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"At that time, space was empty..." - Dr. Heiner Klinkrad, ESCO, commenting on space debris

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

• South Korean Telcos Agree to Launch 5G Services at Same Time

• Another Cable Operator Signals Plans to Get into Wireless

Teens Glued to Phones Risk 'Modest' Rise in ADHD Symptoms

• Funding for Advanced Battery Research Hangs in Balance

FCC Judge Dismisses Radio Amateur's Long-Standing License Renewal Application

• FCC Moves Ahead on 3.7-4.2 GHz Order

EU Fines Google $5B over Android Antitrust Abuse

• AI Becomes the New Moore's Law

ARRL Represented at IEEE Symposium in Boston

Meter-Reading Quiz

Meter-Reading Quiz, June 1966 Popular Electronics - RF CafeHere is the 46th quiz I have posted from 1960s and 1970s issues of Electronics World and Popular Electronics magazines. Most of were created by Robert P. Balin. I like to save them for Friday afternoons. Guys like me who cut our teeth on analog meters read these indications like a second language. Even novices usually do a good job on the meter needles, but reading a mechanical micrometer (#9) might be more of a challenge, especially if you have never used one before. The same goes for a dial caliper. Can you read the dials on a mechanical gas or electric meter, where some spin CW and others spin ...

Fairview Skew Matched Cable Pairs with 1 ps Delay Match

Fairview Microwave Debuts New Skew Matched Cable Pairs with 1 ps Delay Match - RF CafeFairview Microwave, a leading provider of on-demand RF and microwave components, has released a new line of 40 GHz skew-matched cable pairs designed for bit-error-rate testing, eye diagrams and differential signals at data rates of 10 Gbps to 28 Gbps. Fairview's new line of skew matched cables consists of three extremely flexible models that are 100% tested for skew match. Performance specs include an impressive VSWR of 1.4:1 and 1 ps delay match. These cable pairs cover two channels with 50 Ohms nominal impedance and a bandwidth of DC to 40 GHz. The skew matched cables ...

Startup Targets the More Mundane Tasks of Test Engineering

Startup Targets the More Mundane Tasks of Test Engineering - RF Cafe"Test engineering is a global endeavor. Electronic devices can be prototyped thousands of miles from where they are manufactured and ultimately deployed. They must be tested every step of the way. But electrical engineers worlds apart may store test results in different places, which can complicate tasks like debugging glitches and correlating results with test conditions. Santa Clara, California-based startup Gradient One is trying to simplify many of the mundane tasks weighing down test engineering as hardware becomes more complicated. The company has developed a cloud platform for test automation, storage and analysis and other tasks that traditionally have been handled ..."

Melting Silicon for Semiconductors

Melting Silicon for Semiconductors, May 1959 Electronics World - RF CafeThis feature appeared at the end of a larger article titled, "RF Induction Heating." A notable difference between the type of induction heating in the other article and the type described here is that rather than directly heating a metallic substance to be treated (melted, bent, tempered, etc.), a "susceptor" (graphite crucible) is used to absorb the field and heat up to melt by conduction (via a quartz liner) the silicon material within. Pure silicon cannot absorb the RF energy sufficiently to be heated directly. Interestingly, if you go to the Wikipedia susceptor page, it has an image of Hot Pockets, which are wrapped in a type of susceptor that produces a crispy exterior while heating the interior. As you are probably aware ...

DARPA Plans a Major Remake of U.S. Electronics

DARPA Plans a Major Remake of U.S. Electronics - RF Cafe"The defense department's research wing is pouring $1.5B into projects that could radically alter how electronics are made. The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is launching a huge expansion of its Electronics Resurgence Initiative, boosting the program to US $1.5B over five years. And while some of the research efforts will be just what you've come to expect from the agency that brought you disposable drones, self-driving cars, and cameras that can see around corners, a lot of this new money is going toward ideas that could fundamentally change how chips are designed. If it all works out ..."

Mini-Circuits & Vayyar Educational Project Kits for RF Engineers

Mini-Circuits and Vayyar Team up to Offer Educational Project Kits for RF Engineers - RF Cafe"Mini-Circuits is pleased to announce a new partnership with 3D imaging sensor company Vayyar Imaging to offer microwave transceiver project kits with broad applicability for students and university programs spanning topics in electromagnetic theory, RF / microwave engineering, RF systems, and radar technology. The first project kit, UVNA-63 includes all the elements students need to build a fully functioning vector network analyzer, develop S-Parameter algorithms, and perform real-time measurements of 2-port RF devices. The kit comprises Vayyar's high-performance transceiver chip ..."

Whence Come the JK Part of a J−K Flip-Flop?

Whence Come the "JK" Part of a JK Flip-Flop? - RF CafeHint: It's not, as is often claimed, in honor of Jack Kilby (he designed the first commercial IC). Last night while reading an article on T, RS, and JK flip-flop RTL (resistor-transistor logic) ICs, I tried to recall the origin of the "JK" designation. An Internet search turned up lots of claims of Jack Kirby, but fortunately Sourav Bhattacharya posted the true origin in a piece on the Quora website. The origin predates the fame of Jack Kilby, and is remarkably uninteresting. This is another case of a fake story being perpetuated merely because it seems reasonable. I saved a copy of Mr. Bhattacharya's post in case it one day disappears ...

RF Induction Heating

RF Induction Heating, May 1959 Electronics World - RF CafeIf you are interested in the ingenious machines and methods manufacturing engineers dream up for quickly and reliably producing parts and assemblies in large volumes, then you will definitely appreciate this article on RF induction heating. This process of course only works with metallic objects, unlike microwave type heating schemes that work with liquids. Induction heating requires the generated electric, magnetic, or RF field to invoke electrical currents within the metals to increase its temperature. Ohm's law applies here. Have you ever used a torch to heat a metal bolt, wire, car fender, etc., and noticed how it usually discolors the surface and might even produce a crusty oxide layer? An extreme temperature rise as is required for soldering, brazing ...

Anatech Electronics Product Update July 2018

Anatech Electronics Product Update July 17, 2018 - RF CafeAnatech Electronics, Inc. offers the industry's largest portfolio of high-performance standard and customized RF and microwave filters and filter-related products for military, commercial, aerospace and defense, and industrial applications up to 40 GHz. Anatech has introduced three new filter designs: a 1090/60 MHz cavity bandpass filter with N-type connectors, a 150/10 MHz cavity bandstop filter with SMA connectors, and a 2250/100 MHz user-tunable bandpass filter with SMA connectors ...

The Chronicles of GND (Part 2): Single Supply = Multiple Problems

The Chronicles of GND (Part 2): Single Supply = Multiple Problems - RF CafeKendall Castor-Perry has posted Part 2 of "The Chronicles of GND" on the Electronic Design website. "The Filter Wizard's latest installment of 'The Front End' looks at how the ancestral 'split-supply' PCB layouts have mostly ceded to 'single-supply' configurations, and the GND implications that often ensue. When I get a printed-circuit-board (PCB) layout back for review, there are a few things I look for first. I can usually get a feeling for what kind of board designer has been at work, too, specifically if s/he is (or s/he thinks s/he is) a 'digital' designer, an 'RF' designer, or a 'power' designer. You might ..."

IMS 2018 Highlights 5G, Microwaves, Medicine and Mobility

IMS 2018 Highlights 5G, Microwaves, Medicine and Mobility - RF Cafe"The IEEE MTT-S 2018 International Microwave Symposium (IMS), took place in Philadelphia this year from 10-15 of June. The event marked an attendance of over 8,400 attendees. IMS, the annual conference and exhibition of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S), is the premier international meeting for technologists involved in all aspects of microwave theory and practice. The six-day event, held at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, drew 4,500 attendees to the technical program and the exhibition featured over 625 exhibiting companies. IMS attendees comprised RF designers, researchers, developers, and academics ..."

Speeding Oscillation of Double Heterojunction BJTs

Speeding Oscillation of Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors - RF Cafe"Researchers at ETH Zurich in Switzerland claim the fastest quaternary-base double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) reported to date with maximum oscillation greater than the cut-off frequency, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The quaternary base consisted of graded gallium indium arsenide antimonide (GaInAsSb). Adding indium to GaAsSb improves electron transport properties such as mobility and sheet resistance. GaAsSb's conduction band has two types of valley - one at zero wavevector (the Γ point) and one in the 'L' directions of the crystal structure. In GaAsSb, the L-valley is close ..."

Lo! The Russian Radio/TV Serviceman

Lo! The Russian Radio/TV Serviceman, August 1967 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn 1967, when this parody was published in Popular Electronics, the Iron Curtain of Communist Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) was still firmly in place. Constructing faux Russian-sounding words was common at the time. All a comedian needed to do to have their audiences rolling in the aisles was to append "ski," "ovitch" or "skov" to the end of any word, or add lots of "z"s and "k"s in the middle of words. Tim Conway and Harvey Korman did many hilarious skits on the 1970s' Carol Burnett show where they feigned speaking in German, Japanese, Russian, and other tongues. Nowadays ...

Many Thanks to ERZIA for Continued Support!

Many Thanks to ERZIA for Continued Support!RF Cafe's continued existence depends on companies like ERZIA providing support. ERZIA produces microwave and mm-wave modular amplifiers and integrated assemblies operating from Low frequencies up to 100 GHz. Their catalogue of standard amplifier modules comprises more than 100 different models, having also a high capacity of customization for amplifiers and integrated assemblies. Some of products have space heritage and are used in aerospace, commercial, military and scientific systems, having a wide range of final applications ...

RF Stencils for Visio v3.1 Available! - Your Support Keeps Me off Welfare ;-)

RF Microwave Wireless Analog Block Diagrams Stencils Shapes for Visio - v3 - RF CafeWith more than 780 custom-built symbols, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built from scratch to fit proportionally on the provided A- and B-size drawing page templates (you can use your own page if preferred). Components are provided for equipment racks (EIA and ETSI) and test equipment, system block diagrams and conceptual drawings, and for schematics ...

Flann Working with NASA on Space Mission to Map Earth's Water

Flann Working with NASA on Space Mission to Map Earth's Water - RF CafeWorld leading microwave engineering company Flann Microwave is supplying vital components to the U.S. space agency NASA for a major spaceflight mission making the first-ever global survey of Earth's surface water. The multinational Surface Water and Ocean Topology (SWOT) satellite, planned to launch in 2021, is being jointly developed and managed by NASA, the French Space Agency (CNES), and the Canadian Space Agency, with contributions from the United Kingdom Space Agency. It is UK-based Flann's first project for NASA and has seen engineers working closely with their counterparts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ...

If You're an Engineer, You Need to Be Attending Trade Shows

If You're an Engineer, You Need to Be Attending Trade Shows - RF Cafe"If you want to remain at the top of your game, trade show attendance should be part of every engineer's strategy for growth and continuing education. In this age, you can find out everything you want to know about anything with just a few keystrokes. There are processes, materials, components, and modules for which you can get nearly instantaneous data of all types (pricing, availability, specification, reviews, etc.) via simple online searches. The problem is you have to know what you are searching for. The Internet is a true wonder for researching when you know what you are looking for ..."

Mac's Service Shop: How It Started

Mac's Service Shop: How It Started, February 1960 Electronics World - RF CafeMac's staff service technician, Barney, asked a great question when he mentioned that Pittsburgh radio station KDKA made the country's first commercial broadcast in 1920: "Who was listening?" It is a reasonable question since prior to the beginning on commercial radio broadcasts there would have been no reason for there to have been a lot of people to own a radio for receiving commercial broadcasts. The answer, of course, is that there were plenty of multi-band radios in homes and businesses for listening in on shortwave broadcast from around the world - a very popular pastime in the era. Just as today we are bombarded with admonitions to not stare at computer monitors or cellphone screens for too long lest we suffer near-sightedness or worse, radio listeners of yore who used headsets were told, "Youths of this generation will never have as protruding ears ...

A Non-Linear Analysis of the Saturated MOSFET

A Non-Linear Analysis of the Saturated MOSFET - RF CafeBeginning on page 22 of the June 2018 issue of High Frequency Electronics (HFE). "A Non-Linear Analysis of the Saturated MOSFET," by Dr. Alfred Grayzel. "Abstract: The maximum power and the maximum efficiency at the maximum power have been derived for the MOSFET; when the MOSFET is in saturation over the entire cycle, using the square law theory. Results are presented for the following three cases: the gate voltage is a sinusoid, a half sinusoid and a square wave. Results using the square law theory and bulk-charge theory for analysis of the MOSFET are compared ..."

ZipRecruiter® Engineering Job Search Services

ZipRecruiter Engineering Job Search Services - RF CafeZipRecruiter is a relative newcomer to the online job search world. It began in 2010 as a "kitchen table project" by the founders literally in the kitchen of co-founder Ian Siegel. I hear their radio ads frequently. You might have seen ZipRecruiter ads on TV, but I almost never watch TV. The BBB gives ZipRecruiter an A+ rating. If you scan through the user gripes, they appear to be mainly from hiring companies who did not read and/or adhere to the policy for cancellation of the service. Job seeker complaints tend to focus on dissatisfaction with hiring company practices, which you will find with any job posting service. For comparison, Monster gets a D- rating, and CareerBuilder rates an A+. Having no personal experience with ZipRecruiter, I can neither endorse nor condemn them. Marketing Intern Amanda Drury sent me an e-mail asking ...

Resistivity (ρ) & Conductivity (σ) of Metals, Alloys, Rocks, and Soils

Resistivity (ρ) & Conductivity (σ) of Metals, Alloys, Rocks, and Soils - RF CafeI recently created a new reference page titled "Resistivity (ρ) & Conductivity (σ) of Metals, Alloys, Rocks, and Soils." Values for materials are pulled from my copy of Reference Data for Radio Engineers, Sams Publishing. Resistivity, also referred to as specific resistance, is dependent on the nature of the material as well as its volume definition (shape and size). Resistivity is expressed in units that are the product of resistance and length; e.g., Ω·cm. As an example of calculating a volume's resistance, consider the drawing to the left. Assume 12 AWG copper wire with a resistivity of 1.72x10-6 Ω·cm, a cross-sectional area (A) of 0.03309 cm2, and a length ...

ConductRF D38999 Standard & Custom RF Solutions to 65 GHz

ConductRF D38999 Standard & Custom RF Solutions - RF CafeConductRF is offering standard D38999 RF coaxial cable assembly configurations with RF Contacts including; BMA to 20 GHz SMPM to 60 GHz Size #8 to 18 GHz Size #12 Mil-Spec. Size #16 Mil-Spec. Cable choice include Low Loss Flexible and standard RG styles. Custom marking and also ruggedization coverings including Nomex weave available ...


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About RF Cafe
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Copyright: 1996 - 2018
    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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