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RF Cascade Workbook 2018 (GS) - RF Cafe

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"My dynamite will sooner lead to peace than a thousand world conventions." - Alfred B. Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prizes

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

FCC Reactivating Equipment Authorization System

Motorola Razr's Pricey Comeback on Verizon Wireless

• Japan's Epsilon Rocket Launches 7 Tech Demo Satellites

• Poland Arrests Huawei Executive on Suspicion of Spying for China

• Semiconductor Leaders' Market Shares Surge over Past 10 Years

China Threatens Reprisals If Canada Bans Huawei from 5G Contracts

• Long-Term Semi Market Outlook Remains Bright

• Isotropic Systems Raises $14M for Space-Based Connectivity

Consumers Will Be Disappointed with 5G Speed

Equivalency in RTL Circuits

Equivalency in RTL Circuits, February 1971 Popular Electronics - RF CafeOther than for DC power supply applications where you might need to implement current steering and/or redundancy schemes, there are not too many times when a combination of transistors and/or diodes would be used for logic circuitry in place of integrated circuits. That has not always been the case. Early packaged IC blocks were expensive compared to discrete components, so both hobbyists and professional designers often used a combination of technologies. Resistor-transistor logic (RTL) and diode-transistor logic (DTL), emitter-coupled, logic (ECL), and other variations were covered in a 1969 Radio-Electronics article by titled "How IC's Work: Integrated Circuit Logic Families." This piece provides a little more insight into the construction of those families and shows how to construct logical combinations using diodes and NOR gates ...

3D Printing: The Impact of Post-Processing

3D Printing: The Impact of Post-Processing - RF CafeThe January issue of NASA Tech Briefs magazine has an article titled "3D Printing: The Impact of Post-Processing," which discusses the common misconception that incorporating 3D printing into a manufacturing process is a guaranteed time and money saver. In reality, most 3D components require some post-processing that can be very labor-intensive, which can wipe out any anticipated savings. Fine modeling skills are often needed for those tasks, meaning good jobs for people with modeling building skills. A couple months ago Glenn Robb, of Antenna Test Lab, published a couple articles on his efforts to 3D-print feed horns. Post-processing included smoothing the printed layer ridges and painting the surfaces with metallic paint. 3D printing in most cases still has a long way to go before the ultimate finished-product output is realized ...

Radar Techniques - Primer Principles

Radar Techniques - Primer Principles, April 1945 QST - RF Cafe"The prospective peacetime applications of radar are beyond prediction. Among the more obvious are those relating to navigational aids and colli­sion prevention. In some of these uses it will be a case of radar replacing radio." That was 74 years ago when real-world radar was still in its infancy that futurists were prognosticating on potential uses for radar beyond its use for the war effort. Just a month after the April issue of QST was published, the war in Europe ended (V-E Day, May 8, 1945), and four months after that the war in Japan ended (V-J Day, August 14, 1945). Editor DeSoto would be utterly amazed at just how widespread radar is today. It not only surveys the airways for commercial, military, and civilian craft, but also for marine and land traffic, orbiting spacecraft, and planetary science ...

Buy a Scope – Get a Probe!

Buy a Scope – Get a Probe! - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz is running a new promotion called "Buy a Scope – Get a Probe!" Purchase an R&S®RTM3000 or an R&S®RTA4000 and get a probe for free. High-quality measurements require the right probing solution. With this promotion, customers get a free oscilloscope probe if they buy an R&S®RTM3000 or R&S®RTA4000 with the R&S®RTM‑PK1 or R&S®RTA-PK1 application bundle. They can choose one of six different probes that are specially designed for specific applications. Their individual parameters are optimized for digital protocol decoding applications, power integrity analysis or power electronics measurements ...

DARPA to Secure the Electronics Supply Chain

DARPA to Secure the Electronics Supply Chain - RF Cafe"To better protect the global electronics and IT supply chain, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is looking at solutions that can track and authenticate computer hardware components as they are manufactured, shipped and assembled around the globe. Resold and recycled components degrade the reliability and security of many systems used by the Defense Department. The Pentagon has known about the problem for decades and in 2012 issued comprehensive guidance to DOD program and procurement managers to crack down on the problem, with a particular emphasis on electronic parts and components. However, the increasingly complex nature of the global supply chain means that even primary government contractors have difficulty ..."

Many Thanks to ConductRF for Continued Support!

ConductRF coaxial cables & connectors - RF CafeConductRF is continually innovating and developing new and improved solutions for RF Interconnect needs. See the latest TESTeCON RF Test Cables for labs. ConductRF makes production and test coax cable assemblies for amplitude and phased matched VNA applications as well as standard & precision RF connectors. Over 1,000 solutions for low PIM in-building to choose from in the iBwave component library. They also provide custom coax solutions for applications where some standard just won't do. A partnership with Newark assures fast, reliable access. Please visit ConductRF today to see how they can help your project!

Storing Light in an Integrated Circuit

Storing Light in an Integrated Circuit - RF Cafe"Scientists at the Harvard A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have created a new way to store light in an integrated circuit. The integrated photonics platform also allows them to electronically control the frequency of the light being stored. Scientists believe their new system could have a vast array of applications including microwave photonics, photonic quantum information processing, and optical signal processing, to name a few. Scientists have long hoped to harness microwave signals for such work. Unfortunately, they had always proven to interact far too weakly with electrons to prove effective. That's what led scientists to try a different method, using lithium niobate. This is a material with powerful electro-optic properties ..."

Anatech Electronics January 2019 Newsletter

Anatech Electronics January 2019 Newsletter - RF CafeSam Benzacar, of RF and microwave filter company Anatech Electronics, has penned this piece titled, "5G Fact and Fiction" as part of his January newsletter. Sam keeps abreast of all the latest news in the wireless world, which is not unexpected given his company's long-time involvement in helping others make their products play well together in an increasingly crowded electromagnetic spectrum - both licensed and unlicensed. The term "5G" is still a relatively fuzzy entity whose definition is still being constructed by the telecom industry's engineers, marketeers, and the news media. Also included are a few other topics including Google's high power automotive radar, 5G at this year's CES show, Ford's cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) scheme, and the Bluetooth SIG push ...

Webinar: How LTE-A Pro Paves the Way for 5G New Radio

How LTE-A Pro Paves the Way for 5G New Radio - RF CafeOn January 29, at 11 am ET, Rohde & Schwarz's Reiner Stuhlfauth will present a free webinar titled, "How LTE-A Pro Paves the Way for 5G New Radio." This webinar provides a technology dive into the LTE-A Pro features, showing the flexibility and variety of LTE use cases and service scenarios. The features are presented from the perspective of the 5G service triangle - supporting higher data rates including LAA, enhanced CA, LWA, MUST and SC-PTM, massive machine type communications including LTE-M and NB-IoT enhancements and ultra-reliable low latency services such as C-V2X. LTE-A Pro will play an essential role in 5G deployments. For example, option 3, the non-standalone (NSA) mode ...

Largest Full Moon (Supermoon) of 2019

Largest Full Moon (Supermoon) of 2019 Photo - Airplanes & RocketsJanuary's first full moon, known as the Wolf Moon, is the biggest and brightest full moon of 2019 - a 'supermoon' in modern parlance. It was also a long duration (1 hour and 2 minutes) total lunar eclipse. The technical name for this special combination is the perigee-syzygy of the Earth-Moon-Sun system. The moon reached fullness at 00:17 EST and perigee at 14:59 EST on the 21st. The moon is full when the earth is between the sun and the moon, and the moon is new when it is between the sun and Earth. The picture below was taken out of my back door, at around 9:30 pm local time (Erie, PA), at the beginning of the penumbral phase of the eclipse (not apparent in the photo). The outside temperature was about 5 °F and the wind was howling pretty good - quite appropriate for this Wolf Moon ...

U.S and China in Quantum Physics Arms Race That Will Transform Warfare

U.S and China in Quantum Physics Arms Race That Will Transform Warfare - RF Cafe"In the 1970s, at the height of the Cold War, American military planners began to worry about the threat to U.S. warplanes posed by new, radar-guided missile defenses in the Soviet Union and other nations. In response, engineers at places like U.S. defense giant Lockheed Martin's famous Skunk Works stepped up work on stealth technology that could shield aircraft from the prying eyes of enemy radar. This advantage is now under threat. In November 2018, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, China's biggest defense electronics company, unveiled a prototype radar that it claims can detect stealth aircraft in flight. The radar uses some of the exotic phenomena of quantum physics to help reveal planes' locations ..."

MECA Electronics: Passive RF & Microwave Components

MECA Electronics

Since 1961, MECA Electronics has designed and manufactured an extensive line of RF & microwave components for in-building, satellite, radar, radio, telemetry, mobile radio, aviation & ATC. Attenuators, directional & hybrid couplers, isolators & circulators, power dividers & combiners, loads, DC blocks, bias-Ts and adapters & cables. MECA has long been the 'backbone' of high performance wired and air-interfaced networks such as in-building applications, satellite communications, radar, radio communications, telemetry applications, mobile radio, aviation & air traffic communications ...

Electronics-Themed Comics

Electronics-Themed Comics, April 1969 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeHere is a little technology humor to help easy you into the week ahead. Ironically, the themes of the three comics (by three separate artists) represent an evolution of the electronics realm over the past few decades, although almost certainly not planned by the editors. The first has to do with a couple TV servicemen installing an antenna, the second is of an out-of-work TV repairman, and the third is what might be considered a drone by today's norms. There is a huge list of other comics at the bottom of the page ...

Radar: The Silent Weapon of World War 2

Radar: The Silent Weapon of World War 2, October 1945 Radio News - RF CafeIf the history of radar intrigues you, then you will not want to miss this article titled "Radar: The Silent Weapon of World War 2," from the October 1945 edition of Radio News. There are a couple dozen photos of early radar equipment installations on land, ships, and aircraft. Radar pioneers Dr. A. Hoyt Taylor, Chief Consultant and Chief Coordinator of Electronics at Naval Research Laboratory, and Leo C. Young are pictured reminiscing over the "scope" of radar's history beside the first radar set at the Research Laboratory. In 1922, while experimenting with communications equipment for the Navy, the two men made the initial discovery of distortion in radio reception caused by the intrusion of objects between the transmitter and receiver. Working from this discovery, they and a number of associates made great strides forward into the vast sphere of scientific fields covered by the word "radar" today. Do you see the name(s) of anyone you know? ...

Old Heathkits Never Die, They Just Get Restored

Old Heathkits Never Die, They Just Get Restored - RF CafeThere is no shortage of vintage electronics aficionados who love nothing more than to spend countless hours - and sometimes dollars - restoring and preserving the memory of the products that appeared along the evolutionary path leading to modern electronics. David Goodsell documented his Heathkit EC−1 Analog Computer project on the Nuts & Volts magazine website. He, as do many hobbyists, even stuffed the cardboard cases of the original electrolytic capacitors with modern replacements in order to retain the authentic look. Prices on eBay for some of the vintage equipment has gotten pretty outrageous. He paid more than $400 for this example ...

RF Superstore Intros 60 GHz Transmitter and Receiver Pair

RF Superstore Intros 60 GHz Transmitter and Receiver Pair - RF CafeRF Superstore, an RF and microwave component supply outlet created by Pasternack founder Murray Pasternack, announces the V60-282 Transmitter and V60-283 Receiver. They are advanced, highly integrated V-band waveguide modules that meet the demanding high-speed, low-cost production requirements of today's developers. These silicon-based 60 GHz waveguide modules utilize the license-free V-band millimeter wave spectrum of 57 GHz to 64 GHz. Low Cost, Easy Integration The cost-effective V60-282 and V60-283 SiGe chip-based waveguide modules are easy to integrate. Small and lightweight, the waveguide modules feature a unique chip to waveguide transition. Operates in the license-free frequency range of 57 to 64 GHz ...

New Phone Design to Facilitate the Shift From 4G to 5G

New Phone Design to Facilitate the Shift From 4G to 5G - RF Cafe"Despite limited space within a single mobile device, one group of researchers has identified a new dual antenna design that could allow phones to access both LTE and 5G networks. With any transition between old and new generations of technology, there are compatibility issues. The transition to 5G wireless communication is no different. One hurdle to be overcome in this transition involves incorporating, within a single phone, new antennas that can support the millimeter wavelengths of signals on 5G networks alongside existing antennas that support the longer wavelengths transmitted by LTE networks. In a new proof-of-concept study ..."

Rohde & Schwarz: RF & Microwave, Analog, Digital, & Optical Test Equipment

Rohde & Schwarz RM & Microwave Test Equipment - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz develops, produces and markets test & measurement, information and communications technology. Focus is on test and measurement, broadcast and media, cybersecurity, secure communications, monitoring and network testing. Markets serviced are wireless, the automotive industry, aerospace and defense, industrial electronics, research and education, broadcast and media network operations, consumer electronics, cybersecurity for business and governments, communications and security solutions for critical infrastructures and the armed forces, reconnaissance equipment for homeland and external security, and much more ...

RF Cafe Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for January 20

RF Cafe Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle January 20, 2019Each week, for the sake of all avid cruciverbalists amongst us, I create a new technology-themed crossword puzzle using only words from my custom-created lexicon related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. You will never find among the words names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort. You might, however, see someone or something in the exclusion list who or that is directly related to this puzzle's theme, such as Hedy Lamarr or the Bikini Atoll, respectively. Enjoy ...

Units and Standards of Electrical Measure

Units and Standards of Electrical Measure, August 1964 Electronics World - RF CafeIn 1988, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was re-named National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) because a government bureaucrat needed to justify his/her position and the financing to change all the signs, brochures, and letterhead would be paid for with OPM (Other People's Money, pronounced like 'opium'). Regardless of its name, the NBS is charged with establishing, maintaining, and enforcing standard units of measure for the country, as well as with coordinating standard units with other countries. It is interesting to read how standards have changed over the years, and what methods have been suggested for establishing those standards; e.g., the Ohm (Ω) could have been based on a foot of copper wire weighing 100 grains, an English mile of No. 16 copper wire ...

Bluetooth SIG to Intro Bluetooth Mesh Specifications for Smart Home Apps

Bluetooth SIG to Intro Bluetooth Mesh Specifications for Smart Home Apps - RF Cafe"The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), in a bid to address the increased adoption of Bluetooth mesh networking in Smart Home solutions, has formed a new Smart Home Subgroup. The announcement follows the decision from a growing number of market leaders to adopt Bluetooth mesh networking as a strategic communications protocol for smart home solutions. The new Smart Home Subgroup has been established to create additional Bluetooth mesh model specifications for smart home and related applications. Mesh models constitute the application layer of Bluetooth mesh networking and define the behavior of devices connected to a Bluetooth mesh network. For example, mesh models define how a Bluetooth mesh light is controlled by a Bluetooth mesh switch ..."

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About RF Cafe
Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster
Copyright: 1996 - 2018
    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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