NEETS Module 4—Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques, and Schematic Reading
Pages i - ix
, 1-1 to 1-10
1-11 to 1-20
, 1-21 to 1-28
2-1 to 2-10
, 2-11 to 2-20
2-21 to 2-30
, 2-31 to 2-40
2-41 to 2-53
, 3-1 to 3-10
3-11 to 3-20
, 3-21 to 3-24
to 4-10, 4-11 to 4-18, Index
Upon completing this chapter, you should be able to:
1. State the basic requirements for any
splice and terminal connection, including the preferred wire- stripping method.
2. State the reason the
ends of the wire are clamped down after a Western Union splice has been made.
3. Explain the major
advantage of the crimped terminal over the soldered terminal.
4. Name the two types of insulation
commonly used for noninsulated splices and terminal lugs.
5. State an advantage of using preinsulated
terminal lugs and the color code used for each.
6. Explain the procedures for crimping terminal lugs
with a hand crimp tool.
7. Recall the physical description and operating procedures for the HT-900B/920B
compressed air/nitrogen heating tool.
8. Recall the safety precautions for using the compressed
air/nitrogen heating tool.
9. Recall the procedures, precautions, and tools associated with soldering.
10. Explain the procedures and precautions for tinning wire.
11. Recall the types of soldering
irons and their uses.
12. State the purposes and required properties of flux.
13. State the purpose for lacing conductors.
14. Recall when double lacing of wire bundles is required.
15. Recall the requirements for using spot ties.
This chapter will assist you in learning the basic skills of proper wiring techniques. It explains the
different ways to terminate and splice electrical conductors. It also discusses various soldering techniques that
will assist you in mastering the basic soldering skills. The chapter ends with a discussion of the procedure to be
followed when you lace wire bundles within electrical and electronic equipment.
CONDUCTOR SPLICES AND TERMINAL CONNECTIONS
Conductor splices and connections are an essential part of any electrical circuit. When conductors join
each other or connect to a load, splices or terminals must be used. Therefore, it is important that they be
properly made. Any electrical circuit is only as good as its weakest link. The basic requirement of any splice or
connection is that it be both mechanically and electrically as sound as the conductor or device with which it is
used. Quality workmanship and materials must be used to ensure lasting electrical contact, physical strength, and
insulation. The most common methods of making splices and connections in electrical cables is explained in the
discussion that follows.
The preferred method of removing insulation is with a wire-stripping
tool, if available. A sharp knife may also be used. Other typical wire strippers in use in the Navy are
illustrated in figure 2-1. The hot- blade, rotary, and bench wire strippers (views A, B, and C, respectively) are
usually found in shops where large wire bundles are made. When using any of these automatic wire strippers, follow
the manufacturer's instructions for adjusting the machine; this avoids nicking, cutting, or otherwise damaging the
conductors. The hand wire strippers are common hand tools found throughout the Navy. The hand wire strippers (view
D of figure 2-1) are the ones you will most likely be using. Wire strippers vary in size according to wire size
and can be ordered for any size needed.
Figure 2-1.—Typical wire-stripping tools.
Hand Wire Stripper
The procedure for stripping wire with the hand wire
stripper is as follows (refer to figure 2-2):
Figure 2-2.—Stripping wire with a hand stripper.
1. Insert the wire into the center of the correct cutting slot for the wire size to be stripped. The
wire sizes are listed on the cutting jaws of the hand wire strippers beneath each slot.
2. After inserting the wire into the proper slot, close the handles together as far as they will go.
3. Slowly release the pressure on the handles so as not to allow the cutting blades to make contact with the
stripped conductor. On some of the newer style hand wire strippers, the cutting jaws have a safety lock that helps
prevent this from happening. Continue to release pressure until the gripper jaws release the stripped wire, then
A sharp knife may be used to strip the insulation from a
conductor. The procedure is much the same as for sharpening a pencil. The knife should be held at approximately a
60º angle to the conductor. Use extreme care when cutting through the insulation to avoid nicking or cutting the
conductor. This procedure produces a taper on the cut insulation as shown in figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3.—Knife stripping.
Locally Made Hot-Blade Wire Stripper
If you are required to strip a large
number of wires, you can use a locally made hot-blade stripper
(figure 2-4) as follows:
Figure 2-4.—Locally made hot-blade stripper.
1. In the end of a piece of copper strip, cut a sharp-edged "V." At the bottom of the "V," make a
wire slot of suitable diameter for the size wire to be stripped.
2. Fasten the copper strip around the heating element of an electric soldering iron as shown in figure 2-4. The
iron must be rated at 100 watts or greater in order to transfer enough heat to the copper strip to melt the wire
3. Lay the wire or cable to be stripped in the "V"; a clean channel will be melted in the
4. Remove the insulation with a slight pull.
General Wire-Stripping Instructions
When stripping wire with any of the tools mentioned, observe the following precautions:
1. Do not
attempt to use a hot-blade stripper on wiring with glass braid or asbestos insulation.
These insulators are
highly heat resistant.
2. When using the hot-blade stripper, make sure the blades are clean. Clean the
blades with a brass wire brush as necessary.
3. Make sure all stripping blades are sharp and free from
nicks, dents, and so forth.
4. When using any type of wire stripper, hold the wire perpendicular to the
5. Make sure the insulation is clean-cut with no frayed or ragged edges; trim if
6. Make sure all insulation is removed from the stripped area. Some types of wire are
supplied with a transparent layer between the conductor and the primary insulation. If this is present, remove it.
7. When the hand strippers are used to remove lengths of insulation longer than 3/4 inch, the stripping
procedure must be done in two or more operations. The strippers will only strip about
3/4 inch at one time.
8. Retwist strands by hand, if necessary, to restore the natural lay and tightness of the strands.
9. Strip aluminum wires with a knife as described earlier. Aluminum wire should be stripped very carefully.
Care should be taken not to nick the aluminum wire as the strands break very easily when nicked.
What are the basic requirements for any splice or terminal connection?
Q2. What is the preferred method
for stripping wire?
Q3. What stripping tool would NOT be used to strip glass braid insulation?
Q4. What tool should be used to strip aluminum wire?
TYPES OF SPLICES
There are six commonly used types of splices. Each has
advantages and disadvantages for use. Each splice will be discussed in the following section.
Western Union Splice
The Western Union splice joins small, solid conductors. Figure 2-5 shows
the steps in making a
Western Union splice.
Figure 2-5.—Western Union splice.
1. Prepare the wires for splicing. Enough insulation is removed to make the splice. The conductor is
2. Bring the wires to a crossed position and make a long twist or bend in each wire.
3. Wrap one end of the wire and then the other end four or five times around the straight portion of each wire.
4. Press the ends of the wires down as close as possible to the straight portion of the wire. This
prevents the sharp ends from puncturing the tape covering that is wrapped over the splice. The various types of
tape and their uses are discussed later in this chapter.
Joining small multiconductor cables often presents a problem. Each
conductor must be spliced and taped. If the splices are directly opposite each other, the overall size of the
joint becomes large and bulky. A smoother and less bulky joint can be made by staggering the splices.
Figure 2-6 shows how a two-conductor cable is joined to a similar size cable by using a Western Union splice and
by staggering the splices. Care should be taken to ensure that a short wire from one side of the cable is spliced
to a long wire, from the other side of the cable. The sharp ends are then clamped firmly down on the conductor.
The figure shows a Western Union splice, but other types of splices work just as well.
Figure 2-6.—Staggering splices.
A splice that is used in a junction box and for connecting branch circuits is
the rattail joint (figure 2-7).
Figure 2-7.—Rattail joint.
Wiring that is installed in buildings is usually placed inside long lengths of steel or aluminum pipe
called a conduit. Whenever branch or multiple circuits are needed, junction boxes are used to join the conduit.
To create a rattail joint, first strip the insulation off the ends of the conductors to be joined. You then twist
the wires to form the rattail effect. This type of splice will not stand much stress.
The fixture joint is used to connect a small-diameter wire, such as in a lighting fixture,
to a larger diameter wire used in a branch circuit. Like the rattail joint, the fixture joint will not stand much
Figure 2-8 shows the steps in making a fixture joint. The first step is to remove the insulation
and clean the wires to be joined. After the wires are prepared, the fixture wire is wrapped a few times around the
branch wire. The end of the branch wire is then bent over the completed turns. The remainder of the bare fixture
wire is then wrapped over the bent branch wire. Soldering and taping completes the job.
Figure 2-8.—Fixture joint.
Knotted Tap Joint
All the splices discussed up to this point are known as
butted splices. Each was made by joining the free ends of the conductors together. Sometimes, however, it is
necessary to join a branch conductor to a continuous wire called the main wire. Such a junction is called a tap
The main wire, to which the branch wire is to be tapped, has about 1 inch of insulation removed. The branch wire
is stripped of about 3 inches of insulation. The knotted tap is shown in figure 2-9.
Figure 2-9.—Knotted tap joint.
The branch wire is laid behind the main wire. About three-fourths of the bare portion of the branch wire
extends above the main wire. The branch wire is brought under the main wire, around itself, and then over the main
wire to form a knot. The branch wire is then wrapped around the main conductor in short, tight turns; and the end
is trimmed off.
The knotted tap is used where the splice is subject to strain or slippage. When there is
no strain, the knot may be eliminated.
Wire Nut and Split Bolt Splices
The wire nut (view A of figure 2-10) is a device commonly used to replace the rattail joint splice. The wire nut
is housed in plastic insulating material. To use the wire nut, place the two stripped conductors into the wire nut
and twist the nut. In so doing, this will form a splice like the rattail joint and insulate itself by drawing the
wire insulation into the wire nut insulation.
Figure 2-10.—Wire nut and split bolt splices.
The split bolt splice (view B of figure 2-10) is used extensively to join large conductors. In the
illustration, it is shown replacing the knotted tap joint. The split bolt splice can also be used to replace the
"butted" splices mentioned previously when using large conductors.
Q5. Why are the ends of the wire
clamped down after a Western Union splice is made?
Q6. Why are splices staggered on multiconductor
Q7. Where is the rattail joint normally used?
Q8. Which type of splice is used to splice a lighting fixture to a branch circuit?
The splices we have discussed so far are usually insulated with tape.
The following discussion will cover some characteristics of rubber, friction, and plastic insulation tapes.
Latex (rubber) tape is a splicing compound. It is used where the original
insulation was rubber. The tape is applied to the splice with a light tension so that each layer presses tightly
against the one beneath it. This pressure causes the rubber tape to blend into a solid mass. Upon completion,
insulation similar to the original is restored.
In roll form, there is a layer of paper or treated cloth
between each layer of rubber tape. This layer prevents the latex from fusing while still on the roll. The paper or
cloth is peeled off and discarded before the tape is applied to the splice.
The rubber splicing tape
should be applied smoothly and under tension so no air space exists
between the layers. Start the first layer
near the middle of the joint instead of the end. The diameter of the completed insulated joint should be somewhat
greater than the overall diameter of the original wire, including the insulation.
Some rubber tapes are made for special applications. These types are semiconducting and
will pass electrical current, which presents a shock hazard. These types of tape are packaged similar to the latex
rubber tape. Care should be taken to insulate splices only with latex rubber insulating tape.
Putting rubber tape over the splice means that the insulation has
been restored to a great degree. It is also necessary to restore the protective covering. Friction tape is used
for this purpose. It also provides a minor degree of electrical insulation.
Friction tape is a cotton
cloth that has been treated with a sticky rubber compound. It comes in rolls similar to rubber tape except that no
paper or cloth separator is used. Friction tape is applied like rubber tape; however, it does not stretch.
The friction tape should be started slightly back on the original insulation. Wind the tape so that each turn
overlaps the one before it. Extend the tape over onto the insulation at the other end of the splice. From this
point, a second layer is wound back along the splice until the original starting point is reached. Cutting the
tape and firmly pressing down the ends completes the job. When proper care is taken, the splice and insulation can
take as much abuse as the rest of the original wire.
Plastic Electrical Tape
Plastic electrical tape has come into wide use in recent years. It has certain advantages over rubber and friction
tape. For example, it can withstand higher voltages for a given thickness. Single thin layers of certain plastic
tape will withstand several thousand volts without breaking down. However, to provide an extra margin of safety,
several layers are usually wound over the splice. The extra layers of thin tape add very little bulk. The
additional layers of plastic tape provide the added protection normally furnished by friction tape.
Plastic electrical tape usually has a certain amount of stretch so that it easily conforms to the contour of the
Q9. Which of the splices discussed is NOT a butted splice?
Q10. Why is friction tape
used in splicing?
Since most cable wires are stranded, it is necessary
to use terminal lugs to hold the strands together to aid in fastening the wires to terminal studs (see figure
2-11). The terminals used in electrical wiring are either of the soldered or crimped type. Terminals used in
repair work must be of the size and type specified on the electrical wiring diagram for the particular equipment.
Introduction to Matter, Energy, and Direct Current, Introduction
to Alternating Current and Transformers, Introduction to Circuit Protection,
Control, and Measurement, Introduction to Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques,
and Schematic Reading, Introduction to Generators and Motors,
Introduction to Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies,
Introduction to Amplifiers, Introduction to
Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits, Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission
Lines, and Antennas, Microwave Principles,
Modulation Principles, Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits, Introduction
to Microelectronics, Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros,
Introduction to Test Equipment, Radio-Frequency
Communications Principles, Radar Principles, The Technician's Handbook,
Master Glossary, Test Methods and Practices, Introduction to Digital Computers,
Magnetic Recording, Introduction to Fiber Optics