Today in Science History -
This week's custom RF Cafe crossword puzzle
celebrates the 244th anniversary of the signing of the
Declaration of Independence, and uses as a background the John Trumbull painting.
Clues marked with an asterisk (*) are part of the theme. Each week for two decades,
for the sake of all avid cruciverbalists amongst us, I have created a new technology-themed
crossword puzzle using only words from my custom-created lexicon related to engineering,
science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. You will never find among
the words names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars,
or anything of the sort. You might, however, find someone or something in the otherwise
excluded list directly related to this puzzle's technology theme...
As I have written often, Hugo Gernsback was
one of the electronics industry's most prolific authors, inventors, and innovators.
In this 1947 article in his Radio-Craft magazine, he proposes using
components in place of leaded resistors. In fact, he sold printed resistive
cards through his Radio Specialty Company (Rasco) that could be cut into whatever
size was needed to achieve the required amount resistance based on a certain ohms/square
value. He also mentions creating printed inductors on Bakelite and even fashioning
variable-coupling transformers with a pair of inductor plates sliding relative to
each other, similar to capacitive "variometers" used for tuning RF circuits. Not
to neglect the possibility of capacitors, Gernsback suggests possibly spraying a
thin conductive coating on paper and then rolling multiple layers into a tubular
form, achieving a smaller form factor per unit capacitance...
Copper Mountain Technologies has released
the new Compact S5045 and M5045 VNAs with a frequency range from 9 kHz to 4.5 GHz.
Featuring a dynamic range of 130 dB typ. and measurement speed of 70 µs,
Compact VNA offerings will effectively replace the functionality of the recently
discontinued S5048, while delivering improved performance. The S5045 will come with
the advanced software features engineers expect from CMT's S Series Compact VNAs.
The M5045 will join the M Series line of Compact VNAs and include standard VNA software
features in an economical package that excludes a number of advanced software features...
"SES, leader in global content connectivity
solutions, announced its selection of two U.S. satellite manufacturers, Northrop
Grumman and the Boeing Company, to deliver four new satellites as part of the company's
accelerated C-band clearing plan to meet the Federal Communication Commission's
roll-out 5G services. Northrop Grumman will deliver two flight-proven GeoStar-3
satellites, each equipped with a high-quality C-band payload to deliver the superior
customer experience that end users are accustomed to. The two satellites - SES-18
and SES-19 - will be designed, assembled and tested in Dulles, Virginia. The Boeing
Company will deliver a pair of highly efficient all-electric 702SP satellites. The
two satellites - SES-20 and SES-21 - will be manufactured and assembled in Los Angeles,
Dog Days of Summer,
contrary to what many people believe, is named not to describe the hottest, most
humid, most oppressive period of the year, but marks the astronomical point in time
following the heliacal rising of the star system
Sirius, aka the Dog Star in the
constellation Canis Major.
40 days later, on August 11th, the Dog Days end. That also happens to be middle
of summer (not midsummer),
which is on or about August 6th. Never having been a proponent of summer, the end
of the Dog Days has always meant we're closer to the end of summer than to the beginning,
and autumn is on the way.
RF Cafe's raison d'être is and always has
been to provide useful, quality content for engineers, technicians, engineering
managers, students, and hobbyists. Part of that mission is offering to post applicable
job openings. HR department employees
and/or managers of hiring companies are welcome to submit opportunities for posting
at no charge. 3rd party recruiters and temp agencies are not included so as to assure
a high quality of listings. Please read through the easy procedure to benefit from
RF Cafe's high quality visitors...
Do you remember seeing a cool Doodle on
the Google search page and would like to find it again? Would you like to see not
only the Doodle that piqued your interest, but ALL of the Doodles that Google has
ever published? You can do that, but what might be more useful would a page full
of all the technology- and science-related Doodles (click large image below) or
some other specific topic. Fortunately, there is an easy way to find what you want
by going to the Google website and typing "google doodles"
into the search box, or just go to www.google.com/doodles. Once you get there, enter
the specific event that interests you. Since some events have Doodles in more than
one year, add a year to your search to narrow down returns...
SF Circuits' specialty is in the complex,
advanced technology of PCB
fabrication and assembly, producing high quality multi-layered PCBs from elaborate
layouts. With them, you receive unparalleled technical expertise at competitive
prices as well as the most progressive solutions available. Their customers request
PCB production that is outside the capabilities of normal circuit board providers.
Please take a moment to visit San Francisco Circuits today. "Printed Circuit Fabrication &
Assembly with No Limit on Technology or Quantity."
News" was a regular column in the 1940 issues of Radio-Craft magazine,
written by their European correspondent Major Ralph Hallows. As the title suggests,
it reported on happenings from across the pond. A couple items caught my attention
in this edition. One is about one of the first instances of the prediction of existence
of a D-Layer in the ionosphere based on radio signal propagation characteristics
noted by operators. The article estimates a height of about 30 miles, while the
modern definition of the D-Layer places it at between 60 km (37 mi) to 90 km (56
mi). It also has a piece describing a simple method for silver plating without the
need for supplying an electrical current. It involves making a paste of silver chloride
and cream of tartar...
Lou Frenzel has an article on the Microwave & RF
website entitled, "It's
All About the Antennas for 5G." He begins: "For 5G technology to function as
expected in apps from factory automation to self-driving vehicles, multiple antennas
must be properly implemented. When studying 5G NR operation, it's not immediately
obvious that 5G meets all of the objectives of the 3GPP standard by using advanced
antenna technology. Antennas are often overlooked and treated with indifference.
After all, antennas are just that nuisance metal thing that you have to put on a
radio to make it work. In the case of 5G, antennas play a major role in achieving
the expected features and performance. The primary objectives of 5G NR..."
Since 1996, ISOTEC has designed, developed
and manufactured an extensive line of RF/microwave connectors, between-series adapters,
RF components and filters for wireless service providers including non-magnetic
connectors for quantum computing and MRI equipments etc. ISOTEC's product line includes
low-PIM RF connectors components such as power dividers and directional couplers.
Off-the-shelf and customized products up to 40 GHz and our low-PIM products
can meet -160 dBc with 2 tones and 20 W test. Quick prototyping, advanced
in-house testing and high-performance. Designs that are cost effective practical
Terms Illustrated" comics was a pretty clever feature in Radio-Craft
magazine in the 1940s. Readers submitted ideas about how words and phrases commonly
used in electronics and communications could be rendered in comical picture form.
Illustrator Frank Beaven, who did work for many magazines of the day, then put pen
to paper to render the kinds of comics shown here. You will note that the first
of the drawings, "Amplitude," is one which probably would not pass editorial review
these days, but was de rigueur back in the days when men made up the vast majority
of readers. By today's standards many advertisers would face a threat of boycott
and a front-page apology would be demanded... and then the magazine would be forced
out of business anyway. There is no satisfying "the mob." Utter destruction of the
past is their goal. To show how extreme...
RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution
of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you
have never used a spreadsheet quite like this. It is a full-featured RF system cascade
parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45.
Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and
the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than
using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all
that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...
Alliance Test Equipment sells
used / refurbished test
equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance
and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix,
Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability
to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Alliance Test
will purchase your excess test equipment in large or small lots. Please visit Allied
Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.
As is the case with most genius inventors
who change the world,
Lee de Forest's contribution to the world of electronics neither began
with nor ended with his invention of the Audion amplifying vacuum tube. As detailed
in many of the other articles published in the January 1947 edition of Radio-Craft
magazine that commemorated the 40-year anniversary (see ToC), de Forest's path
from a simple open flame type of demodulator to the ultimate design of the evacuated
glass-encased Audion tube with plate, control grid cathode, and heater element required
many years of trial and error. The stories were so captivating that I actually read
every article in this edition. Eventually, I will have all of them posted. This
particular piece by Fred Shunaman reports on some of the many other innovative,
patented inventions of de Forest such as antenna transmission lines (twin lead and
coaxial), radio signal detector...