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Homepage Archive - May 2019 (page 4)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page.

Homepage Archive Pages

2019:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2018:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2017:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2016:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec
2015:  Jan | Feb | Mar | Apr | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sep | Oct | Nov | Dec


See Page 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 of the May 2019 homepage archives.
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Monday 20

Sansui TA−300 Integrated Tuner Amplifier

Sansui TA-300 Integrated Tuner Amplifier - RF CafeSometime around 1980, while stationed at Robins AFB, Georgia, I finally succumbed to the peer pressure of other more sophisticated audiophiles in the barracks and bought a "real" stereo. Unlike my roommate who had a full compliment of rack-mounted gear, my meager enlisted military pay only allowed for a mid-grade instrument. The solution was a Sansui TA−300 Integrated Tuner Amplifier. It put out a whopping 30 watts per channel, but unlike my existing radio (a Readers Digest 800−XR), those 30 watts were nearly distortion free when driving good speakers. Having only the pathetic 5 W speakers that came with the 800-XR, I designed a set of speakers rated for 60 W, and built the enclosures myself in the base woodshop. Unfortunately, in preparation for a household move about 20 years ago, I sold the Sansui and the speakers ...

Today Is World Metrology Day!

Today Is World Metrology Day! - RF CafeIn case you forgot to put it on your calendar, today, May 20th, is World Metrology Day. To commemorate the occasion, this is the day that the official definition of the kilogram is being changed from a physical cylinder of metal to the equivalent mass (recall Einstein's E=mc2) derived from a photon energy-to-frequency ratio measured to its most precise value. Per the new definition, the magnitude of a kilogram would be "set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 069… × 10–34 when it is expressed in the SI unit s–1 m2 kg (J s) ..."

How Many Microhenrys in That Coil?

How Many Microhenrys in That Coil?, December 1931/January 1932 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeThis is a nice short article covering the calculation of inductances for coils wound on cores and wire sizes. It appeared in a 1932 issue of Short Wave Craft, but of course inductance has not changed since then so it is still relevant. The author recognized that standard formulas, although concise and accurate, are sometimes difficult to work with when calculations for a large number of values is needed for a particular circuit design. To address the situation, he presents a handy nomograph, chart, and a table of typical values. He also introduces a rarely seen term "Nagaoka's correction factor*" for skin effect. A smartphone app, a spreadsheet, or a desktop computer program would be used today to calculate inductance ...

Positive Threshold in GaN Transistors with P-Type AlTiO

Positive Threshold in GaN Transistors with P-Type AlTiO - RF Cafe"The Indian Institute of Science claims the first enhancement-mode (e-mode) operation of aluminum gallium nitride / gallium nitride (AlGaN/GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) using p-type aluminum titanium oxide (AlTiO) gate insulation. The metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate stack combined the high-k dielectric properties of TiO2 (k greater than 60) with the p-type properties supplied by Al2O3 doping (k ~9). The Al2O3 substitutes the 2Als on Ti sites and the 3Os have a deficit of one vacancy that is doubly positively charged. The charged O vacancy can release two holes, which can subsequently be reabsorbed by uncharged O vacancies ..."

Approaching the 5G mmWave Filter Challenge

Approaching the 5G mmWave Filter Challenge - RF Cafe5G is providing plenty of challenges for filter designers. The issue is probably no so much achieving narrow bandwidths with extremely sharp rejection regions as implementation in available media. Peter Matthews, of Knowles Precision Devices, as an article entitled, "Approaching the 5G mmWave Filter Challenge," on the Microwaves & RF website that discusses some of the issues. "In the world of LTE, developers are very familiar with the available filtering technologies that work, namely surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters. These filters cover a range of frequencies up to 6 GHz, come in small sizes and offer good performance-to-cost trade-offs ..."

Bittele Electronics: PCB Fabrication & Assembly

Bittele Electronics PCB Fabrication - RF CafeSince 2003, Bittele Electronics has consistently provided low-volume, electronic contract manufacturing (ECM) and turnkey PCB assembly services. It specializes in board level turnkey PCB assembly for design engineers needing low volume or prototype multi-layer printed circuit boards. Free Passive Components: Bittele Electronics is taking one further step in its commitment of offering the best service to clients of its PCB assembly business. Bittele is now offering common passive components to its clients FREE of Charge ...

Sunday 19

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for May 19

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle May 19, 2019 - RF CafeThis week's crossword puzzle will keep you busy for a while. Since 2000, I have been creating custom engineering- and science-themed crossword puzzles for the brain-exercising benefit and pleasure of RF Cafe visitors who are fellow cruciverbalists. The jury is out on whether or not this type of mental challenge helps keep your gray matter from atrophying in old age, but it certainly helps maintain your vocabulary and cognitive skills at all ages. A database of thousands of words has been built up over the years and contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure ...

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Innovative Power Products: RF & Microwave Passive Components

Innovative Power ProductsInnovative Power Products (IPP) has over 30 years of experience designing & manufacturing RF & microwave passive components. Their high power, broadband couplers, combiners, resistors, baluns, terminations and attenuators are fabricated using the latest materials and design tools available, resulting in unrivaled product performance. Applications in military, medical, industrial and commercial markets. Take a couple minutes to visit their website and see how IPP can help you today ...

Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

Empower RF SystemsEmpower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels ...

Rohde & Schwarz: This Changes Everything!

Rohde & Schwarz: This Changes Everything! - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz introduces their "This Changes Everything" promotion which allows customers to purchase its oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, power supplies and power analyzers each fully equipped with the maximum bandwidth, channels, inputs, memory interfaces and signal generation for one affordable, unrivaled price. The promotion runs May 20 through December 31, 2019. Customers who might need to budget for future upgrades based on design needs can maximize their investment up front, making purchasing easier and less expensive. Save up to $10,000 on full-solution instruments ...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characterizing Circuit Materials at mmWave Frequencies

"Characterizing Circuit Materials at mmWave Frequencies "

The Azimuthal-Equidistant Map

Unless you are an airplane pilot or ship's captain, a Ham radio operator engaged in long-distance (DX) operation, over-the-horizon radar operator, or a cartographer involved with determining point-to-point straight line paths across the face of the Earth, then you have probably never heard of azimuthal equidistant projection (AEP). In a nut shell, it has to do with the fact that other than at the poles, establishing a bearing between two widely separated points on the Earth's surface is not a simple matter of placing a compass on the familiar type of flattened projection map. Curvature of the surface skews the apparent direction, so pointing an antenna from Erie, PA, to London, England using a Mercator projection map would suggest a bearing of about 80°, but would actually point to  The AEP map is only valid for the location at which it is generated. Create yours on the Azimuthal-Equidistant Map generator website ...

 

 

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Fighter Jets with Missile-Killing Lasers

Fighter Jets with Missile-Killing Lasers - RF Cafe"U.S. Air Force says a ground-based laser downed multiple test missiles over New Mexico. A successful ground test has moved the U.S. military one big step closer to putting anti-missile lasers on its aircraft. A ground-based laser shot down 'several' missiles in flight during an April 23 test at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, Air Force officials said. Run by the Air Force Research Laboratory, or AFRL, the test was part of the Self-Protect High Energy Laser Demonstrator, or SHiELD, a program intended to protect aircraft from incoming missiles. AFRL officials said security reasons prevented them from saying how many missiles were downed in the test. The laser that the Air Force lab used for the test was ground-based ..."

Elon Musk Shows off 60 Starlink Satellites Packed into Falcon Rocket - RF Cafe"SpaceX CEO Elon Musk tweeted out a picture of 60 of SpaceX's secret Starlink satellites packed into a Falcon rocket, ready to be launched this week in the first major test deployment of SpaceX's satellite-based internet intrastructure. Starlink Satellites Ready for Launch On Twitter this week, Elon Musk showed off 60 of SpaceX's new Starlink satellites being packed onto a Falcon rocket in advance of this week's mission to test the deployment of the satellites into low Earth orbit. In a series of tweets, Elon Musk showed off the satellites along with a similar picture of SpaceX's Starman just prior to its launch into space last year ..."

USAF Deploys Missiles to Fry Weapons with Microwaves

USAF Deploys Missiles to Fry Weapons with Microwaves"The U.S. Air Force has deployed 20 missiles which can zap enemy electronics with powerful pulses rendering weapons virtually useless. They can be launched into enemy airspace at low altitude and emit blasts of high-power microwave energy that immediately disable any devices targeted. The Counter-Electronics High Power Microwave Advanced Missile Project (CHAMP) is the brainchild of Boeing's Phantom Works lab. They have not been operation until now and could be used to frazzle the military defences of Iran and North Korea, reports DailyMail.com. News of the state-of-the-art weapons - which are carried into battle by B-2 stealth bomber ..."

Tug-of-War Drives Magnetic North Sprint

Tug-of-War Drives Magnetic North Sprint - RF Cafe"As far as we know, Earth's magnetic north has always wandered, but it has recently gained new momentum and is making a dash towards Siberia at a pace not seen before. While this has some practical implications, scientists believe that this sprint is being caused by tussling magnetic blobs deep below our feet. Unlike our geographic North Pole, which is in a fixed location, magnetic north wanders. This has been known since it was first measured in 1831, and subsequently mapped drifting slowly from the Canadian Arctic towards Siberia. One of the practical consequences of this is that the World Magnetic Model has to be updated periodically with the pole's current location. The model is vital for many navigational ..."

Ultra-Clean Fabrication Produces Nearly Ideal 2D Transistors

Ultra-Clean Fabrication Produces Nearly Ideal 2D Transistors - RF Cafe"Semiconductors, which are the basic building blocks of transistors, microprocessors, lasers, and LEDs, have driven advances in computing, memory, communications, and lighting technologies since the mid-20th century. Recently discovered two-dimensional materials, which feature many superlative properties, have the potential to advance these technologies, but creating 2D devices with both good electrical contacts and stable performance has proved challenging. Researchers at Columbia Engineering report that they have demonstrated a nearly ideal transistor made from a two-dimensional (2D) material stack with only a two-atom-thick semiconducting layer ...

Extraordinarily Transparent Compact Metallic Metamaterials

Extraordinarily Transparent Compact Metallic Metamaterials - RF CafeAny Star Trek fan would immediately recognize this as Mr. Scott's "transparent aluminum." "In materials science, achromatic optical components can be designed with high transparency and low dispersion. Materials scientists have shown that although metals are highly opaque, densely packed arrays of metallic nanoparticles with more than 75% metal by volume can become more transparent to infrared radiation than dielectrics such as germanium. Such arrays can form effective dielectrics that are virtually dispersion-free across ultra-broadband ranges of wavelengths to engineer a variety of next-generation metamaterial-based optical devices ..."

Landing System Made to Enter Spoofing Zone

Landing System Made to Enter Spoofing Zone - RF Cafe"Just what the airplane passenger who is always skittish does not want to hear: Radio navigation on planes for landing purposes is not secure; signals can be hacked. In a video demonstration of the attack by researchers, 'Wireless Attacks on Aircraft Landing Systems,' spoofing starts automatically as soon the aircraft enters 'the spoofing zone. The attacker signal is in real-time generated accounting for the maneuvers of the aircraft.' What does the spoof actually do, to trick the pilot? Dan Goodin in Ars Technica said the researchers can spoof airport signals in a way that causes a pilot's navigation instruments to falsely indicate ..."

Entangled-Photon Gyroscope Overcomes Classical Limit

Entangled-Photon Gyroscope Overcomes Classical Limit - RF Cafe"Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. In a new study, physicists have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that using entangled photons overcomes this classical limit, called the shot-noise limit, and achieves a level of precision that would not be possible with classical light. The physicists, led by Matthias Fink and Rupert Ursin at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, have published a paper on the entanglement-enhanced fiber-optic gyroscope ..."

Aircraft-Towed EW Decoy for Radar-Guided Missiles

BAE Systems EW Aircraft-Towed Decoy for Radar-Guided Missiles - RF CafeSome things just don't look right. This is one of them. "Experts at BAE Systems will demonstrate a new dual-band towed decoy to help U.S. Navy F/A-18E/F jet fighter-bomber pilots avoid modern sophisticated enemy radar-guided anti-aircraft missiles. The DBD towed decoy project, launched last June, seeks to meet an urgent Navy need to protect crews of area-penetrating attack jets like the F/A-18E/F from enemy radar-guided missiles that operate on two separate frequencies, such as X-band and S-band. Dual-band radar is particularly difficult to jam, and poses a serious threat to U.S. aircraft that must operate in contested airspace. A towed decoy trails behind the aircraft ..."

Radar for Your Wrist

Radar for Your Wrist - RF Cafe"Tired of trying to tap icons on small smartwatch screens? Some day you could just swipe right through the air above them thanks to miniaturized radar technology and its accompanying gesture recognition technology in development at imec, the Belgium-based R&D center. Imec's radar chips operate at around 145 GHz, well above the bands used for car radar. That high up in the electromagnetic spectrum, the chip can take advantage of a full 10 gigahertz of bandwidth, which leads to millimeter-scale resolution, its inventors say. 'Gestures allow a lot of capabilities where screens are becoming too small for fine movements,' says Kathleen Philips, program director for IoT at imec ..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright: 1996 - 2024
Webmaster:
    Kirt Blattenberger,
    BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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