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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe WebmasterCopyright
1996 - 2016
Webmaster:
Kirt Blattenberger,
 BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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"In the fields of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind." - Louis Pasteur"

Today in Science History

"Radicians" at the DEW Line

"Radicians" at the DEW Line, May 1964 Electronics World - RF CafeAfter spending four years as a USAF radar technician, I do not recall ever hearing the term 'radician,' which, according to this article and a few obscure sources on the Internet, is the name given to a radar technician. OK, so I'm a former radician, but I digress. The DEW Line, or Distant Early Warning Line, was a string of radar installations running across the U.S., Canada, and Greenland, just above the Arctic Circle. It was established to protect against potential attacks and/or surveillance by aircraft and/or missiles from the U.S.S.R. Although the radar systems were ...

Predicting Atmospheric Attenuation ... Between 0.1 and 100 THz

Predicting Atmospheric Attenuation Under Pristine Conditions Between 0.1 and 100 THz - RF CafeCentre for Terahertz Science and Engineering: The growing and vibrant Terahertz R&D community is creating major breakthroughs in science & engineering and now offers the realistic prospect of commercial exploitation for niche applications. Atmospheric attenuation has a critical impact on free-space THz applications, ranging from metrology in the laboratory to hitting the perceived 'THz brick wall' in any future spectral expansion beyond 5G. Moreover, further exploration ...

NuWaves Engineering Intros C- and X- Band Low Noise Amplifier

NuWaves Engineering Intros C- and X- Band Low Noise Amplifier - RF CafeNuWaves Engineering, an international Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave solutions provider, announces their broadband low noise amplifier covering C- to X-Band frequencies, extending the frequency range and potential applications over which the HILNA™ family of low noise amplifier (LNA) products can operate. The HILNA™ CX is the latest addition to the NuWaves' High Intercept Low Noise Amplifiers (HILNA™) family of LNA's, covering C- to X-Band ...

Chipmakers Embark on Pre-MWC 5G Virtue-Signaling Frenzy

Chipmakers Embark on Pre-MWC 5G Virtue-Signalling Frenzy - RF Cafe"Intel, Qualcomm and Samsung have issued a flood of announcements all apparently designed to show how incredibly 5G-ready they are. Having regularly dropped the ball on mobile over the past decade Intel is especially desperate to be seen as a viable 5G player and is bombarding tech hacks with relatively open messaging intended to convince us of just that. 'Intel is accelerating the 5G future,' wrote Aicha Evans, GM of the ..."

Ionotronic Memory?

Ionotronic Memory? - RF Cafe"Researchers at Aalto University in Finland have discovered large uniform reversible changes in electrical resistance as oxygen ions migrate in an oxide material. The discovery could open a route to ionotronic memories. Aalto University ion migration probe It transpires that potential difference drives oxygen ions away from one electrical contact, causing an abrupt change in oxide lattice structure and an increase of electrical resistance. Reversal of the voltage polarity fully restores the original material ..."

Single Atomic Layer Semiconductors Get Within Reach

Single Atomic Layer Semiconductors Get Within Reach - RF Cafe"Semiconductors, as thin as a single layer of atoms, are no longer a dream of the future: Researchers in Germany, the United States and Poland have together developed a two-dimensional material that could revolutionize electronics. Its semiconducting properties make this material appear suited for advanced applications even much better than graphene. The new material, introduced to the public in the scientific magazine ACS Nano ..."

Amateur Radio Balloon Part of 2017 National Scout Jamboree

Amateur Radio Balloon to Be Part of K2BSA Activities at 2017 National Scout Jamboree - RF Cafe"A high-altitude Amateur Radio balloon, K2BSA-11, will be launched from the 2017 National Boy Scouts of America Jamboree in West Virginia. The balloon is expected to reach an altitude of 48,000 feet and will transmit on 144.390 MHz APRS. An onboard GPS/computer will shift APRS frequencies based on the balloon’s location around the globe. Carrying out the July 20 launch from the Summit Bechtel Reserve will be Bill Brown WB8ELK; Keith Kaiser, WA0TJT, and other members of the K2BSA Radio Scouting team. They are hoping that the balloon will ..."

FCC Authorizes 1st LTE-U Equipment

FCC Authorizes First LTE-U Equipment - RF cafe"The FCC's office of engineering and technology has authorized the first LTE unlicensed (LTE-U) devices for operation in the 5 GHz Wi-Fi band. According to a release from the FCC, the action followed a successful industry collaboration to ensure that LTE-U can co-exist with Wi-Fi and other unlicensed devices operating in the band. The FCC noted that industry has developed various standards, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBee, that share the ..."

Wi-Fi, LTE Spar over Location

Wi-Fi, LTE Spar over Location - RF Cafe"Someday indoor location could be as widely used as GPS maps. Taking steps toward that day, six vendors certified at least eight chips for a new Wi-Fi Location service while another company announced new software for similar services over 4G cellular. Both new alternatives aim to provide a better approach than today's Bluetooth and ultrawideband beacons. All sides hope to enable a market that's expected to be big. ABI Research estimates as many as 500 million ..."

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword with Weekly Headlines February 26, 2017

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines February 26, 2017For the sake of avid cruciverbalists amongst us, each week I create a new engineering crossword puzzle that has a theme related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. Clues in this puzzle with an asterisk (*) are pulled from this past week's (2/20 - 2/24) "High Tech News" column on the RF Cafe homepage (see the Headline Archives page ...

Telephones Will "Ring" with Musical Tones

Telephones Will "Ring" with Musical Tones , April 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIf you thought that custom ringtones have only been around since the mobile phone, you will be surprised to learn that according to this news brief in a 1956 issue of Popular Electronics, Bell Telephone Labs was experimenting with such features. Bell was exploiting the convenience, small size, and relatively inexpensive transistor to enable customers with deeper pockets to hear something other than the standard mechanical bell ringer. The irony is, of course, that some people nowadays use a ringtone in their smartphones that sounds ...

Elegoo Mega 2560 Arduino Project Kit

Elegoo Mega 2560 Arduino Project Kit - RF CafeArduino has been a sensation in the techie world for about a decade now. Not too long ago electronics 'starter kits' consisted of a battery, a solderless breadboard, a handful of Rs, Ls, and Cs, LEDs, a neon bulb, a couple simple ICs and transistors, and some jumper wires. Compare that to this kit with an Arduino microcontroller and code IDE, LCD, joystick, remote controller, motion and ultrasonic sensors, stepper motor controller, keypad, RFID module, and much more PLUS all the SainSmart DIY Control Palletizing Robot Arm Model for Arduino UNO - RF Cafestuff you got with the old type starter kits - all for a paltry $60 (equiv. to $15 in 1977). Many add-ons available like an übercool robotic arm ...

Modular 5G Antenna Stacks for High Data Rate

Modular 5G Antenna Stacks for High Data Rate - RF Cafe"The new antennas – including the 5-6 GHz Adaptrix CMM200.A – feature a patent-pending, modular interlocking system to help operators scale capacity – when more capacity or speed is needed at a location, another module is clipped to the side of the existing installation. This first-in-the-industry antenna system means that when you need to add capacity, you simply attach extra panels. You can build them up vertically or horizontally like Lego blocks. You don't need to worry about spacing, alignment or ..."

Wi-Fi Certified Location™ Brings Wi-Fi® Indoor Positioning

Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Location™ Brings Wi-Fi® Indoor Positioning - RF Cafe"Wi-Fi feature delivers indoor navigation, asset tracking, and network management. Wi-Fi® now includes advanced capabilities that bring location determination indoors to meet growing market demand for mobile location-based services. Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Location™ brings the same great user experience indoors as is expected from outdoor location-based services (LBS), and enables the creation of new, feature-rich applications and services that will benefit many markets including ..."

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

Wireless Capex 15% Below Estimates in Q4, 'Muted' Spending in 2017

GlobalFoundries Makes Available 45nm RF SOI for 5G Mobile Comms

1990s-Era Sudden Wealth Syndrome (SWS) Redux? (a malady I'd like to have)

Wireless Engine 'Off' Switch to Help SE Asians Get Car Loans

Parents' Enthusiasm for Science Boosts Teens' Exam Scores

Android and iOS Claim Whopping 99.6% of Market in Q4

G'foundries Debuts 45 nm RFSOI

Verizon to Pay Discounted $4.48B for Yahoo Due to Security Issues

HAARP Signals Widely Copied, Experiments to Continue

R.F. Energy Powers Incandescent Lamp

R.F. Energy Powers Incandescent Lamp, April 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeWireless power distribution has been in the news a lot for the last couple years. It began with a goal of just wirelessly charging mobile devices like cellphones, smart watches, and tablet computers. Next came articles about charging electric cars wirelessly while sitting in a parking lot or garage, or even at a stop light. In each instance, the item being charged needed to sit in close proximity to an electric induction coil to be effective. Just a couple days ago, however, a new item ...

Thank Maxwell for Cellphones

Thank Maxwell for Cellphones - RF Cafe"Now that the world has become addicted to portable electronics, billions of people have come to see the companies providing these gadgets as the most innovative, and the people who head those companies as the most exalted, of all time. 'Genius' is a starter category in this discussion. But clever and appealing though today’s electronic gadgets may be, to the historian they are nothing but the inevitable fifth-order elaborations of two fundamental ideas: electromagnetic radiation, the theory of which was formulated by James Clerk Maxwell in the 1860s ..."

Z-Communications Intros Fixed Frequency 990 MHz PLO

Z-Communications Intros Fixed Frequency 990 MHz PLO - RF CafeZ-Communications announces a new Fixed Frequency Synthesizer model SFS0990C-LF. The SFS0990C-LF is a preprogrammed synthesizer that is phase locked at 990 MHz to an external 10 MHz reference oscillator. This PLL features an exceptionally low typical phase noise of -119 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz, -100 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz, and -141 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offsets. The RoHS compliant SFS0990C-LF is designed to deliver a typical output power of +1 dBm ...

Please Visit Triad RF System to Thank Them for Their Support

Triad RF SystemsTriad RF Systems designs and manufactures RF power amplifiers and systems. Triad RF Systems comprises three partners (hence 'Triad') with over 40 years of accumulated knowledge of what is required to design, manufacture, market, sell and service RF/Microwave amplifiers and amplifier systems. "We view Triad more as a technology partner than a vendor for our line-of-sight communications product line." Please check to see how we can help your project ...

TV Show Features "Wires and Pliers"

TV Show Features "Wires and Pliers", April 1956 Popular Electronics - RF CafeWhen I first saw this picture of Dr. Martin L. Klein, I though he was Superman. No, it doesn't take a superman to teach electronics on television, but the familiarity of George Reeves as the star of the "Adventures of Superman" series in from 1953 through 1958 would have been a good reason to use him in the "Wires and Pliers" TV show. Dr. Klein and his techie sidekick Aram Solomonian performed a weekly show presenting basic electronics to the audience. BTW, as long as I am ...

India's New Network of Radio Broadcasting

India's New Network of Radio Broadcasting, April 1938 Radio-Craft - RF CafeWhen this story was written in 1938, India was a country of roughly 2 million square miles, while the 48 United States had about 3.1 million square miles. Radio station growth in the U.S. already had a 3-decade head start in establishing a nationwide network of broadcast and receiving stations. Manufacturing of the required equipment was well established within our borders. India, by contrast, relied heavily on outside sources for equipment and the training of operators and servicemen. The U.S. never has ...

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