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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024
    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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RF Electronics Shapes, Stencils for Office, Visio by RF Cafe

Application Notes & White Papers - #1
Absorbers to Interference / Intermodulation

(Page 1) RF Microwave Wireless High Frequency Application Note & White Paper Websites - RF CafeApplication Notes (App Notes) and Whitepapers (White Papers) are unquestionably an essential source of instruction for engineers and technicians. App notes and whitepapers on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you click on a link and it is dead, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Where possible, I have either downloaded and stored copies of PDF files*, or linked to the original webpages on the Archive.org service. FCC Technical Definitions | Engineering, Electronics & Technical Resources | Engineering Organizations & Societies

Page 1: Absorbers - Interference      Page 2: Lasers - ZigBee

* Let me know if you object to my storing a copy of your copyrighted document. As a rule I do not use anyone else's work on RF Cafe without explicit permission or being within FAIR USE Act parameters.

Absorbers & Shielding - EMI, RF, RFI

Absorbent Materials Chart - Emerson & Cuming

Microwave Absorbers: Reducing Cavity Resonances - MAST Technologies

The Use [RF] of Absorbers in Electronics - MAST Technologies

A/D & D/A Converters

DACs - Double Rate with Mixers - Analog Devices & EDN

DACs - Radio Frequency - CurrentRF

Clock Requirements for Data Converters - Analog Devices

Direct-Sampling DACs in Theory and Application - Maxim Integrated Products

Data Converters - Texas Instruments

Decimation for ADCs - Analog Devices

Noise Analysis of Precision Data Acquisition Signal Chain - Analog Devices

Band-limited Sampling & Aliasing - RF Design

Interleaving ADCs - National Semiconductor


Amplifier Classification A vs. AB - Exodus Advanced Communications

SWR and its Effects on Power Amplifiers - Exodus Advanced Communications

High-Efficiency, Ka-Band GaN Power Amplifiers - QuinStar Technology

Microwave Amplifier Design - National Taiwan University

Amplifier Design - San Diego University

Amplifier Design, Class-E - ARRL

Amplifier Operating Temperature Definitions - Spectrum Microwave

Designing High Efficiency Amplifiers Using HFETs  - TriQuint Semiconductor

First-Time-Right Design of RF/Microwave Class A Power Amps Using S-Parameters - Aerial Facilities Limited

User's Guide to IC Instrumentation Amplifiers - Analog Devices

Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, eBook - Analog Devices

Tutorial on Applying Op Amps to RF Applications - Texas Instruments

RF & Microwave Power Amplifier Design - M/A-COM Eurotec
    Lecture 1: Nonlinear Active Device Modeling
    Lecture 2: Impedance Matching
    Lecture 3: PA Design Fundamentals
    Lecture 4: High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

Design of Common Collector Class B RF Power Amplifier in InGaP HBT Technology - Oliver Isler

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications - Instruments for Industry (IFI)


Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Nonideal Measurement Locations - NIST

Improvements in Polarization Measurements of Circularly Polarized Probes - NIST

Effect of Random Errors in Planar Near-Field Measurement - NIST

Improved Polarization Measurements Using a Modified Three-Antenna Technique - NIST

Gain and Power Parameter Measurements Using Planar Near-Field Techniques - NIST

Error Analysis Techniques for Planar Near-Field Measurements - NIST

Determination of Near-Field Correction Parameters for Circularly Polarized Probes - NIST

Helical Antennas for High Power RF - Applied Physical Electronics

Antenna Basics - Granite Island Group

EMC Antenna Fundamentals, by Zhong Chen (I worked w/Zhong at Agilent), ETS Lindgren

Antenna Design Considerations - Telecontrolli.

Fractals™ New Era in Military Antenna Design - Nathan Cohen, RF Design magazine

Systematic Errors in Normalized Site Attenuation Testing - Zhong Chen and Mike Windler, CE magazine

Compact Integrated Antennas - Freescale Semiconductor

Antenna Design Tutorial - Tom Yestrebsky, Micrel

Antenna Efficiency Measurement Using the Wheeler Cap - Conexant

Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas - Naval Education and Training

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance - Linx Technologies

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation - Linx Technologies

Understanding the Measurement Uncertainties of the Biconical / Log Hybrid Antenna - ETS Lindgren

Antenna Pattern Measurements: Concepts & Techniques - CE Magazine

Antenna Pattern Measurements: Theory & Equations - CE Magazine

Antenna Terms & Formulas - Antenna Research Associates.

Fractal Antennas - Philip Felber.

The Basics of Patch Antennas - Orban Microwave Products

The Basics of Antenna Arrays - Orban Microwave Products

The W1GHZ Online Microwave Antenna Book - W1GHZ

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance - Linx Technologies.

Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation - Linx Technologies.

VHF / UHF Antenna Design - INGECOM.

Yagi-Uda Antennas - David Jefferies, of University of Surrey.

ASICs for RF

Application Notes and Technical Articles
By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

ASIC Design Guidelines
Application note from Atmel Corporation.


Attenuators (Step, Fixed, Variable)
From Narda Microwave East.

Attenuators (variable)
Application notes by American Microwave.

Application notes by Herley.

Attenuators, PIN
A Wideband General Purpose PIN Diode Attenuator by Skyworks.

Minimum loss design by Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.


Balun (chip) Measurement - Johanson Technology.


Alkaline Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Carbon Zinc Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Manganese Dioxide Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Lithium Coin Cell Application Manual - Energizer

NiCad Battery Application Manual - Energizer

NiMH Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Silver Oxide Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Zinc Air Battery Application Manual - Energizer

Battery Handling - Li-Ion
By Matt Schindler, Maxim Integrated Products.

Battery Management
Application notes and technical articles by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

Battery Selection Guide
nikonians-images.com/ebooks/Nikonians Battery Guide.pdf
Lots of good information on battery chemistries and charge/discharge characteristics.

Battery Tutorial
PowerStream Battery Chemistry - Custom design and manufacture of state-of-the-art battery chargers, UPS, and power supplies for OEMs.


BluetoothTM Manufacturing Test - A Guide to Getting Started by Agilent Technologies.

Bluetooth Remote Control from Your Mobile Phone
flexipanel.com/Docs/Bluetooth Remote Control... From Your Mobile Phone.pdf
FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications. Admittedly, this concept does scare me a bit from a terrorist perspective!!!

Cable / Coaxial Cable

Weight Reduction and Space Savings in Wire and Cable Design and Their Contribution to Aerospace Design and Efficiency
by Thermax Connections

Common Mode Signals
Understanding Common-Mode Signals - Maxim.

How Cables and Connectors Impact Measurement Uncertainty
by Fluke


Capacitor Basics
Definitions and configurations, with some equations and illustrations.

Capacitors - Benefits of Thin-Film Dielectric Chip Capacitors at VHF, UHF and Higher Frequencies
By virtue of these characteristics and excellent mechanical features, this thin film capacitor is the ideal surface mount chip for high frequency applications.

Capacitors, Ceramic
avx.com/techinfo_doclisting.asp?Category=Ceramic Capacitors
Technical information by AVX.

Capacitors, Energy Handling
Energy and power handling capabilities of thin film and ceramic capacitors - AVX.

Capacitor Primer
A very nice introduction to capacitors including history back to Leyden Jar - Tony vanRoon.

Capacitor Q & ESR Explained.
A Johanson Technology Primer.

Capacitor RF Current & Power
By Johnson Technology.

Cascade Analysis
Gain, NF, IP3, IP2, P1dB, Intermods

Half-IF (2x2 product)
By Maxim.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Clocks & Jitter

Adjust mismatched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note on Jitter in Transmission Systems
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance
Describes the results obtained from a filter layout experiment and discusses how layout and component selection impact stop-band rejection.

Fine tuning clock source for Agilent Pattern Generator 70841B
Provides design guidance, test techniques, performance data and suggested layout recommendations for a 622 MBd ATM/SONET/SDH physical layer interface reference circuit.

Jitter in Clock Sources
Application note by Vectron International.

Junction Temperatures and MTTF in MMIC Devices
Article by Radha P.N. Setty, in August 2005  RF Design magazine.

Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
For engineers who design data transfer systems and components operating at over a gigabit per second, and so must be concerned with the effects of jitter on their system's bit error ratio (BER).

Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
The Agilent JS-1000 Performance Jitter Solution is a Phase Noise System that measures clock jitter characteristics.

Synchronizing differential clock sources for Bit Error Ratio Test (BERT)
Interfacing the OmniBER 725 communications performance analyzer to optical transceivers.


Basic Circulator Facts - UTE Microwave.

Isolator/Circulator Basics
Isolator/Circulator basic theory and definitions, common applications, power ratings, special handling and storage considerations, from MECA Electronics.


"The Best Defense is a Good Offense"
Authorized Component Distributors Help Military/Aerospace OEMs Plan for Obsolescence - Avnet.


Tutorials on Digital Communications Engineering  -  Complex 2 Real
This is the mother lode of communications tutorials, compliments of Charan Langton. These hyperlinks go to pages with comments and a link to each PDF file.

Control &  Monitoring

Control & Monitoring
By Texas Instruments.

Couplers - Directional, Bidirectional

Hybrid Coupler Basics
App note by MECA Electronics

From Narda Microwave East.

Directional Coupler Basics
How to specify the best directional coupler solution for your critical application, from MECA Electronics.

Directional Couplers
macom.com/Application Notes/pdf/m560.pdf
RF Directional Couplers and 3dB Hybrids Overview - M/A-COM.

Directional Couplers & Power Dividers
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Hybrid Coupler Basics
Basic theory and common applications for 90° and 180° hybrid couplers, from MECA Electronics.

From Narda Microwave East.

Why Directional Couplers Are Better for High Power Measurements vs. Attenuators
From MECA Electronics.

Microwave Coupler Feeds Outdoor Antenna Through Walls
May 2006 HFS - Gunther Knapp

Current / Energy / Voltage / Power

Power Management
Power Management application notes by Texas Instruments.

Power Meters & Sensors
Choosing the Right Power Meter and Sensor - Agilent Technologies


Quartz Crystal Resonators and Oscillators for Frequency Control and Timing Applications


dBm to Watts Power Conversion Table - Exodus Advanced Communications

Decibel Tutorial: dB and dBm vs. Gain and Milliwatts - RF Cafe
The concept of a decibel (dB) is understandably difficult and confusing for someone just being introduced to it. Combining specifications for gain, power, and voltage (and current, but not so often) that mix dB, dBm, dBW, watts, milliwatts, voltage, millivolts, etc., often requires converting back and forth between linear values and decibel values.


Decoupling: A Standard Methodology - Barry Caldwell, Vitesse -- EDN

Decoupling Capacitors - Carl Lodstrom.

Designing Filters Using the Digital Filter Design Toolkit - Rahman Jamal, Mike Cerna, John Hanks, NI

De-Embedding & Embedding

De-Embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer - Agilent Technologies

Delay Lines

Adjust mis-matched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note
Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

CPDL Operating and Programming Manual
Custom Programmable Delay Line (CPDL) Operating and Programming Manual.

PDL-30A Operating and Programming Manual
Programmable Delay Line Operating and Programming Manual.


Level Detector
A Level Detector Design for Dual-Band GSM-PCS Handsets - Skyworks.

Square Law and Linear Detection by Agilent Technologies.


Dielectric Aging
By ATC Ceramics.

Dielectric Properties of Portland Cement in the Low Microwave Frequency Range
scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-92598-152639/unrestricted/KIRAN2.PDF#search='dielectric constant portland concrete'
Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - covers mainly up through 700 MHz.

Dielectric Constants of Wall Materials
antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/docs/models.pdf#search='dielectric constant building walls concrete'
"Ultra-wideband Propagation Measurements and Channel Modeling DARPA NETEX Program Report on Through-the-Wall Propagation and Material Characterization"

Digital Modulation

Digital Modulation in Communications Systems
This application note covers the reasons for the move to digital modulation, how information is modulated onto in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, different types of digital modulation, filtering techniques, ways of looking at digitally modulated signals, multiplexing techniques, how a digital transmitter and receiver work, measurements on digital RF communications systems, an overview table with key specifications for the major digital communications systems, a glossary of terms used in digital RF communications.


Harmonic Measurement for IEC 61000-4-3 and other Radiated Immunity Standards
by AR Worldwide

System-Level ESD Protection Guide
by Texas Instruments

Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
by Instruments for Industry (IFI)

Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health
High Frequency Electronics

A Review of Sources and Effects
A very good synopsis from the July 2005 edition of High Frequency Electronics

EMC Antenna Fundamentals
by Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent)

Electrostatic Discharge Association website.

EMI/RFI Shielding
By Tech-Etch.


Equalizer Key Specifications
"A Review of Key Equalizer Specifications and What They Mean," by Richard Kurzrok, Oct 2005 High Frequency Electronics magazine.

Fiber Optics

Fiber Optics Amplifier Tutorial
This tutorial should be useful both as an introduction to fiber amplifiers and for learning more details on them. We believe that even people already having a substantial experience with fiber amplifiers will find it helpful for deepening the understanding. The focus is on the underlying physics and the resulting technical consequences; we do not simply treat a fiber amplifier as a “black box”, but rather look inside.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH

Passive Fiber Optics Tutorial
Comprehensive physics-based tutorial on fiber optics which clarifies the foundations of this field. As an example, it discusses how coupling losses at fiber joints arise, and explains how to estimate their strength.
By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH


Near Field, The World of the
Here's a good article in the October 2005 edition of Evaluation Engineering - Tom Lecklider.

Network Analysis
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Filters - SAW, BAW, Lumped

Introduction to SAW Filter Theory & Design Techniques -  by API Technologies

Analog Filter Design Demystified
Application note by Maxim Integrated Products.

Filter Design, Distributed Element
Periodic structures and equivalent lumped element models.

Filter Design - Transmission Line
Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

Fiber Optic Products
From Narda Microwave East.

Devoted to RF & microwave filter theory and design.
Microwave Lowpass Filters with a Constricted Equi-Ripple Passband
Dieter Pelz.
Revision of Cascade Synthesis Theory Covering Cross-Coupled Filters
Dieter Pelz

GPS Systems

Application of UART in GPS Navigation System
From Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.

Ground / Grounding

Power Plane & Ground Design for RF PCBs
Power supply and ground design for WiFi transceiver - By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu, RF Design magazine.

Group Delay

Group Delay
By Applied Radio Labs.

Heat Transfer

What They Didn't Teach You in Engineering School About Heat Transfer

Inductors / Magnetics

RF inductor design, from Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.

Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
By Maxim.

Magnetic Core Design Rules
By Lodestone Pacific.


"New Release of Mil-Std-883 Visual Inspection Criteria"
TJ Green Associates LLC

Intercept Points (IP2 & IP3)

IP2 and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers
By Broadcom

Interference / Intermodulation

Two-Tone vs. Single-Tone Measurement of 2nd-Order Non-linearity and IP2 Performance of Direct Conversion Receivers
By Skyworks

Interference Mitigation
"Detecting Interfering Signals and Mitigating Them" by Steve Thomas, Jan 2005 RF Design


Isolator & Circulator Basics
App note by MECA Electronics


Application Notes & Technical Papers by Company / Source Name

Government Business Websites

Translate RF Cafe to Your Native Language

U.S. Visa Resources

Financial Investing - Technology

RIGOL Technologies (test equipment) - RF Cafe
RF Superstore (RF Components) - RF Cafe
ConductRF Phased Matched RF Cables - RF Cafe

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