**Module 10—Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas **Pages

i - ix,

1-1 to 1-10,

1-11 to 1-20,

1-21 to 1-30,

1-31 to 1-40,

1-41 to 1-47,

2-1 to 2-10,

2-11 to 2-20,

2-21 to 2-30,

2-31 to 2-40,

2-40 to 2-47,

3-1 to 3-10,

3-11 to 3-20,

3-21 to 3-30,

3-31 to 3-40,

3-41 to 3-50,

3-51 to 3-58,

4-1 to 4-10,

4-11 to 4-20,

4-21 to 4-30,

4-31 to 4-40,

4-41 to 4-50,

4-51 to 4-60, Index

**LEAKAGE CURRENT** flows between the wires of a transmission line through the dielectric.
The dielectric acts as a resistor.

An

**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD** exists along transmission line when current flows through it.

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**CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE**, Z

_{0}, is the ratio of E to I at every point along
the line. For maximum transfer of electrical power, the characteristic impedance and load impedance must be
matched.

The

**VELOCITY** at which a wave travels over a given length of transmission line can be
found by using the formula:

A transmission line that is not terminated in its characteristic impedance is said to be

**FINITE**.
When dc is applied to an

**OPEN-ENDED** line, the voltage is reflected back from the open end without
any change in polarity, amplitude, or shape. Current is reflected back with the same amplitude and shape but with
opposite polarity.

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When dc is applied to a

**SHORT-CIRCUITED** line, the current is reflected back with the
same amplitude, and polarity. The voltage is reflected back with the same amplitude but with opposite polarity.

When ac is applied to an

**OPEN-END** line, voltage is always reflected back in phase with the
incident wave and current is reflected back out of phase.

When ac is applied to a

**SHORT-CIRCUITED** line, voltage is reflected in opposite phase,
while current is reflected in phase.

3-53

A

**NONRESONANT** line has

**NO STANDING WAVES** of current and voltage and is
either infinitely long or terminated in its characteristic impedance.

A

**RESONANT**
line has

**STANDING WAVES** of current and voltage and is of finite length and is NOT terminated in
its characteristic impedance.

On an open-ended resonant line, and at all odd 1/4

λ
points, the voltage is minimum, the current is maximum, and the impedance is minimum. At all even 1/4

λ
points, the voltage is maximum, the current is minimum and the impedance is maximum.

3-54

There are a variety of

**TERMINATIONS** for rf lines. Each termination has an effect on the
standing waves on the line.

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A transmission line can be terminated in its characteristic impedance as an open- or short-circuit, or
in capacitance or inductance.

Whenever the termination on a transmission line is NOT EQUAL TO Z

_{0},
there are reflections on the line. The amount of voltage reflected may be found by using the equation:

When the termination on a transmission line EQUALS Z

_{0}, there is NO reflected voltage.

The measurement of standing waves on a transmission line yields information about operating conditions. If there
are NO standing waves, the termination for that line is correct and maximum power transfer takes place.

The

**STANDING WAVE RATIO** is the measurement of maximum voltage (current) to minimum voltage (current)
on a transmission line and measures the perfection of the termination of the line. A ratio of 1:1 describes a line
terminated in its characteristic impedance.

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**ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q1. THROUGH Q30.**

A1. Transmission line.

A2. Input end, generator end, transmitter end, sending end, and
source.

A3. Output end, receiving end, load end and sink.

A4. Parallel two-wire, twisted pair, shielded pair, coaxial line and waveguide.

A5. Power lines, rural
telephone lines, and telegraph lines.

A6. High radiation losses and noise pickup.

A7. Twin
lead.

A8. The conductors are balanced to ground.

A9. Air coaxial (rigid) and solid coaxial (flexible).

A10. The ability to minimize radiation losses.

A11. Expensive to construct, must be kept dry, and high frequency losses limit the practical length of the
line.

A12. Cylindrical and rectangular.

A13. Copper, dielectric, and radiation.

A14.
Copper losses.

A15. Dielectric losses.

A16. PHWHUV

A17. (1) Type of line used,
(2) dielectric in the line, and (3) length of line.

A18. Inductance is expressed in microhenrys per unit
length, capacitance is expressed in picofarads per unit length, and resistance is expressed in ohms per unit
length.

A19. The small amount of current that flows through the dielectric between two wires of a
transmission line and is expressed in micromhos per unit length.

A20. When the characteristic impedance
of the transmission line and the load impedance are equal.

A21. Z

_{0} and it is the ratio of E
to I at every point along the line.

A22. Between 50 and 600 ohms.

A23. Incident waves from
generator to load. Reflected waves from load back to generator.

A24. 2 and 6 have zero resultant wave
and they indicate that the incident and reflected waves are 180 degrees out of phase at all parts.

A25.
One-fourth the distance from each end of the line.

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A26. The load impedance of such a line is equal to Z0.

A27. Even quarter-wave points (1/2

λ,
1

λ, 3/2

λ, etc.).

A28. At 1/2 wavelength from
the end and at every 1/2 wavelength along the line.

A29. Power standing-wave ratio (pswr).

A30. The existence of voltage variations on a line.

3-58

Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current, Introduction
to Alternating Current and Transformers,

Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement,

Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading,

Introduction to Generators and Motors,

Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies,

Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits,

Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas,

Microwave Principles,
Modulation Principles, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics,

Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros,

Introduction to Test Equipment,

Radio-Frequency
Communications Principles,

Radar Principles, The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary,

Test Methods and Practices, Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics