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# Butterworth Highpass & Bandpass Filter Gain, Phase, and Group Delay Equations

A few days ago I posted a webpage detailing my work to generate equations for gain, phase, and group delay for a Butterworth lowpass filter, using the basic polynomials. I could not find them anywhere on the Web or in filter design books I own. The only difference between calculating Butterworth lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandstop filter values for gain, phase, and group delay is how the relative frequency is defined. Simply substitute the following for ω in any of the equations for gain, phase, or group delay. It's that simple. Graphs are published below. Frequency units cancel out, so a 1 Hz cutoff plots the same as a 1 kHz cutoff or a 1 GHz cutoff for gain and phase. The group delay scale needs to be divided by a factor equal to the frequency units (÷103 for kHz, ÷106 for MHz, etc.).

Butterworth Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, and Bandstop Filter Calculator with Gain, Phase and Group Delay are now part of my free RF Cafe Espresso Engineering Workbook™!

 Lowpass ω = ωn/ωco Where ωn is the frequency at which the equation is being evaluated, and ωco is the cutoff frequency Highpass ω = ωco/ωn Where ωn is the frequency at which the equation is being evaluated, and ωco is the cutoff frequency Bandpass ω = (ωn/ω0 - ω0/ωn) / BW ω0 = sqrt (ωU * ωL) BW = (ωU - ωL) / ω0 Where ωn is the frequency at which the equation is being evaluated, ω0 is the geometric average center frequency, ωU is the upper cutoff frequency, and ωL is the lower cutoff frequency. Bandstop ω = BW / (ωn/ω0 - ω0/ωn) ω0 = sqrt (ωU * ωL) BW = (ωU - ωL) / ω0   Where ωn is the frequency at which the equation is being evaluated, ω0 is the geometric average center frequency, ωU is the upper cutoff frequency, and ωL is the lower cutoff frequency.

I had Archive.org save a copy of this page in order to prove this is my original work.

 Butterworth Highpass Filter Gain Phase Group Delay Butterworth Bandpass Filter Gain Phase Group Delay Butterworth Bandstop Filter Gain Phase Group Delay

Posted December 13, 2023