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Application Notes & White Papers - #1
Absorbers to Interference / Intermodulation

These application notes on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you try to hit one of the links and it is gone, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Thank you. Due to how large the original page has grown, multiple pages are now used.

 

 

Page 1: Absorbers - Interference      Page 2: Lasers - ZigBee

 

Application Notes & Technical Papers by Company / Source Name

 

 

 

 

 

Absorbers & Shielding - EMI, RF, RFI

Absorbent Materials Chart
Emerson & Cuming has a really nice chart available for determining the dielectric constant and loss tangent. It includes materials that they supply as well as for some other common materials. JP-4 fuel, various types of rubber, silica, beryllium oxide, pure water are amongst those included on the chart.

Absorbers Manage Military Electronics Microwave RFI
RF Design, August 2004

Microwave Absorbers: Reducing Cavity Resonances, by MAST Technologies

The Use [RF] of Absorbers in Electronics
by MAST Technologies

XBee Antennas
Practical information regarding the performance of the XBee and XBee-PRO RF Modules., from MaxStream (now Digi).

A/D & D/A Converters

Aperture Uncertainty
"Aperture Uncertainty and ADC System Performance," by Brad Brannon and Allen Barlow, Analog Devices

Switched-Capacitor ADCs
Frequency Domain Response of Switched-Capacitor ADCs
Rob Reeder, Analog Devices

DACs - Double Rate With Mixers
Double DAC rate by using mixers as switches, by Randall Carver, Analog Devices.

DACs - Radio Frequency
By Michael Hopkins, CurrentRF.

Clock Requirements for Data Converters
Equations for calculating jitter and phase noise in data converters.

A/D & D/A Design Data
Design data links.

A/D, D/A & Sampling
By Maxim Integrated Products.

Data Converters
By Texas Instruments.

Sampling & Aliasing
Mathematical basics of band-limited sampling and aliasing, by Vladimir Vitchev.  Jan 2005 RF Design

ADC Interleaving
"Interleaving ADCs for Higher Sample Rates," by National Semiconductor

Amplifiers

Amplifier Design (Microwave)
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Amplifier Design
Design of Microwave Transistor Amplifiers Using S Parameters by D.B. Leeson.

Amplifier Design, Class-E
By Nathan O. Sokal, WA1HQC.

Amplifier Load Mismatch Design Using MMICAD
Application note from Optotek, by D. Fitzpatrick.

Ampifier Operating Temperature Definitions
From Spectrum Microwave.

Amplifiers: HPSSA vs. TWTA
Design of a High Power Solid State Amplifier to replace TWTAs in Airborne Applications, by Milmega.

Designing High Efficiency Amplifiers using HFETs
From TriQuint Semiconductor.

First-Time-Right Design Of RF/Microwave Class A Power Amplifiers Using Only S-Parameters
A procedure of how to design RF/Microwave Class A power amplifiers in a very efficient and highly accurate manner when the only initial data available are the S-parameters of the transistors. By Ivan Boshnakov, Aerial Facilities Limited.

Instrumentation Amplifiers, A Design Guide
This 108-page, highly detailed handbook is provided by Analog Devices - download it for free while it is available!

LCA - Low Cost Amplifiers
From Spectrum Microwave.

Opamp RF Parameters
A Tutorial on Applying Op Amps to RF Applications, by National Semiconductor.

RF Amplifier Design Using HFA3046, HFA3096, HFA3127, HFA3128 Transistor Arrays
Application note from Intersil.

RF & Microwave Power Amplifier Design
By Andrei Grebennikov, M/A-COM Eurotec
Lecture 1: Nonlinear Active Device Modeling
Lecture 2: Impedance Matching
Lecture 3: PA Design Fundamentals
Lecture 4: High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

RF Power Amplifier Design
Design and Implementation of a Common Collector Class B RF Power Amplifier in InGaP HBT Technology, Oliver Isler

Robust Bias Option for 0.15-mm pHEMT MMIC Low-Noise Amplifiers
From TriQuint Semiconductor.

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
From Instruments For Industry.

Anechoic Chambers

Anechoic Chambers
"How RF Anechoic Chambers Work," by Dr. Glen Dash. This is a good introduction that covers the effects of physical distances and materials.

Antennas

Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Nonideal Measurement Locations
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Ronald C. Wittmann, Bradley K. Alpert, and Michael H. Francis

Improvements in Polarization Measurements of Circularly Polarized Probes, A. C. Newell, D. P. Kremer, J. R. Guerrieri, Proceedings of the Antenna Measurement Techniques Association, pp. 1-30 through 1-35 (October 1989).

Calibrating Antenna Standards Using CW and Pulsed-CW Measurements and the Planar Near-Field Method, D. P. Kremer and A. G. Repjar, Proceedings, Antenna Meas. and Techniques Assoc., pp. 13-21 through 13-29 (September 1988).

Effect of Random Errors in Planar Near-Field Measurement, A. C. Newell and C. F. Stubenrauch, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 769-773 (June 1988).

Improved Polarization Measurements Using a Modified Three-Antenna Technique, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 852-854 (June 1988).

Gain and Power Parameter Measurements Using Planar Near-Field Techniques, A. C. Newell, R. Ward, and E. McFarlane, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on Near-Field Scanning, 792-803 (June 1988).

Error Analysis Techniques for Planar Near-Field Measurements, A. C. Newell, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, 754-768 (June 1988).

The Determination of Near-Field Correction Parameters for Circularly Polarized Probes, A. C. Newell, M. H. Francis, D. P. Kremer, Proceedings Antenna Measurement Techniques Assoc. , pp. 3A3-1 through 3A3-29 (October 1984).

Helical Antennas for High Power RF
Applied Physical Electronics

Antenna Basics
Introduction & Basics from Granite Island Group.

EMC Antenna Fundamentals By Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent).

Adaptive Antenna Tutorial
Spectral Efficiency and Spatial Processing FCC Office of Engineering and Technology, 7 September 2001.

Antenna Application Notes
From N6CA, ham-radio.com.

Antenna Basics
A very extensive treatise of many antenna types, including definitions, photos, and examples, by David Jefferies of University of Surrey.

Antenna Design Considerations
Application note from Telecontrolli.

Antenna Design - Fractal Patterns
Fractals™ new era in military antenna design, by Nathan Cohen. Wideband and size reduction.

Systematic Errors in Normalized Site Attenuation Testing
Computing a correction factor for biconical antennas reduces the systematic errors for calculating normalized site attenuation and improves the accuracy of the theoretical model. By Zhong Chen and Mike Windler.

Compact Integrated Antennas
Compact integrated (into PCB) antenna design. Starts with basic antenna theory and builds through dipole, inverted-F, helix, loops, meandering, and other types. Ends with layouts & radiation patterns. AN2731, by Freescale Semiconductor.

Antenna Design Tutorial
Application note from Micrel, by Tom Yestrebsky.

Antenna Efficiency Measurement (Cellular Handset)  Using the Wheeler Cap
By Skyworks.
Antennas, Transmission Lines, Wave Propagation

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series Module 10
Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas.

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance
Application note from Linx Technologies.

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
Application note from Linx Technologies.

Understanding the Measurement Uncertainties of the Biconical / Log Hybrid Antenna
Measurement uncertainty associated with the bicon/log hybrid antenna for radiated emissions and site validation tests relate to many factors, including height dependency, polarization and loading.

Antenna Pattern Measurements:
(1) Concepts & Techniques
(2) Theory & Equations
The first article of this two-part series explores the basic concepts and techniques of antenna pattern measurement and evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement methods. The concepts relating to near-field and far-field pattern testing are discussed as well. The second article presents the theory and equations governing antenna properties and includes a complete description of a site calibration for pattern-measurement testing. By Dr. Michael D. Foegelle.

Antenna Terms & Formulas
By Antenna Research Associates.

Antennas - WLAN Design & Optimization
Antenna Performance and Design Considerations for Optimum Coverage in Wireless Communication Systems, by Cushcraft Corporation.

Fractal Antennas
Fractal antenna theory is built, as is the case with conventional antenna theory, on classic electromagnetic theory. Fractal antenna theory uses a modern (fractal) geometry that is a natural extension of Euclidian geometry. In this report, attention is called to this developing, but already quite large, field of study. By Philip Felber.
 
The Basics of Patch Antennas
Antenna application notes from Orban Microwave Products.

The W1GHZ Online Microwave Antenna Book
Excellent - a good reference for all microwaves.

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance
From Linx Technologies.

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
Application note from Linx Technologies.

V / UHF Antenna Design
Application note from INGECOM.

Yagi-Uda Antennas
Tutorial with photographs of actual antennas, by David Jefferies, of University of Surrey.

ASICs for RF

Application Notes and Technical Articles
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

ASIC Design Guidelines
Application note from Atmel Corporation.

Attenuators

Tackling Multi-Bit Attenuator Designs
Article by Skyworks

Attenuator Design Data
Design data links.

Attenuators (Step, Fixed, Variable)
From Narda Microwave East.

Attenuators (variable)
Application notes by American Microwave.

Attenuators
Application notes by Herley.

Attenuators, PIN
A Wideband General Purpose PIN Diode Attenuator by Skyworks.

Attenuators
Minimum loss design by Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.

Baluns

Balun (chip) Measurement
Chip Balun: Definitions & Measurement Methodology  technical note, by Johanson Technology.

Batteries

Lifex Lithium Coin Cells & FB Encapsulated Lithium Coin Cells - Part 1
Application notes & product data sheet from Rayovac.

Battery Application Manuals
Alkaline, Carbon Zinc, Manganese Dioxide App Note, NiCad, NiMH, Silver Oxide, Zinc Air. By Energizer.

Battery Handling - Li-Ion
By Matt Schindler, Maxim Integrated Products.

Battery Management
Application notes and technical articles by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.
Battery Selection Guide
Lots of good information on battery chemistries and charge/discharge characteristics.

Battery Tutorial
PowerStream Battery Chemistry - Custom design and manufacture of state-of-the-art battery chargers, UPS, and power supplies for OEMs.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth
BluetoothTM Manufacturing Test - A Guide to Getting Started by Agilent Technologies.

Bluetooth Remote Control from Your Mobile Phone
FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications. Admittedly, this concept does scare me a bit from a terrorist perspective!!! 

Cable / Coaxial Cable

Weight Reduction and Space Savings in Wire and Cable Design and Their Contribution to Aerospace Design and Efficiency
by Thermax Connections

Common Mode Signals
Understanding Common-Mode Signals, by Maxim.

How Cables and Connectors Impact Measurement Uncertainty
by Fluke

Capacitors

Determination of Capacitor Life as a Function of Operating Voltage & Temp
by Evans Capacitors

Capacitor Basics
Definitions and configurations, with some equations and illustrations.

 Capacitors - Benefits of Thin-Film Dielectric Chip Capacitors at VHF, UHF and Higher Frequencies
By virtue of these characteristics and excellent mechanical features, this thin film capacitor is the ideal surface mount chip for high frequency applications.

Capacitors, Ceramic
Technical information by AVX.

Capacitors, Energy Handling
Energy and power handling capabilities of thin film and ceramic capacitors, by AVX.

 Capacitor Primer
A very nice introduction to capacitors including history back to Leyden Jar, by Tony vanRoon.

Capacitor Q & ESR Explained
A Johanson Technology Primer.

Capacitor RF Current & Power
By Johnson Technology.

Cascade Analysis
Gain, NF, IP3, IP2, P1dB, Intermods

Half-IF (2x2 product)
By Maxim.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Clocks & Jitter

Sampled Systems and the Effects of Clock Phase Noise and Jitter
While it is difficult to provide for direct correlation between clock jitter and phase noise, this application note provides some guidelines for designing or selecting encode sources from either a clock jitter or phase noise perspective. By Brad Brannon, Analog Devices

Adjust mismatched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note on Jitter in Transmission Systems
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance
Describes the results obtained from a filter layout experiment and discusses how layout and component selection impact stop-band rejection.

Fine tuning clock source for Agilent Pattern Generator 70841B
Provides design guidance, test techniques, performance data and suggested layout recommendations for a 622 MBd ATM/SONET/SDH physical layer interface reference circuit.

Jitter in Clock Sources
Application note by Vectron International.

Junction Temperatures and MTTF in MMIC Devices
Article by Radha P.N. Setty, in August 2005  RF Design magazine.

Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
For engineers who design data transfer systems and components operating at over a gigabit per second, and so must be concerned with the effects of jitter on their system's bit error ratio (BER).

Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
The Agilent JS-1000 Performance Jitter Solution is a Phase Noise System that measures clock jitter characteristics.

Synchronizing differential clock sources for Bit Error Ratio Test (BERT)
Interfacing the OmniBER 725 communications performance analyzer to optical transceivers.

Circulators

Circulators
Basic Circulator Facts, by UTE Microwave.

Isolator/Circulator Basics
Isolator/Circulator basic theory and definitions, common applications, power ratings, special handling and storage considerations, from MECA Electronics.

Components

"The Best Defense is a Good Offense"
Authorized Component Distributors Help Military/Aerospace OEMs Plan for Obsolescence, by Avnet.

Communications
Complex 2 Real
This is the mother lode of communications tutorials, compliments of Charan Langton.
Control &  Monitoring

Control & Monitoring
By Texas Instruments.

Couplers - Directional, Bidirectional

Hybrid Coupler Basics
App note by MECA Electronics

Couplers
From Narda Microwave East.

Directional Coupler Basics
How to specify the best directional coupler solution for your critical application, from MECA Electronics.

Directional Couplers
RF Directional Couplers and 3dB Hybrids Overview, by M/A-COM.

Directional Couplers & Power Dividers
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Hybrid Coupler Basics
Basic theory and common applications for 90° and 180° hybrid couplers, from MECA Electronics.

Hybrids
From Narda Microwave East.

Why Directional Couplers Are Better for High Power Measurements vs. Attenuators
From MECA Electronics.

Microwave Coupler Feeds Outdoor Antenna Through Walls
May 2006 HFS, by Gunther Knapp

Current / Energy / Voltage / Power

Power Management
Power Management application notes by Texas Instruments.

Power Meters & Sensors
Choosing the Right Power Meter and Sensor product note, by Agilent Technologies.

Decoupling

Decoupling: A Standard Methodology
To deal with the side effects of increased clock speeds and frequencies, engineers must bypass di/dt transitions and reduce noise. By Barry Caldwell, Vitesse -- EDN

Decoupling Capacitors
By Carl Lodstrom.

Designing Filters Using the Digital Filter Design Toolkit
From National Instruments, by Rahman Jamal, Mike Cerna, John Hanks.

De-Embedding & Embedding

De-Embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer
Application Note 1364-1 from Agilent contains the procedure that a lot of people are looking for to embed or de-embed the 12-term SOLT error terms.

Delay Lines

Adjust mis-matched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

CPDL Operating and Programming Manual
Custom Programmable Delay Line (CPDL) Operating and Programming Manual.

PDL-30A Operating and Programming Manual
Programmable Delay Line Operating and Programming Manual.

Detectors

Level Detector
A Level Detector Design for Dual-Band GSM-PCS Handsets, by Skyworks.

Detectors
Square Law and Linear Detection by Agilent Technologies.

Dielectrics

Dielectric Aging
By ATC Ceramics.

Dielectric Properties of Portland Cement in the Low Microwave Frequency Range
Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - covers mainly up through 700 MHz.

Dielectric Constants of Wall Materials
"Ultra-wideband Propagation Measurements and Channel Modeling DARPA NETEX Program Report on Through-the-Wall Propagation and Material Characterization" 

Digital Modulation

Digital Transmission: Carrier-to-Noise, Signal-to-Noise & Modulation Error Ratio
Definitions, equations, images, tutorial, by Cisco Systems

Digital Modulation in Communications Systems
This application note covers the reasons for the move to digital modulation, how information is modulated onto in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, different types of digital modulation, filtering techniques, ways of looking at digitally modulated signals, multiplexing techniques, how a digital transmitter and receiver work, measurements on digital RF communications systems, an overview table with key specifications for the major digital communications systems, a glossary of terms used in digital RF communications. 

EMC / EMI / ESD / RFI

Harmonic Measurement for IEC 61000-4-3 and other Radiated Immunity Standards
by AR Worldwide

System-Level ESD Protection Guide
by Texas Instruments

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
by Instruments for Industry (IFI)

Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health
High Frequency Electronics

A Review of Sources and Effects
A very good synopsis from the July 2005 edition of High Frequency Electronics

EMC Antenna Fundamentals
by Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent)

EMC Design
"Designing Enclosures for EMC Compliance," by Dr. Glen Dash. Even though Dr. Dash is an accomplished expositor on Maxwell's Equations, his opening quote here is, "While science has devised new models and computerized methods for EMC design, your best tool for enclosure design may still be your thumb."

ESD
Electrostatic Discharge Association website.

EMI/RFI Shielding
By Tech-Etch.

Equalizers

Equalizer Key Specifications
"A Review of Key Equalizer Specifications and What They Mean," by Richard Kurzrok, Oct 2005 High Frequency Electronics magazine.

Fiber Optics

Fiber Optics Amplifier Tutorial
This tutorial should be useful both as an introduction to fiber amplifiers and for learning more details on them. We believe that even people already having a substantial experience with fiber amplifiers will find it helpful for deepening the understanding. The focus is on the underlying physics and the resulting technical consequences; we do not simply treat a fiber amplifier as a “black box”, but rather look inside.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH

Passive Fiber Optics Tutorial
Comprehensive physics-based tutorial on fiber optics which clarifies the foundations of this field. As an example, it discusses how coupling losses at fiber joints arise, and explains how to estimate their strength.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH

Fields

Near Field, The World of the
Here's a good article in the October 2005 edition of Evaluation Engineering, by Tom Lecklider.

Network Analysis
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Filters - SAW, BAW, Lumped

Analog Filter Design Demystified
Application note by Maxim Integrated Products.

Filter Design, Distributed Element
Periodic structures and equivalent lumped element models.

Filter Design - Transmission Line
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Fiber Optic Products
From Narda Microwave East.

rfcurrent.com
Devoted to RF & microwave filter theory and design.
Microwave Lowpass Filters with a Constricted Equi-Ripple Passband, by Dieter Pelz
Revision of Cascade Synthesis Theory Covering Cross-Coupled Filters, by Dieter Pelz

GPS Systems
Application of UART in GPS Navigation System
From Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
Ground / Grounding

Grounding for Low- & High Frequency Circuits
By Analog Devices.

Power Plane & Ground Design for RF PCBs
Power supply and ground design for WiFi transceiver, by By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu, RF Design magazine.

Group Delay

Group Delay
By Applied Radio Labs.

Heat Transfer

What They Didn't Teach You in Engineering School About Heat Transfer

Inductors / Magnetics

Inductors
RF inductor design, from Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Magnetic Core Design Rules
By Lodestone Pacific.

Intercept Points (IP2 & IP3)

IP2 and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers
By Broadcom

Interference / Intermodulation

Interference Handbook
This is a handy troubleshooting guide created by the FCC, mainly for commercial equipment such as television, AM/FM radio, paging systems, VCRs - even doorbell transformers. It was last updated in 1993. Still, it can be useful.

Two-Tone vs. Single-Tone Measurement
of 2nd-Order Non-linearity and IP2
Performance of Direct Conversion Receivers

By Skyworks

Interference Technical Index
By Motorola.

Interference Mitigation
"Detecting Interfering Signals and Mitigating Them" by Steve Thomas, Jan 2005 RF Design

Isolators

Isolator & Circulator Basics
App note by MECA Electronics

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