There are three fundamental coordinate systems (rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical), each of which is a more
convenient means for calculations depending on the configuration of your model. For example, mapping points on the
surface of a sphere using the Cartesian coordinate system requires describing all three coordinates (x, y, and z)
in terms distance from each of the threes axis references. Doing the same in the spherical coordinate system
requires simply a radius and two angles. When you start doing very complex calculations like those requiring
calculus applications, choosing the best coordinate system can make the difference between nightmarish equations
and relatively simple ones.
Conversion formulas between the three fundamental coordinate systems are given below.
Here is a convenient online
on the Random Science Tools and Calculators website.