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Homepage Archive - February 2018 (page 1)

These archive pages are provided in order to make it easier for you to find items that you remember seeing on the RF Cafe homepage. Of course probably the easiest way to find anything on the website is to use the "Search RF Cafe" box at the top of every page. About RF Cafe.

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See Page 1 | 2 | 3 of the February 2018 homepage archives.

Friday 9

Building Miniature Optical Antennas Using DNA as Guide

Building Miniature Optical Antennas Using DNA as Guide - RF Cafe"Research groups from University of Jyväskylä and Aalto University (Finland) together with researchers from Caltech and Aarhus University (iNANO Center, Denmark) have reported a new highly parallel technique to fabricate precise metallic nanostructures with designed plasmonic properties by means of different self-assembled DNA origami shapes. The so-called DALI (DNA-assisted lithography) method has been published in the latest issue of Science Advances. 'We can build virtually any nanoscale shape using a DNA origami ..."

Invitation: Long Island RF/Microwave Symposium & Exhibits

Long Island RF / Microwave Symposium & Exhibits - RF CafeThe Long Island RF / Microwave Symposium & Exhibits takes place on Thursday, April 5, 2018. It is the area's premier annual event that brings together the microwave, millimeter-wave & RF community. This event is free for attendees but you must register in advance. All Long Island engineers, managers, students and technical professionals involved in these fields are invited. Registered attendees will receive admission to the exhibit floor, technical lectures, lunch, the networking event and dinner. The first 200 registered attendees ...

Amateur 2-Meter FM Repeaters

Amateur 2-Meter FM Repeaters, May 1973 Popular Electronics - RF CafePrior to the advent of earth-orbiting satellites, very long range communications like between continents was dependent on the state of the various ionosphere levels. There is never a completely predictable "open" channel from point A to point B. A satellite repeater, however, while not always in a position to be within view of both points, at least is predictable based on a published ephemeris of times and positions. The first OSCAR (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio), now governed by AMSAT, was launched in December of 1961. This 1973 article in Popular Electronics mentions OSCAR 6, which was launched in October 1972 ...

Triad RF Systems Intros 1200-1400 MHz, 40 W Bi-Directional UAV Amplifier

Triad RF Systems Intros a 1200 - 1400 MHz, 40 W Bi-Directional UAV Amplifier - RF CafeThe TTRM1116 is a high power, lightweight L-band bi-directional amplifier for use with UAV Video, Control, and Telemetry data links. Its small form factor coupled with its high power density make this amplifier a versatile solution for UAVs of any size. This amplifier has been field proven to provide a UAV with over 120 km of data link distance. This class AB GaN module is designed for both military and commercial applications. It is capable of supporting any signal type and modulation format, including but not limited to 3-4G telecom, WLAN ...

SpaceX Falcon Heavy Successfully Launched into Space

SpaceX Falcon Heavy Successfully Launched into Space - RF Cafe"As thousands of spectators looked on, the rocket, developed by Musk's firm SpaceX, lifted clear of Cape Canaveral's launch pad 39a on [February 6], marking what will surely be seen as a defining moment in the history of the private space sector. With the launch, the vehicle has become the most powerful operational rocket in the world by a factor of two. Composed of three Falcon 9 nine-engine cores whose 27 Merlin engines together generate more than five million pounds of thrust at liftoff, the spacecraft is able to lift into orbit ..."

Sensor-Fusion to Blend Radar and Electro-Optical

Sensor-Fusion to Blend Radar and Electro-Optical - RF Cafe"U.S. Air Force researchers are ready to kick off a $33.6M five-year sensor-fusion program to enhance the effectiveness of surveillance radar by blending-in electro-optical technologies like visible-light, infrared, multispectral, and hyperspectral sensors. Officials of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, revealed plans this week for the Precision Real-time Engagement Combat Identification Sensor Exploitation (PRECISE) project. PRECISE seeks not only to fuse several different RF and electro ..."

Thursday 8

FCC to Consider Bands Above 95 GHz at Its February Meeting

FCC to Consider Bands Above 95 GHz at Its February Meeting - RF Cafe"The FCC is set to consider an agenda item at its next open commission meeting on Feb. 22 that proposes to open up gobs of new spectrum above 95 GHz. If approved, the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking would seek comment on adopting rules for fixed point-to-point use of up to 102.2 GHz of spectrum in various bands, as well as making up to 15.2 GHz of spectrum available for unlicensed use in several band segments and creating a new category of ..."

Cobra 29 LX 40-Channel CB Radio w/10 NOAA Weather Stations

Cobra 29 LX 40-Channel CB Radio w/10 NOAA Weather Stations - RF CafeCellphones have not mitigated the need for or use of Citizen Band (CB) radios. Many truckers like them because they are still an anonymous means of communications that is hard to track back to a particular user. Cellphone apps do a pretty good job of providing road and traffic condition reporting, but you can still key up your CB mike and ask for a status and likely get it. My first CB radio was a 23-channel Realistic job bought at Radio Shack. That was in 1986 - my senior year in high school. At the time, the FCC required you to submit a Form 505 - Application for Class C or D Station License in the Citizens Radio Service to transmit. Even though I now have my Ham license (KB3UON), some people still consider me a "10-4 Good Buddy" operator because I did not have to take the Morse Code test ;-)

Whap - You're X-Rayed

Whap - You're X-Rayed, July 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeIf you think science-challenged politicians grandstanding in the media to gain - ostensibly, but unfortunately likely - favor with their constituents is a new phenomenon, take a look at this. On almost a daily basis these days we have elected doofuses pretending to be experts in physics, climatology, chemistry, medicine, economics, and other realms of learned science, when all they are really are mouthpieces for special interest lobbyists whose clients have lots of money for elections. At the risk of being too repetitive, I have to point out the brilliant congressman from Georgia who thought that the ...

Please Welcome RF & Connector Technology As a Supporter

RF & Connector Technology (RFCT) - RF CafeBased in South Korea, RF & Connector Technology (RFCT) is a prime worldwide supplier of RF coaxial connectors and cable assemblies. All popular combinations of connectors and cables are available. RFCT also produces a line of directional couplers, surge arrestors, power combiners / splitters, attenuators, terminations, and antennas for GPS and wireless applications. Please visit RFCT today and thank them for their support ...

More Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes

Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes vol 13-18 - RF CafeMr. Paul Herzig, of Raytheon, just sent the final batch of Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes. There are now 82 of them, from vol. 1 through vol. 18, posted in downloadable PDF format. You might not have a immediate need for Parallel Testing of Magnetic Bubble Memories (v13-1), but many of the topics contain information that is still very relevant to modern system design and testing; e.g., Gain of Directional Antennas (v3-4) and Image-Reject and Single-Sideband Mixers (v12-3) ...

Cold-Resistant Lithium-Ion Battery Developed Functions at -40°

Cold-Resistant Lithium-Ion Battery Developed Functions at -40° - RF Cafe"Like many humans, lithium-ion batteries typically don't like the cold, which means they don't perform well at freezing temperatures. Now researchers in China may have solved this problem by developing a new lithium-ion battery system that can endure unprecedented temperatures even as low as -40 °F giving it potential for use as an EV battery that doesn't succumb to cold weather. A team from Fudan University in Shanghai has developed a cold-enduring hard-carbon anode and a lithium-rich ..."

Wednesday 7

Understanding Ungrounded Oscilloscope Measurements

Understanding Ungrounded Oscilloscope Measurements, May 1973 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThose of us who have been making measurements on electrical and electronics equipment for a long time are well aware of the need to be certain that the ground (common) lead of a piece of test equipment - oscilloscope, multimeter, or other instrument - is never connected to a point in the circuit that is above ground potential. Doing so can be dangerous and/or destructive. If the test point is above ground potential, connecting the ground lead to it creates a direct short to ground, which can destroy the device under test (DUT) or at least cause the measured signal to be altered ...

Antenna Basics White Paper

Antenna Basics White Paper - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz has published a white paper titled, "Antenna Basics." This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained. A more detailed explanation of the functionality of some selected antenna types concludes this white paper. Download for free ...

Optical Switches with 'Contrast' of Electronic Transistors

Optical Switches with 'Contrast' of Electronic Transistors - RF Cafe"Current computer systems represent bits of information, the 1's and 0's of binary code, with electricity. Circuit elements, such as transistors, operate on these electric signals, producing outputs that are dependent on their inputs. The field of photonic computing aims to achieve that goal by using light as the medium. Ritesh Agarwal's research on photonic computing has been focused on finding the right combination and physical ..."

RF Cafe Quiz #69: RF Electronics Basics

RF Cafe Quiz #69: RF Electronics BasicsThis RF Electronics Basics quiz targets those of you who are newcomers to the world of radio frequency (RF) electronics, but seasoned vets are welcome to give it a go as well. People have reported using material from these quizzes as fodder for interviewing potential candidates. All quizzes are multiple choice and answers are provided ...

NI AWR Integrated Framework for Complex Radar System Design

NI AWR Software Application Example Illustrates an Integrated Framework for Complex Radar System Design - RF CafeA new application example illustrates key models and simulation capabilities within NI AWR Design Environment, specifically Visual System Simulator™ (VSS) system simulation software, that enable radar system architects and RF component manufacturers to design, validate and prototype a radar system. This integrated platform provides a path for digital, RF and system engineers to collaborate on complex radar system design. Modern radar systems are complex and depend heavily on advanced signal processing algorithms to improve their ...

The Role of Fog Computing in 5G

The Role of Fog Computing in 5G - RF Cafe"Fog computing is expected to play a major role in meeting the needs of future 5G networks. The technology has been boasted as an effective way to provide the low latency promised by the 5G New Radio standard. With plans to roll out nationwide 5G by 2020, the convergence of 5G and fog computing is anticipated to be an inevitable consequence of bringing processing tasks closer to the edge of an enterprise's network. What is fog computing? Fog computing involves extending cloud capabilities, such compute, storage and ..."

Tuesday 6

Free Engineering Magazines & Whitepapers

Engineering White Papers & Books, February 2018 - RF CafeWhitepapers, pamphlets, books, magazines, and chapter examples listed here are a small sample of a lot of new items that are offered for FREE through TradePub. The publishers make them available to qualifying people as a promotional campaign for their full line of offerings. Whitepaper topics include careers, manufacturing, and engineering, while magazine titles include Microwave Engineering Europe, Electronic Design, and Microwave Product Digest ...

DARPA Military Communications with Digital Phased-Arrays at mm-Wave

DARPA Military Communications with Digital Phased-Arrays at mm-Wave - RF Cafe"There is increasing interest in making broader use of the millimeter wave frequency band for communications on small mobile platforms where narrow antenna beams from small radiating apertures provide enhanced communication security. Today's millimeter wave systems, however, are not user friendly and are designed to be platform specific, lacking interoperability and are thus reserved for only the most complex platforms. To expand the use of millimeter wave phased-arrays and make them broadly applicable ..."

Hot-Carrier Diodes

Hot-Carrier Diodes, July 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeMy first exposure to hot-carrier diodes was in the detector sections of the s-band airport surveillance and x-band precision approach radar systems I work on in the USAF. I had no idea what a hot-carrier diode - or for that matter what a Schottky diode, its alternate name - was at the time. Come to think of it, I do not recall them ever being referred to specifically as hot-carrier or Schottky diodes - just "diodes." This Electronics World article from Hewlett Packard engineer Stephen Adam provides some background into hot-carrier diodes, including how their low barrier potential, small junction capacitance, low noise, and short ...

EMV 2018, February 20-22, Dusseldorf, Germany

EMV 2018, February 20-22, Dusseldorf, Germany - RF CafeEMV 2018 will take place February 20 - 22, 2018, in Dusseldorf, Germany. EMV compromises the whole spectrum of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). At the exhibition you will meet the industry's leading companies for EMC-equipment, components and EMC-services. At EMV you find individual solutions and profit from diverse potentials ...

Fairview Electromechanical Switches for DC to 40 GHz w/IL Low as 0.03 dB

Fairview Microwave Electromechanical Switches Covering DC to 40 GHz w/IL Low as 0.03 dB - RF CafeFairview Microwave has unveiled a new series of low insertion loss repeatability electromechanical switches. These electromechanical switches exhibit low insertion loss repeatability which is guaranteed over millions of switching cycles. This performance is extremely useful to help maintain overall system measurement accuracy. Typical applications for these switches include test instrumentation, research and development, electronic countermeasures, electronic warfare, microwave radio, space systems and radar ...

'Editable' Fabric-Like Supercapacitor Works When Cut, Folded or Stretched

'Editable' Fabric-Like Supercapacitor Works When Cut, Folded or Stretched - RF Cafe"Supercapacitors are electronic components which can act like batteries, storing and releasing charge quickly. Flexible supercapacitors have been made before, but can only be shaped and stretched in predetermined ways, limiting their suitability for clothing applications. The Singapore team, from the School of Materials Science and Engineering of Nanyang Technical University, has been working on this topic for some years, and now claims to have developed a far more versatile material ..."

Monday 5

VidaRF Offers Isolators and Circulators

VidaRF Offers Isolators and Circulators - RF CafeVidaRF offers a line of isolators and circulators covering frequencies from 150 MHz to40 GHz, with reflected power levels up to 250 W. Coaxial (SMA, BNC, N, TNC, etc.), drop-in, surface mount, and waveguide configurations are available. Low intermodulation products (-80 dBc), low insertion loss, and high isolation are standard. Panted and sealed to IP65 standards. Please visit vidaRF today for your needs ...

Beam-Steering Antenna for 5G Mobile Phones

Beam-Steering Antenna for 5G Mobile Phones - RF CafeThe final architecture of 5G cellular networks has yet to be carved in stone. However, it looks as though millimeter waves, with their ability to obtain wider bandwidths, will play an important role in 5G - the next generation of mobile phones. The combination of these bands along with directional phased-array antennas, in which radio waves can be steered electronically in a desired direction, will constitute one of the key technologies in future 5G cellular systems. While there have been ...

A Survey of Silicon Junction Diodes

A Survey of Silicon Junction Diodes, July 1969 Electronics World - RF CafePrior to the emergence of silicon-based semiconductors, selenium and copper(cuprous)-oxide rectifiers were the alternatives to vacuum tubes. Copper-oxide (Cu2O) was popular as a small signal detector since its forward voltage drop was similar to a Schottky type diode - typically around 0.2 V. Copper-oxide diodes were used in radios and test equipment meters. Selenium (Se) has a forward voltage drop of around 1 V, but its high reverse voltage withstanding of 20 V or more made it popular for voltage rectification, with as many layers as necessary being stacked serially as required. Selenium rectifier stacks ...

Ruggedized VNA Cables to Replace the Tired and Worn!

Replacement Ruggedized VNA Cables up to 40 GHz, 1-30-2018 - RF CafePrecision Ruggedized VNA Cables from ConductRF offer RF Engineers great alternatives to costly OEM cables that are now past their best days. We have many standards for applications at 18 GHz, 27 GHz and 40 GHz. Our torque resistant connector heads and phase stable constructions ensure great performance for many tests to come. ConductRF VNA series provides customers with reliable ruggedized solutions for lab and production VNA testing ...

Keysight Integrated Design, Simulation, Test, & Workflow Software

Keysight Technologies Unveils the First Design, Test Software Platform That Integrates Simulation, Design, Test Workflows - RF CafeThis looks like a major step forward. Keysight Technologies today unveiled PathWave, the industry's first software platform that integrates design, test, measurement and analysis. As a result, PathWave enables customers to accelerate innovation and product development from concept through manufacturing and deployment. PathWave is based on Keysight's industry-leading, proven expertise to ensure consistency, accuracy and measurement integrity ...

Graphene Makes Photodetectors 100,000x Better Than Silicon

Graphene Makes Photodetectors 100,000x Better Than Silicon - RF Cafe"Two years ago, we covered research out of the University of Manchester that demonstrated that graphene-based membranes could serve as a filter for cleaning up nuclear waste at nuclear power plants. While it's not clear that this particular application for the graphene membranes ever made much headway in nuclear waste cleanup, they did discover an interesting phenomenon about these graphene membranes in the ensuing two years: protons can transport through graphene ..."

Sunday 4

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines

RF Cafe Engineering Crossword Puzzle w/Weekly Headlines February 4, 2018 - RF CafeAt least 10 clues with an asterisk (*) in this technology-themed crossword puzzle are pulled from this past week's (1/29 - 2/2) "Tech Industry Headlines" column on the RF Cafe homepage (see the Headline Archives page for help). A couple even include Super Bowl-related news. For the sake of all the avid cruciverbalists amongst us, each week I create a new technology-themed crossword puzzle using only words from my custom-created related to engineering, science, mathematics, chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc. Enjoy! ...

Friday 2

Electronics Themed Comics

Electronics Themed Comics, April 1944 Radio-Craft - RF CafeTGIF, as the saying goes. Here are a couple new vintage electronics-themed comics for your enjoyment as you wind down the work week. My favorite is the one with the lady in the vacuum cleaner repair shop. The other comic is pretty good, too. Having lived toward the end of the vacuum tube era, my memory of the equipment is good enough to appreciate it. You might want to e-mail this page link to your friends. A big list of all the posted tech-themed comics is at ...

Next Gen of Smartphone Cameras Could See Through Walls

Next Gen of Smartphone Cameras Could See Through Walls - RF Cafe"The latest camera research is shifting from increasing the number of megapixels towards fusing data with computational processing. You may be pleased with the camera technology in your latest smartphone, which can recognize your face and take slow-mo video in ultra-high definition, but these technological feats are just the start of a larger revolution. The latest camera research is shifting away from increasing the number of megapixels towards fusing camera data with computational processing. By that, we don't mean the Photoshop style of processing ..."

Sparton Selectronne Receivers Models 1068 and 1068X

Sparton Selectronne Receivers Models 1068 and 1068X, December 1937 Radio-Craft - RF CafeWell shazam, I found a radio service datasheet that had been missed. This one for the Sparton Selectronne Model 1068 brings the grand total to 220 that have been scanned and posted here on RF Cafe. They appeared in various formats in Radio−Craft, Radio News, and Radio & Television News magazines. It was in the 1930s that pushbutton tuning appeared in most radio sets, both tabletop and floor-sitting console models. Those mechanical pushbutton tuner mechanisms were pretty impressive. The Selectronne also sported a popular visual tuning indicator called the Viso-Glo tube. It was not ...

BeRex Intros High Isolation, RF Reflective Switches for CATV, 802.11 and 5G

BeRex Intros High Isolation, RF Reflective Switches for CATV, 802.11 and 5G - RF CafeBeRex announces the availability of the BSW6321 and BSW6421 high isolation, high linearity, low insertion loss, SPDT switches optimized for Wi-Fi, CATV and 5G applications. Using a single 2.7 V-5.5 V supply voltage, the BSW6321 and BSW6421 switches provide a wide 1 to 6,000 MHz frequency range when used in either 50 Ohm of 75 Ohm systems. They utilize a patent-pending technology that provides the industry's highest isolation of 50 dB at 2.45 GHz ...

Many New Watkins-Johnson Tech-Notes Available

Watkins Johnson Tech-Notes Archive - RF CafeThanks to Mr. Paul Herzig, of Raytheon, for writing to tell me that the hyperlink I originally had to the Watkins-Johnson Tech-Note collection on the TriQuint website is no longer valid. Qorvo (formerly RF Micro Devices, RFMD) took them down after acquiring TriQuint a few years ago. They were all still available as of September 2015, but alas no more. Paul provided many of the Tech-Notes in the following list for posting directly on RF Cafe. Also, I discovered that some of the original TriQuint web pages can still be accessed via the Wayback Machine™ on the Archive.Org website ...

Google Device Bug Chokes Home WiFi Networks

Google Device Bug Chokes Home WiFi Networks - RF Cafe"A bug in the software used by Google Cast devices such as Chromecast and Home can slow down or crash WiFi networks. The problem - initially believed to be isolated to a particular router model made by TP-Link - appears to affect models made by other manufacturers, including Asus, Linksys, Netgear and Synology. Complaints on a Google user forum brought the problem to light earlier this week. Forum user Alastair Hadden's network problems started after installing Google ..."

Thursday 1

RF Cafe Calculator Workbook v7.4

RF Cafe Calculator Workbook v7.4 (download for free) - RF CafeThanks to Choong S.Y. for writing to let me know that the Directional Coupler calculator worksheet was not displaying negative dBm power values, which has been fixed. RF Cafe Calculator Workbook is now at v7.4, and is still available as a free download ...

Piecework at the Nano Assembly Line

Piecework at the Nano Assembly Line - RF Cafe"Electric fields drive nano-motors a 100,000x faster than previous methods. Scientists have developed a novel electric propulsion technology for nanorobots. It allows molecular machines to move a hundred thousand times faster than with the biochemical processes used to date. This makes nanobots fast enough to do assembly line work in molecular factories. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a novel electric propulsion technology for nanorobots. It allows molecular machines to move ..."

Your Friendly, Fading Technician

Your Friendly, Fading Technician, July 1969 Electronics World - RF CafeWould you work a 44-hour week for $127? That's $6,600/yr, or $2.89/hr for a highly skilled electronics technician in 1969. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Inflation Calculator, the equivalent pay in 2017 would be $45,703.89/yr, or $19.98/hr. A quick look at the current pay rate for an E4 pay grade in the USAF is $2,139/mo ($25,668/yr). That does not factor in free housing, meals, and medical care (including for all dependents) - which has significant value. GlassDoor reports the average salary for an electronics technician in 2017 was $42,390. That amount is actually a bit lower than the 1969 average. Assuming the present ...

Thanks Again for Windfreak Technologies' Continued Support!

Windfreak TechnologiesWindfreak Technologies designs, manufactures, SynthNV: 34 MHz – 4.4 GHz RF Signal Generator w/ Power Detectortests and sells high value USB powered and controlled radio frequency products such as RF signal generators, RF synthesizers, RF power detectors, mixers, up/downconverters. Worldwide customers include Europe, Australia, SynthUSBII: 34 MHz – 4.4 GHz Low Cost RF Signal Generatorand Asia. Please contact Windfreak today to learn how they might help you with your current project ...

Triad RF Systems Intros a 2.0 - 2.5 GHz, 4 W CubeSat / NanoSat Amplifier

Triad RF Systems Intros a 2000 - 2500 MHz, 4 W CubeSat/NanoSat Amplifier - RF CafeThe TA1109 is a small form factor circuit card amplifier designed to be integrated into CubeSat and NanoSat satellite systems. Weighing in at less than a half an ounce, the TA1109 is perfect for applications where small size and weight reduction is critical. Operating at 2000-2500 MHz, the TA1109 offers up to 4 W of output power, with a voltage input range of +9 to +14 VDC. This class AB GaN module is designed for both military and commercial applications. It is capable of supporting any signal type and modulation format, including but not limited to 3-4G telecom, WLAN ...

Security Screwdriver Bit Set

Electronics Device Security Screwdriver Bit Set - RF CafeHere is a screwdriver bit set that you most likely do not have, but needed at some point while trying to open a small electronic device. This electronic device toolkit includes miniature security bit types Neiko 10048A Security Bit Set - RF Cafepentalobe, tripoint, Y-Torx, triangle, and spanner hex, plus, tweezers, a pry puck, and other stuff. For bigger jobs there is this heavy duty Neiko 100-piece security bit set that even includes a wing nut bit (not for use on officemates).

GCF Works on 5G Device Certification

GCF Works on 5G Device Certification - RF Cafe"The Global Certification Forum is laying out its roadmap for 5G device certification, with a newly approved work item that will cover certification for early phases of both non-standalone and standalone 5G. With 5G chipset work well underway and network equipment already in the field-testing stage, commercial devices that can utilize 5G technology are a big step in ensuring that users can actually take advantage of 5G networks as they emerge. Most 5G devices for testing are currently prototypes - or in the case ..."

KR Electronics (RF Filters) - RF Cafe

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

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All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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Windfreak Technologies Frequency Synthesizers - RF Cafe