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Application Notes & Technical Papers
by Company / Source Name

These application notes on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you try to hit one of the links and it is gone, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Thank you. Due to how large the original page has grown, multiple pages are now used.


Application Notes & Technical Papers by Product:  Absorbers - Interference

Application Notes & Technical Papers by Product:  LEDs - ZigBee 


Agilent Technologies
  • Amplifier Test
  • Bluetooth Manufacturing Test - A Guide to Getting Started
  • Choosing the Right Power Meter and Sensors
  • Coaxial Electromechanical Switches
  • Digital Modulation in Communications Systems - An Introduction
  • GPS Receiver Verification
  • Memory Effects in Microwave Components
  • MIMO RF Test and Debug
  • Oscilloscope Fundamentals - Agilent App Note 1606
  • Search application notes by subject, type of content, or category
  • Square Law and Linear Detection
  • Validating Receiver Performance
American Microwave
Application notes for variable attenuators.

Analog Devices

  • A Design Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers
    Download this 108-page, highly detailed handbook for free while it is available!
  • DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance
  • Methodology for Narrow-Band Interface Design Between High Performance Differential Driver Amplifiers and ADCs
  • Programming the AD5932 for Frequency Sweep and Single Frequency Outputs
  • Programming the AD9833/AD9834
  • Radio Design 101
  • Wireless Transmitter IQ Balance and Sideband Suppression
  • Directional Couplers - Xinger - RF Power SMT Directional Coupler Cross Reference Guide
  • Hybrid (90°) Coupler - Xinger - RF Power Surface Mount Hybrid Cross Reference Guide
  • Resistive products, surface mount signal distribution, cased and caseless connectorized

Andrei Grebennikov, M/A-COM Eurotec

RF & Microwave Power Amplifier Design
Lecture 1: Nonlinear Active Device Modeling
Lecture 2: Impedance Matching
Lecture 3: PA Design Fundamentals
Lecture 4: High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

Anritsu App Notes
Downloadable application notes on RF & microwave test methodology. Antenna Research Associates
Standard Antenna Terms & Related Formulas.

Apex Wireless
Frequency Hopping VS. Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping (FH).

Applied Radio Labs
Group Delay Explanations & Applications.

Class-E RF Power Amplifiers, by Nathan O. Sokal, WA1HQC.

ATC Ceramics
Dielectric Aging Phenomenon.

Atmel Corporation
ASIC Design Guidelines.

AVX Corporation

  • Benefits of Thin-Film Dielectric Chip Capacitors at VHF, UHF and Higher Frequencies - By virtue of these characteristics and excellent mechanical features, this thin film capacitor is the ideal surface mount chip for high frequency applications.
  • Ceramic capacitors technical information Capacitors
  • Energy and power handling capabilities of thin film and ceramic capacitors

Bell System Technical Journal
All editions from 1922 through 1983. Bell Labs is the source of many significant contributions, of course, in the area of telephony, but also in memory devices, imaging devices, system organization, computers and software technology, as well as acoustics, optics, switching, transmission, wireless and data communication. Generously made available by Lucent Alcatel Lucent.

Biology Daily
Capacitor Basics - Definitions and configurations, with some equations and illustrations.
Huge Whitepaper Collection.

Carl Lodström
The Noble Art of De-Coupling.

Colby Instruments

  • 622 MBd ATM/SONET/SDH PHY Reference Design Development
  • Adjust mis-matched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note on Jitter in Transmission Systems
  • CPDL Operating and Programming Manual
  • Dewar-to-Dewar Data Transfer at 2 Gigabits per Second
  • Fine tuning clock source for Agilent Pattern Generator 70841B
  • Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
  • NEC Corporation High-resolution Measurement by a High-T Superconductor Sampler
  • PDL-30A Operating and Programming Manual
  • PDL-100A Application for Windows XP
  • PG-1000A Pulse Generator User Manual
  • SG-5000A Signal Generator User Manual
  • Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
  • Synchronizing differential clock sources for Bit Error Ratio Test (BERT)
Complex 2 Real
This is the mother lode of communications tutorials, compliments of Charan Langton.
  • Tutorial 1 - Basic concepts in signal analysis, power, energy and spectrum
  • Tutorial 2 - What is Differential Phase Shift Keying
  • Tutorial 3 - What is the DVB-S standard, a simplified version
  • Tutorial 4 - Fourier Analysis Made easy - Part 1
  • Tutorial 5 - Fourier Analysis Made easy - Part 2
  • Tutorial 6 - Fourier Analysis Made Easy - Part 3
  • Tutorial 7 - Hilbert Transform and the Complex Envelope

  • Tutorial 8 - All About Modulation - Part 1
  • Tutorial 9 - Baseband, Passband and Amplitude Modulation (AM)
  • Tutorial 10 - All about Traveling Wave Tube
  • Amplifiers (TWTA) and non-linear amplification
  • Tutorial 11 - Link Budgets 101
  • Tutorial 12 - Convolutional Coding and Decoding Made Easy
  • Tutorial 13 - Coding Concepts and Block Coding
  • Tutorial 14 - Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Raised cosine filtering
  • Tutorial 15 - How to interpret an Eye diagram
  • Tutorial 16 - Partial Response signaling and Quadrature Partial Response (QPR) modulation
  • Tutorial 17 - Frequency Modulation (FM) , FSK, MSK and more
  • Tutorial 18 - Unlocking the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) - Part 1
  • Tutorial 19 - Unlocking the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) - Part 2
  • Tutorial 20 - Modulation performance metrics and computation of BER
  • Tutorial 21 - Linear Time Invariant systems and Matched filtering
  • Tutorial 22 - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM, DMT)
  • Tutorial 23a - About Lattice and cosets
  • Tutorial 23b - Trellis coded Modulation (TCM)
  • Tutorial 24 - Turbo Coding and MAP Decoding, Part 1
  • Part 2 - The MAP decoding algorithm, step-by-step
    Companion worksheet
  • Tutorial 25 - CDMA
Compliance Engineering
Antenna Pattern Measurement: Concepts and Techniques, part 1, by Dr. Michael D. Foegelle. The first article of this two-part series explores the basic concepts and techniques of antenna pattern measurement and evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of various measurement methods.

Cushcraft Corporation

  • Antenna Performance and Design Considerations for Optimum Coverage in Wireless Communication Systems
  • Antenna Performance and Design Considerations for Optimum Coverage in Wireless Communication Systems
Dow-Key Microwave
  • A Guide To RF Switching Systems
  • Creating Your Own RF Switching System
  • Ethernet Software Configuration Application Note
  • IEEE-488.2 (GPIB) Software Configuration Application Note
GaAs FET Power Amp Simulation.

EDN Access
Battery Handling - Li-Ion, by Matt Schindler.


  • DACs - Double Rate With Mixers - Double DAC rate by using mixers as switches, by Randall Carver.
Electronic Components, Assemblies & Materials Association (ECA)
EMI Filter Problems? Avoid them with proper installation and selection, by Mark Carter, Dearborn Electronics.

Electronic Design
Clock Requirements for Data Converters - Equations for calculating jitter and phase noise in data converters, by Don Tuite.

Electrostatic Discharge Association
Publications include standards and documents, books, EOS/ESD Symposia proceedings, selected papers and white papers, EOS/ESD Symposia presentations, ESD tutorial and seminar notes.

Emerson & Cuming Microwave Products

  • Absorber Principles - Specular, 1/4 wavelength, graded absorber, surface currents, cavity resonance. Notes
  • Electromagnetic principles & applications that span the frequency range from 30 MHz through 100 GHz. Describes applications and properties. Emerson paper
Energizer Application manuals
Carbon Zinc
Manganese Dioxide App Note
Silver Oxide
Zinc Air

Evaluation Engineering
The World of the Near Field, by Tom Lecklider.

FlexiPanel Remote Control... From Your Mobile Phone.pdf
Bluetooth Remote Control from Your Mobile Phone. FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications. Admittedly, this concept does scare me a bit from a terrorist perspective!!!

Freescale Semiconductor

  • Compact Integrated Antennas - Starts with basic antenna theory and builds through dipole, inverted-F, helix, loops, meandering, and other types. Ends with layouts & radiation patterns.
Glen Dash
Designing Enclosures for EMC Compliance. Even though Dr. Dash is an accomplished expositor on Maxwell's Equations, his opening quote here is, "While science has devised new models and computerized methods for EMC design, your best tool for enclosure design may still be your thumb."
On this website you will find an incredibly extensive collection of papers on the subject of EMC/EMI/RFI testing and measurement, anechoic chambers, antennas, Maxwell's Equations, regulatory law, noise control, crosstalk, product liability, and much more.

Granite Island Group
Antenna Basics - In PDF format.

Application Notes: Attenuators.

High Frequency Electronics
A Review of Key Equalizer Specifications and What They Mean, by Richard Kurzrok.

High Frequency Electronics
Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health: A Review of Sources and Effects.

HP Journal Online Archive
This appears to be a complete collection of the HP Journal, running from September 1949 (v1. n.1) through February 1998.

Electronic Design
WebEE series of tutorials & primers. Many articles on Amplifiers and Filters, Batteries, Classes in Electronics, CMOS, Communications, Digital Filters, Electrostatics, Microprocessors, Medical, MOSFETs, Motors, Operational Amplifiers, Optoelectronics, PC Related, Phase Locked Loops, Power Conversion, Pressure Sensors, and Printed Circuit Boards.

V / UHF Antenna Design.

Instruments For Industry
Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications.

International Rectifier App Notes
App notes in .pdf format including motor control, lighting, high voltage ICs, class D audio, automotive, AC-DC, DC-DC, aerospace and defense, general, MOSFET, IGBT, diode, package, thermal.

RF Amplifier Design Using HFA3046, HFA3096, HFA3127, HFA3128 Transistor Arrays.

Ivan Boshnakov, Aerial Facilities Limited

First-Time-Right Design Of RF/Microwave Class A Power Amplifiers Using Only S-ParametersA procedure of how to design RF/Microwave Class A power amplifiers in a very efficient and highly accurate manner when the only initial data available are the S-parameters of the transistors.

Matrix Switches Blocking vs. Non-blocking

Johanson Technology

  • Capacitor Q & ESR Explained
  • Capacitor RF Current & Power
  • Chip Balun: Definitions & Measurement
Linx Technologies
  • Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance
  • Modulation Techniques for Low-Cost RF Data Links
  • RF 101 Information for the RF Challenged
  • Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
  • List of all application notes
Lodestone Pacific
Magnetic Core Design Rules.


  • Part I: A General Design Procedure for Bandpass Filters Derived From Low Pass Prototype Elements Articles/pdf/Bandpass_Filter_tutorial.pdf
  • Part II: A General Design Procedure for Bandpass Filters Derived From Low Pass Prototype Elements Articles/pdf/Bandpass_Filter_tutorial2.pdf
  • Design information, product information, quality information Notes/index.htm
  • RF Directional Couplers and 3dB Hybrids Overview Notes/pdf/m560.pdf
Maxim Integrated Products
  • A/D and D/A conversion / sampling circuits
  • A Measurement Technique for Determining RF Immunity
  • Analog Filter Design Demystified
  • Improving Receiver Intercept Point Using Selectivity
  • Mixer 2x2 Spurious Response and IP2 Relationship
  • Search application notes by category or by part number
  • Understanding Common-Mode Signals
MaxStream (now Digi)
XBee Antennas - Practical information regarding the performance of the XBee and XBee-PRO RF Modules.

Maury Microwave

Download application notes relating to Maury products and subjects of interest. MECA Electronics

  • Directional Coupler Basics
  • Hybrid Coupler Basics
  • IP Dust and Water Protection Rating

  • Isolator/Circulator Basics
  • Power Dividers as Combiners
  • Reactive Splitters

  • Why Directional Couplers Are Better for High Power Measurements vs. Attenuators
  • WiMAX - A brief introduction to basic concepts and differences to WiFi
MECA Electronics
  • Directional Coupler Basics (MAP-701)
  • Hybrid Coupler Basics
  • IP Ratings Explained
  • Isolator/Circulator Basics
  • Power Dividers as Combiners (MAP-801)
  • Reactive Splitters
  • RF Power Measurement Kit
Merrimac Industries
Quatrature Hybrids 90°i Power Dividers/Combiners 10 kHz to 40 GHz General Information.

Antenna Design Tutorial, by Tom Yestrebsky.

Microwave Product Digest

  • How To Choose the Best Test Cable, by Paul Tusini
  • The Right Antenna Makes GPS Work - by Sarantel
Design and Construction of a 6kW Pulsed Amplifier for 1.2-1.4GHz Applications, Corporate Structure Amplifier, Design of a High Power Amplifier to Replace TWTAs in Airborne Applications, CW Amplifiers, Pulsed Amplifier, The Choice is Yours, Application for Milmega Amplifiers in the Communications Industry.


Antenna Application Notes.

Narda Microwave East

  • Attenuators (Step, Fixed, Variable)
  • Couplers
  • Fiber Optic Products
  • Free Running Oscillators
  • Hybrids
  • Microwave Integrated Circuits / Multifunction Assemblies (MIC and MFA)
  • Power Dividers
  • Power Meters and Monitors
  • Terminations
  • Waveguide
National Semiconductor
ADC Interleaving - Interleaving ADCs for Higher Sample Rates, by Nicholas C. Gray.

National Instruments
Designing Filters Using the Digital Filter Design Toolkit, by Rahman Jamal, Mike Cerna, John Hanks.
National Taiwan University

  • Amplifier Design (Microwave) - Very informative presentation
  • Filter Design - Transmission Line  (in English)
  • Network Analysis (in English)
  • Directional Couplers & Power Dividers
National Semiconductor
A Tutorial on Applying Op Amps to RF Applications, by National Semiconductor.

Naval Education & Training Professional Development & Technology Center
Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series Module 10 - Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas.

Navy's Electrical Engineering Training Series (NEETS)
The entire series downloadable in PDF format.

Nikonians Battery Guide.pdf
Battery Selection Guide - Lots of good information on battery chemistries and charge/discharge characteristics.


  • Accurate Es/No for DOCSIS / CATV BER Measurements
  • BIT of Balanced Amplifiers
  • Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source
  • Gain Bandwidth Product Tests To Cut Production Costs
  • Noise Diodes Randomize Quantization Errors in A/D Converters
  • Improving Noise Figure Measurement
  • Noise-Injection Radiometers
  • Testing Amplifier Linearity With Noise Power Ratio
Amplifier Load Mismatch Design Using MMICAD - Application note, by D. Fitzpatrick.

Orban Microwave Products
Antenna application notes from Orban Microwave Products.

Paul Wade W1GHZ
The W1GHZ Online Microwave Antenna Book - Excellent - a good reference for all microwaves.

Pletronics, Inc.

  • Comparative Analysis of MEMs
  • FD7T Users Guide
  • TCXO vs OCXO
Polyphase Microwave
  • Driving the QM Series Quadrature Modulators
  • Interface Circuits for the QD Series Quadrature Demodulators
Battery Chemistry FAQ - Here we discuss different of the battery designs currently used, some of the chemistry involved, and advantages and disadvantages of each design.


  • PAMS (Portable Attenuation Measurement System)
Lifex™ Lithium Coin Cells & FB Encapsulated Lithium Coin Cells - Part 1, application notes & product data sheet.

RF Cafe

RF Design
  • Detecting Interfering Signals and Mitigating Them, by Steve Thomas.
  • Fractals’ New Era in Military Antenna Design, by Nathan Cohen.
  • Power Supply and Ground Design for WiFi Transceiver, by By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu.
  • Predicting junction temperature and MTTF for MMIC devices, by Radha P.N. Setty.
  • Sampling & Aliasing - Mathematical basics of band-limited sampling and aliasing, by Vladimir Vitchev.
Rohde & Schwarz
Downloadable list of app notes.

Signal Processing Group, Inc
Bond wire failures ( fusing) in integrated circuits with pulsed currents – an analytical view.


  • A Level Detector Design for Dual-Band GSM-PCS Handsets
  • A Wideband General Purpose PIN Diode Attenuator
  • Design With PIN Diodes
  • Cellular Handset Antenna Efficiency Measurement Using the Wheeler Cap
  • GaAs FETs as Control Devices
  • Mixer and Detector Diodes
  • PIN Diode Basics
  • Positive Voltage Operation of GaAs Control ICs
  • Solder Reflow Information
  • Theory and Application of Sampling Phase Detector
  • Two-Tone vs. Single-Tone Measurement of 2nd-Order Non-linearity and IP2 Performance of Direct Conversion Receivers
  • Varactor Diodes
Spectrum Microwave
  • Amplifier Operating Temperature Definitions
  • Hybrid Voltage Controlled Oscillators
  • LCA - Low Cost Amplifiers
  • Selecting and Using Miniature Microstrip and Surface-mount Mixers
EMI/RFI Shielding.

Antenna Design Considerations.

Texas Instruments
Amplifiers & linear including audio amplifiers, op amps, comparators, current sensing, difference amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers, isolation analog amplifiers, logarithmic amplifiers, sensors, sensor conditioning, 4-20mA transmitters, solenoid/valve power drivers (PWM), TEC & pump laser bias.

Texas Instruments

  • Clocks & timers including clock circuits, real-time clocks, memory interface clocks and registers, digital media systems clocks, data communications clocks, wireless base station clocks.
  • Data converters including analog monitor & control circuitry, analog to digital converters, CODECs, digital to analog converters, MicroSystem mixed-signal data converters, touch screen controllers.
  • Digital signal processing including DaVinci™ digital media processors, C6000™ high performance DSPs, C5000™ power-efficient DSPs, C2000™ digital signal controllers, other TMS320™ DSPs.
  • Interface including 1394, CAN, display interface, isolators, LVDS/M-LVDS/ECL/CML, PCI, RS-232, RS-422, RS-485, SCSI termination & transceivers, serializers & deserializers, UARTs, USB.
  • Power management including AC/DC & DC/DC power supplies, battery management, hot swap & power distribution, linear regulators, plug-in power modules, power management special functions, supervisory circuits (voltage supervisors), non-isolated switching, DC/DC regulators, power management multi-channel IC (PMIC) solutions, lighting and display solutions, references, fusion digital power(TM) control solutions.
TriQuint Semiconductor
  • Designing High Efficiency Amplifiers using HFETs
  • Package / Tape & Reel Information
  • PC Board Layout Tips
  • Qualification Flow Chart
  • Soldering Profile
UMR EMC Laboratory Technical Report
Measurement in FR-4
Determining Dielectric Constant and Loss Tangent in FR-4.

University of California
Power Amplifier Design Lectures - ECE 145A/218A, by Professor Steve Long.

University of California
RF Power Amplifier Design - Design and Implementation of a Common Collector Class B RF Power Amplifier in InGaP HBT Technology, by Oliver Isler.

University of Guelph
Capacitor history - A very nice introduction to capacitors including history back to Leyden Jar, by Tony van Roon.

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Complex Numbers, Phasors & Circuits - Another great PowerPoint presentation from, by Professor Amanogawa.

University of San Diego
Amplifier Design - Design of Microwave Transistor Amplifiers Using S Parameters - EEE 194 RF course material.

University of San Diego, CA
Filter Design, Distributed Element, from Ernie Kim. Periodic structures and equivalent lumped element models.

University of San Diego, CA
Minimum loss attenuator, from Ernie Kim, Reference - RF Design Guide: Systems, Circuits and Equations. Peter Vizmuller.

University of San Diego, CA
RF inductor design, from Ernie Kim.

University of Surrey
A very extensive treatise of many antenna types, including definitions, photos, and examples, by David Jefferies.

University of Surrey
Yagi-Uda Antennas - Tutorial with photographs of actual antennas, by David Jefferies.

UTE Microwave, Inc
Basic Circulator Facts.

Vectron International
Jitter in Clock Sources.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University'dielectric constant portland concrete'
Effect of Admixtures, Chlorides, and Moisture on Dielectric Properties of Portland CementConcrete in the Low Microwave Frequency Range, Thesis by Kiran Pokkuluri.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University'dielectric constant building walls concrete'
Ultra-wideband Propagation Measurements and Channel Modeling. DARPA NETEX Program Report on Through-the-Wall Propagation and Material Characterization.

Wenzel Associates
Low Frequency Circulator/Isolator Uses No Ferrite or Magnet, by Charles Wenzel.

Zarlink Semiconductor
GPS Receiver Hardware Design.

Z-Communications Inc.

  • Band Switching Voltage Controlled Oscillators
  • Low Cost, Extremely Wide Bandwidth VCO Design using multiplxers and Z-Comm VCOs
  • Manual Soldering Technique for Z-Comm VCOs
  • Marking Orientation and Tape Placement of Z-Comm VCOs
  • Mounting and Grounding of Surface Mount Z-Comm VCOs
  • Phase Noise Measurement of Z-Comm VCOs
  • Phase Noise Measurement of Z-Comm SFS Series
  • Programming Z-Comm PLLs
  • Proper Output Loading of Z-Comm VCOs
  • Pulling Measurement of Z-Comm VCOs
  • Using Convection Ovens for Attaching Z-Comm VCOs