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RF Cascade Workbook 2018 (GS) - RF Cafe

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"I'll never forget thinking, I'm smarter than half these guys. I may be dumber than half, but I'm definitely in the range." - Josh James

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

• Russia to Create New Radar Field Against Cruise Missiles

5G and IoT lead Telco Transformation Drive

Huawei to Sue over FCC Restrictions on USF Spending

• Novel Material Switches Between Conducting and Insulating States

DSS Used on Live 5G Call Between Switzerland, Australia

• Huawei to Shift Research Center from U.S. to Canada

China Mandates Face Scans for People Buying Mobile Phones

• Rakuten's Tareq Amin Most Powerful Person in Wireless Tech for 2019

• The Race to Exascale at Supercomputer 2019

3D Smith Chart Application Article

3D Smith Chart article in Nature magazine - RF CafeAndre Muller and colleagues just published a major paper in Nature magazine demonstrating the unique aptness of his 3D Smith Chart in the design of applications where complex frequency dependencies must be assessed, as with Metal-Insulator-Transition (MIT) materials. You'll need to have your thinking cap on for this one ;-)  "In this work, we develop and use 3D Smith charts for devices and circuits having complex frequency dependences, like the ones resulting using MIT materials. The novel foundation of a 3D Smith chart involves here the geometrical fundamental notions of oriented curvature and variable homothety in order to clarify first theoretical inconsistencies in Foster and Non Foster circuits, where the driving point impedances exhibit mixed clockwise and counter-clockwise frequency dependent (oriented) paths on the Smith chart as frequency increases. We show here the unique visualization capability of a 3D Smith chart, which allows to quantify orientation over variable frequency ..."

Mexican Students Launch CubeSat to ISS

Mexican Students Launch a Small Satellite to International Space Station - RF Cafe"The first satellite built by students in Mexico for launch from the International Space Station is smaller than a shoebox but represents a big step for its builders. The project is part of NASA's CubeSat Launch Initiative, which offers universities, high schools and non-profit organizations the opportunity to fly small satellites. Innovative technology partnerships keep down the cost, providing students a way to obtain hands-on experience developing flight hardware. A multidisciplinary team of students at Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP), in Puebla, Mexico, built the CubeSat for AzTechSat-1. The investigation demonstrates communication within a satellite network in low-Earth orbit ..."

World Distance Charts from NYC and San Francisco

World Distance Charts from NYC and San Francisco, July 1934 Radio News & The Short-Wave - RF CafeBefore the Internet, cellphone apps, and personal computers, many calculations began with a lookup table, chart, or nomograph. In the case of long distance radio operators [Ham, Short Wave Listener (SWL), and professional types] seeking distance and direction information for pointing antennas, it took a map like this one published by Radio News & Short-Wave magazine in 1934 to estimate an optimal configuration. Such tools were essential in order to determine the best direction to point the antenna, which over a long distance is usually much different than what might be assumed by looking at a flattened projection map of the earth (see "Distance Lends Enchantment" below). Distances in Chart No. 1 are all relative to New York, so operators in other locales need to compensate. Here is one example of many online great circle calculators ...

Many Thanks for Alliance Test Equipment's Support!

Allied Test Equipment Products - RF CafeAlliance Test sells used / refurbished test equipment and offers short- and long-term rentals. They also offer repair, maintenance and calibration. Prices discounted up to 80% off list price. Agilent/HP, Tektronix, Anritsu, Fluke, R&S and other major brands. A global organization with ability to source hard to find equipment through our network of suppliers. Please visit Allied Test Equipment today to see how they can help your project.

W1AW Commemorates 98th Anniversary of 1st Amateur Radio Signals to Span the Atlantic

W1AW Commemorates 98th Anniversary of 1st Amateur Radio Signals to Span the Atlantic - RF CafeDecember 11 marks the 98th anniversary of the success of ARRL's Transatlantic Tests in 1921, organized to see if low-power amateur radio stations could be heard across the Atlantic using shortwave frequencies (i.e., above 200 meters). On that day, a message transmitted by a group of Radio Club of America members at 1BCG in Greenwich, Connecticut, was copied by Paul Godley, 2ZE, in Scotland. While the first two-way contact would not take place until 1923, the 1921 transatlantic success marked the beginning of what would become routine communication between US radio amateurs and those in other parts of the world - literally the birth of DX ...

VidaRF: Passive RF & Microwave Components

vidaRF passive RF & microwave components - RF CafeAt VidaRF, the phrase 'Providing Simple Solutions for Complex Connections' is more than just a slogan – it's a mindset, a mission, and a driving force behind everything we do. Their pledge is to design and distribute high performance, cost effective RF Microwave products to fit each customer's unique applications. Please visit VidaRF today to see how their lines of attenuators & terminations, directional couplers, power dividers, coaxial connectors, and circulator & isolators can be of use to your project. "When the standard just will not do, VidaRF has the solution for you!"

Carl & Jerry: Santa's Little Helpers

Carl & Jerry: Santa's Little Helpers, December 1955 Popular Electronics - RF Cafe

Were strings of miniature Christmas tree lights not available for purchase in 1955? This adventure of "Carl & Jerry" seems to imply that was the case since it concerns the design and constructions of such a circuit using low voltage panel lamps (light bulbs). Although usually the two techno-teenager are co-conspiring on various tasks of high tech sleuthing or radio-related pursuits, but in this case if it Jerry who has been doing the hard work. Author John Frye might not know how prescient he was when describing the two inventions he conjured up for Carl and Jerry. The first is the aforementioned miniature Christmas light string and the second is a voice recording device that can capture a short message and then quickly play it back. The playback scheme involves kids reciting their Christmas wish list to a fake Santa Claus and then having him read it back to them in a different voice ...

Flashing Red Light - RF Cafe Cadence to Acquire AWR Corporation from National Instruments

Cadence to Acquire AWR Corporation from National Instruments - RF CafeI didn't see this one coming, but it seems like a great move - Cadence Design Systems and National Instruments Corporation today announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement pursuant to which Cadence expects to acquire AWR Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of National Instruments (NI). AWR is an industry leader in high-frequency RF EDA software technology and will bring a highly talented RF team to Cadence. Concurrently, Cadence and NI also entered into a strategic alliance agreement to expand their relationship to enhance electronic system innovation with a focus on communications. AWR software is used by microwave and RF engineers to design wireless products for complex, high-frequency RF applications. The technology helps customers accelerate the design and product development cycle of systems used in communications, aerospace and defense, semiconductor, computer, and consumer electronics ...

Thanks to Transient Specialists for Continued Support!

Transient Specialists - RF CafeTransient Specialists specializes in EMC test equipment rentals and carries a complete line of ESD guns, surge immunity test equipment, and EFT generators. Rentals available for military (Mil-Std 461), automotive (ISO 7637), and commercial (IEC 61000-4) EMC testing. Flexible terms, accredited calibrations and technical support on EMC testing equipment offered. Equipment consists of top EMC Test System manufacturers, including Teseq, Thermo Keytek, EM Test and EMC Partner. Contact Transient Specialists today for your ESD / EMC / RFI testing needs.

NAVPERS 10622 Chapter 20: Transformers

NAVPERS 10622 Chapter 20: Transformers: Basic Navy Training Courses - RF CafeElectronics technicians trained by the U.S. Navy (and, ahem, the U.S. Air Force) have always been highly regarded in private industry because of the excellent classroom instruction, rigorous on-the-job training (OJT), and hands-on experience maintaining both legacy and state-of-the-art equipment. Electronics tech schools begin with teaching the fundamentals of electricity and electronics, and then branches off into areas of specialty, depending on the type of equipment the enlistee will be assigned to maintain. The military works under the assumption that you have no significant former knowledge of the topic - although being admitted into certain programs requires passing an aptitude exam prior to enlistment. In my case, it was six weeks of BET (Basic Electronics Training). followed by 26 weeks of Specialty Electronics Training School (SETS). Yes, the government has an acronym for everything. Six more months of self-study course material (with testing) was required during the initial OJT period ...

Rigid Flex PCB Application & Design Guide

Rigid Flex PCB Application & Design Guide - RF CafeWhen designing a rigid flex PCB, it is important to consider all of the relevant factors that will go into producing the right board for your application. Rigid flex printed circuit boards (PCBs) are hybrid circuit boards that combine the characteristics of hardboards and flexible circuitry, with areas that are rigid for component assembly providing the same density as hard boards, and flexible areas connecting the rigid boards to one another. The design and construction of these circuits include multiple layers of rigid boards and flexible circuits. In our "Rigid Flex PCB Application & Design Guide," we outline what you need to know about: The applications and environments in which rigid flex PCBs excel, How to successfully assemble and install your rigid flex PCB.

RF Superstore: Supplier of RF & Microwave Components

RF Superstore coaxial cable, connectors, adapters - RF CafeRF Superstore launched in 2017, marking the return of Murray Pasternack, founder of Pasternack Enterprises, to the RF and microwave Industry. Pasternack fundamentally changed the way RF components were sold. Partner Jason Wright manages day-to-day operations, while working closely with Mr. Pasternack to develop RF Superstore into a world class RF and microwave component supplier. RF coaxial connectors & adapters, coaxial cable & cable assemblies, surge protectors, attenuators. Items added daily. Free shipping on orders over $99. We're leading the way again!

Plane at 20,000 - Pilot at Altitude Zero

Plane at 20,000 - Pilot at Altitude Zero, December 1974 Popular Mechanics - RF CafeRF technology has been a large part of new and upgraded aircraft development not just for studies of radio and radar performance, but also for remote control (R/C) of small- and full-scale prototype models. R/C began life as bulky vacuum tube systems with transmitters that needed to sit on the ground with a hand-held command box. Airborne systems carried lead-acid batteries for power*. Frequencies in the U.S. were in the 27 MHz Citizens Band, and then moved into 53 MHz (Ham band), 72 MHz (airborne only), and 75 MHz (ground only) bands. All modern R/C systems operate in the 2.4 GHz ISM band using spread spectrum modulation (FHSS and DSSS). Having been a builder and flyer of R/C models since the 1970s, I have read many articles about the role played by modelers over the years in modeling magazines and more general purpose magazines like this one in a 1974 issue of Popular Mechanics. Prior to the availability of super-powerful computers and sophisticated fluid dynamics simulation programs ...

10 Million Egyptian Cars to be Tracked via RFID

10 Million Egyptian Cars to be Tracked via RFID - RF Cafe"Egypt's Ministry of Interior (MOI) plans to identify millions of vehicles as they travel on the country's roads, using an RFID solution from Go+, with hardware and software provided in cooperation with Wireless Dynamics. The system, which will be implemented across approximately 10 million of the country's vehicles throughout the next five years, consists of passive UHF RFID stickers attached to each car's windshield, as well as tags on headlamps that respond to interrogation from readers installed above roadways, even at high speeds. The nation of Egypt faces a growing challenge related to traffic and the management of all cars operating on its roadways ..."

Thanks to PCB Directory for Continued Support!

PCB  Directory - RF CafePCB Directory is the largest directory of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturers, Assembly houses, and Design Services on the Internet. We have listed the leading printed circuit board manufacturers around the world and made them searchable by their capabilities - Number of laminates used, Board thicknesses supported, Number of layers supported, Types of substrates (FR-4, Rogers, flexible, rigid), Geographical location (U.S., China), kinds of services (manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, prototype), and more. Fast turn-around on quotations for PCB fabrication and assembly.

The Tunnel Diode

The Tunnel Diode, September 1960, Popular Electronics - RF CafeLeo Esaki invented the tunnel diode (aka the Esaki diode) in 1957 while working at Sony (Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo at the time). Tunnel diodes have a very narrow, heavily doped p−n junction only around 10 nm (100 Å) wide that exhibits a broken bandgap, where conduction band electrons on the n-side are approximately aligned with valence band holes on the p-side and thereby facilitate the quantum mechanical tunneling process after which the diode is named. A negative differential resistance in part of their operating range makes them useful for high frequency oscillators. This article in a 1960 edition of Popular Electronics introduces the device's characteristics and potential uses. Interestingly, if you want to buy a tunnel diode today, you will likely have to find old stock on on eBay or Amazon since I could not find anyone who sells new stock (Digi-Key, Newark, Mouser ...

Teledyne e2v HiRel Radiation Tolerant 60 GHz SPDT RF Switch for Space Apps

Teledyne e2v HiRel Releases Radiation Tolerant 60 GHz Reflective SPDT RF Switch for Space Applications - RF CafeTeledyne e2v HiRel today announced the availability of a new RF power limiter, the 2.5 GHz, 100 W, TDLM025100. The limiter is a monolithic integrated circuit based on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology that is ideal for use in high reliability aerospace and defense applications. This new integrated device provides customers with a more reliable and robust power protection solution compared to the traditional industry alternative, discrete GaAs PIN diode circuits with multiple external components. The power limiter delivers low insertion loss and high linearity under non-limiting power levels and extremely fast response time in a limiting event, ensuring protection of sensitive circuitry ...

Reactel: RF & Microwave Filters of All Types

Reactel Filters - RF Cafe

Reactel has become one of the industry leaders in the design and manufacture of RF and microwave filters, diplexers, and sub-assemblies. They offer the generally known tubular, LC, cavity, and waveguide designs, as well as state of the art high performance suspended substrate models. Through a continuous process of research and development, they have established a full line of filters of filters of all types - lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, diplexer, and more. Established in 1979. Please contact Reactel today to see how they might help your project.

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for December 8

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle December 8, 2019 - RF CafeAs with my hundreds of previous engineering and science-themed crossword puzzles, this one for December 8, 2019, contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc., which I have built up over nearly two decades. Many new words and company names have been added that had not even been created when I started in the year 2002. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village in the Andes mountains. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you ...

Triad RF Systems ConductRF Phased Matched RF Cables - RF Cafe
Res-Net Microwave - RF Cafe
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Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster
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    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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