of Contents]People old and young enjoy waxing nostalgic about and learning some of the history of early electronics.
Popular Electronics was published from October 1954 through April 1985. All copyrights (if any) are hereby acknowledged.
Geophysical Year (IGY) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31,
1958. It marked the end, after Joseph Stalin's death, of a long period during the Cold War when scientific
interchange between East and West was seriously interrupted. As many as 67 countries participated among which were
all major ones with the exception of mainland China. The IGY encompassed eleven Earth sciences: aurora and
airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude determinations (precision
mapping), meteorology, oceanography, seismology and solar activity. Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR)
launched artificial satellites for this event. Other significant achievements of the IGY included the discovery of
the Van Allen radiation belts and the discovery of mid-ocean submarine ridges, an important confirmation of plate
tectonics." - Wikipedia
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Electronics and IGYAmateurs are aiding science's greatest international effort
By Mike Bienstock
are in the midst of a concerted assault on the secrets of Mother Earth the likes of which have never before been
attempted. The International Geophysical Year will not end until December 31, but by that time some 5000
scientists of 67 nations will have accumulated enough data to keep electronic computers clacking for years. The
results, when they finally become known, are expected to increase the knowledge of the planet we inhabit by a
thousandfold. We Earthlings are compressed between two oceans - the mass of atmosphere extending above us for 200
miles or more, and the mass of water, plumbed to a depth of more than 35,000 feet. We are familiar with just the
fringes of these oceans, and even there the acquaintance is only nodding. Of the land area of our world, our
deepest oil well has only scratched the surface. We barely have touched the edges of Antarctica.
been said that we know more about the stars, since we are able to stand off and take a good look at them, while
here on Earth, so close to our subject, we grow cross-eyed trying to view the "big picture." Actually, it is
suspected that we are off several hundred feet in our measurement of distances between continents.
Fields of Research.
of aircraft instrumented for ionospheric research. The instrument in the foreground measures the heights of the
layers in the ionosphere using vertical incidence pulses.
telemetered data from rockets in flight at an installation in Manitoba, Canada. At the far left is a telemetry
recorder which takes data from airborne rockets; in the center is the main recorder which puts data on tape; the
ballistic camera master control is at the right.
photoelectric photometer selects and measures the intensity of light too faint for the human eye and records its
changes. This airglow camera is at Fritz Peak, Colorado.
The IGY has planned, since 1954, to concentrate in one 18-month period
investigation into the fields of aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity, ionospherics,
longitude and latitude, meteorology, oceanography, rocketry, satellites, seismology, solar activity and "World
Days." The latter are periods of all-out concentration on one subject when there is sufficient warning of some
unusual event in that field, for example, sunspot activity.
Most of the effort is being devoted to the
atmosphere and the electrical phenomena which occur there.
Besides the professional scientists giving all
their energies to IGY, thousands of amateurs volunteer time as observers to aid the effort. Project Moonbeam,
organized to use the abilities of radio amateurs and others, has been vital in tracking the earth satellites,
despite the fact that the observers were forced to make a quick switch from 108 mc. (the frequency originally
decided upon) to 20 and 40 mc., which the Soviet Sputniks employed. Tracking Systems.
primary system for tracking satellites by radio and recording their telemetered signals is the "picket fence" of
Minitrack stations manned by professionals. The supporting Moonbeam program uses a simpler Mark II Minitrack
system as well as a different setup, Microlock. Both use phase comparison techniques, and the equipment is simple
enough to be built by amateurs.
In addition to radio tracking, visual and photographic observations are
used by amateur groups.
While the satellites thrown into orbit by the Soviets and the United States are
expected to reveal an astonishing amount of information in regard to the nature of the upper atmosphere, cosmic
rays, auroras and the ionosphere, other devices mainly dependent on electronics are already contributing extensive
data to the effort.
For instance, radiotelescopes around the world are concentrating their antennas on the
sun. Sunspots seem to be related to tremendous explosions on the sun that shoot out streams of charged particles,
ultraviolet light and x-rays. Immediately after such "storms" on the sun, violent atmospheric disturbances occur.
Very quickly short-wave communications fade, auroras burst forth in the northern and southern skies, cosmic ray
intensity increases and the magnetic field of the earth shifts rapidly.
Strangely enough, not all sun
"storms" cause these upheavals on earth. One of the things IGY is attempting to discover is the reason for this.
All during IGY, when such storms are detected, the world warning center at Fort Belvoir, Va., will be sending out
alerts for special "World Days," during which scientists concentrate all of their energies on measuring whatever
disturbances may occur. Up go "rockoons" (rockets launched from balloons) and Aerobee rockets fitted with delicate
instruments to measure the intensities of x-rays, cosmic rays, ultraviolet radiation and such. A close check on
the "shifting" of the E and F layers of the ionosphere is kept to determine the relationship of sunspots to such
movements. Already a new layer of ionization, 12 miles below the lowest point, has been discovered. It was learned
that this new layer was caused by solar x-ray emission associated with solar flares. Meanwhile, the normal layers
of ionization, E and F, seem to remain stationary during a blackout, contrary to former opinion. It may be,
therefore, that radio blackouts are caused by signal absorption in the newly discovered layer.
Watch on the Mountain.
with a 4000-mile range is part of the electronic instrumentation of the U.S. earth
in the tiny "moon" is a 48-channel encoder which receives and encodes data from other satellite instruments for
transmittal back to the earth.
A new instrument, the recording photometer, keeps watch on Fritz Peak,
Colorado, to determine the change in the intensity of air-glow - a light so faint we can barely see it. This
phenomenon is believed to come from some chemical reaction of oxygen, sodium and other ions in the D layer, about
60 miles up, and may be affected by solar storms.
Cosmic rays are getting the once-over for another
reason: they give us an important clue to the character of the earth's magnetic field. Since they are charged
particles, they are deflected by the earth's magnetic lines of force. Near the magnetic poles, where the lines are
nearly vertical, there is little deflection, and therefore a greater intensity of cosmic radiation than along the
magnetic equator, where the lines are close to horizontal. About 100 stations around the earth are measuring
constantly the strength of cosmic rays, using two delicate electronic instruments, a neutron counter, sensitive to
low-energy rays, and a meson "telescope," more sensitive to high-energy radiation. Collating the hundreds of
thousands of readings of these instruments, scientists should be able to obtain a much better understanding of the
shape and intensity of the earth's magnetic field.
Another important study will be that of "whistlers,"
faint chirping and whistling noises discovered during the First World War. Back in 1950 it was learned that these
noises are actually caused by low-frequency waves from lightning discharges, which follow the earth's magnetic
lines of force from the point of origin, out into space, and back along the lines to the opposite hemisphere.
A huge antenna has been erected across a ravine in Colorado which is used to pick up these whistlers. A field
station nearby amplifies them and records them on tape for future study. Another form of whistle is also being
recorded there - the "dawn chorus." These noises, reminiscent of the pipings of frogs at dawn, are thought to be
caused by streams of hydrogen ions at the edge of the atmosphere. Study may be able to correlate these noises with
the intensity of solar storms.
With the advent of the forward scatter technique, which utilizes the
ionosphere to bounce signals back to earth hundreds of miles away, engineers are anxious to learn all they can
about this unreliable phenomenon so they can use it more effectively.
The National Bureau of Standards has
set up test transmitters in South America to use the forward scatter technique across the magnetic equator. It is
suspected that this method will be especially effective because the ionization layer theoretically should line up
with the magnetic lines of force, thus making for more even scatter propagation. Again the radio amateurs assist
in the IGY program, since many of them listen for these transmissions, especially in the western part of the
country and in Mexico, and send their reports to the Bureau of Standards. Auroras.
Another important study is that of auroras. These intensely beautiful phenomena are believed to be set off by
streams of hydrogen ions caused by solar storms. The ions are thought to react with the atoms of the upper
atmosphere and make them glow like a fluorescent lamp. Some scientists had thought that auroras should occur
simultaneously at both of the poles. This has now been established as a fact. Amateur astronomers have been
recording the shape and intensity, as well as the angle above the horizon, of auroras in the upper northern
regions. Concurrent investigations by meteorologists at the South Pole made the confirming study.
believed that auroras occur in day-time, although they can't be seen then. Therefore, observers near the auroral
zone use sensitive radars to try to pick up reflections from the electron clouds which accompany auroras during
Although the IGY program will end officially Dec. 31, 1958, a good many projects will
continue in operation. As a matter of fact, they may be prolonged indefinitely, especially those that are fairly
inexpensive to maintain.
World data centers are being planned in the United States, the Soviet Union and
other areas, in which digested results of the observations will be filed for scientists. It is not expected that
such results will be put into usable form before 1965, but after that date science textbooks may have to be
thoroughly rewritten because of IGY's results.