of the ultraviolet energy, which initially freed them from their atoms. As the ultraviolet light wave continues to produce positive ions and negative electrons, its intensity decreases because of the absorption of energy by the free electrons, and an ionized layer is formed. The rate at which ionization occurs depends on the density of atoms in the atmosphere and the intensity of the ultraviolet light wave, which varies with the activity of the sun.
Since the atmosphere is bombarded by ultraviolet light waves of different frequencies, several ionized layers are formed at different altitudes. Lower frequency ultraviolet waves penetrate the atmosphere the least; therefore, they produce ionized layers at the higher altitudes. Conversely, ultraviolet waves of higher frequencies penetrate deeper and produce layers at the lower altitudes.
An important factor in determining the density of ionized layers is the elevation angle of the sun, which changes frequently. For this reason, the height and thickness of the ionized layers vary, depending on the time of day and even the season of the year.
Recall that the process of ionization involves ultraviolet light waves knocking electrons free from their atoms. A reverse process called RECOMBINATION occurs when the free electrons and positive ions collide with each other. Since these collisions are inevitable, the positive ions return to their original neutral atom state.
The recombination process also depends on the time of day. Between the hours of early morning and late afternoon, the rate of ionization exceeds the rate of recombination. During this period, the ionized layers reach their greatest density and exert maximum influence on radio waves. During the late afternoon and early evening hours, however, the rate of recombination exceeds the rate of ionization, and the density of the ionized layers begins to decrease. Throughout the night, density continues to decrease, reaching a low point just before sunrise.
Four Distinct Layers
The ionosphere is composed of three layers designated D, E, and F, from lowest level to highest level as shown in figure 2-14. The F layer is further divided into two layers designated F1 (the lower layer) and F2 (the higher layer). The presence or absence of these layers in the ionosphere and their height above the Earth varies with the position of the sun. At high noon, radiation in the ionosphere directly above a given point is greatest. At night it is minimum. When the radiation is removed, many of the particles that were ionized recombine. The time interval between these conditions finds the position and number of the ionized layers within the ionosphere changing. Since the position of the sun varies daily, monthly, and yearly, with respect to a specified point on Earth, the exact position and number of layers present are extremely difficult to determine. However, the following general statements can be made:
Figure 2-14.—Layers of the ionosphere.
a. The D layer ranges from about 30 to 55 miles. Ionization in the D layer is low because it is the lowest region of the ionosphere. This layer has the ability to refract signals of low frequencies. High frequencies pass right through it and are attenuated. After sunset, the D layer disappears because of the rapid recombination of ions.
b. The E layer limits are from about 55 to 90 miles. This layer is also known as the Kennelly- Heaviside layer, because these two men were the first to propose its existence. The rate of ionic recombination in this layer is rather rapid after sunset and the layer is almost gone by midnight. This layer has the ability to refract signals as high as 20 megahertz. For this reason, it is valuable for communications in ranges up to about 1500 miles.
c. The F layer exists from about 90 to 240 miles. During the daylight hours, the F layer separates into two layers, the F1 and F2 layers. The ionization level in these layers is quite high and varies widely during the day. At noon, this portion of the atmosphere is closest to the sun and the degree of ionization is maximum. Since the atmosphere is rarefied at these heights, recombination occurs slowly after sunset. Therefore, a fairly constant ionized layer is always present. The F layers are responsible for high-frequency, long distance transmission.
Q17. What causes ionization to occur in the ionosphere?
Q18. How are the four distinct layers of the ionosphere designated? Q19. What is the height of the individual layers of the ionosphere?
REFRACTION IN THE IONOSPHERE
When a radio wave is transmitted into an ionized layer, refraction, or bending of the wave, occurs. As we discussed earlier, refraction is caused by an abrupt change in the velocity of the upper part of a radio wave as it strikes or enters a new medium. The amount of refraction that occurs depends on three main factors: (1) the density of ionization of the layer, (2) the frequency of the radio wave, and (3) the angle at which the wave enters the layer.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current,
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, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
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Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
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, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
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Introduction to Test Equipment
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Introduction to Digital Computers,
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