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About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe WebmasterCopyright
1996 - 2022
Webmaster:
Kirt Blattenberger,
 BSEE - KB3UON

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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Today in Science History

Many Thanks to Federal Custom Cable for Continued Support !

Federal Custom Cable - RF CafeFederal Custom Cable is your direct source for Federal Custom Cable - Cable AssembliesRF & microwave and contract manufacturing (CM), cable prepping, kitting, labeling, rack & panel, modular assemblies, delay lines, Federal Custom Cable - Attenuatorsinductors and toroids, semi rigid, stripping and bending, custom molding, Ø-matched, power and multi-conductor and shielded cables. Please contact Federal Custom Cable today for your project needs ...

Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio

Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio - RF CafeEmpire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio is a quite interesting documentary about the struggle that Edwin H. Armstrong - inventor of the superregenerative and superheterodyne circuits, and of wideband frequency modulation (FM) - had with Lee DeForest - inventor of the Audio amplifying tube - and David Sarnoff - CEO of Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Extensive legal battles ensued between Armstrong and DeForest over vacuum tube patents, and Sarnoff's transition from biggest cheerleader to biggest thwarter of Armstrong's efforts are epic. A huge amount of historical information and vintage film clips ...

BBTLine Intros Unique Line of Broadband Power Combiners / Dividers

BBTLine Intros Unique Line of Broadband Power Combiners / Dividers - RF CafeBBTLine LLC (Broadband Transmission Line) has introduced a unique patented design which allows for more compact devices while maintaining low insertion loss (higher RF power handling... > 20 watts as a splitter), excellent return loss and excellent amplitude and phase balance. Although there are endless RF power splitters / combiners to choose from on the market, once you start narrowing the search criteria down to 1) Broadband, 2) Surface Mount, and 3) Higher RF Power Rating characteristics, the number of choices is reduced considerably. BBTLine's line of surface-mount ...

Triad RF Systems Intros 5700-5900 MHz, 25W Bi-Directional Amplifier

Triad RF Systems Intros 5700-5900 MHz, 25W Bi-Directional Amplifier - RF CafeThe TTRM1090 GaAs amplifier operates at a frequency range of 5700 MHz to 5900 MHz and has a power output of 25 Watts, while still maintaining a compact form factor of 5.3 x 3.25 x 0.57 inches. This unit also features internal protection against over/under voltage and excessive temperature conditions, which coupled with its rugged construction, ensure fault-free operation in even the most extreme environments. This class A GaAs module is designed for both military and commercial applications. It is capable of supporting any ...

Wireless Device Using Open-Circuit Elements Has No Connections

Wireless Device Using Open-Circuit Elements Having No Electrical Connections - RF Cafe"NASA Langley Research Center has developed a wireless, connection-free, open-circuit technology that can be used for developing electrical devices such as sensors that need no physical contact with the properties being measured. At the core of the technology is the SansEC (Sans Electrical Connections) circuit, which is damage-resilient and environmentally friendly to manufacture and use. The technology uses a NASA award-winning magnetic field response ...

Pulse Analysis Techniques for Radar and Electronic Warfare

Pulse Analysis Techniques for Radar and Electronic Warfare - RF Cafe"Pulsed signals are widespread in radar and other electronic warfare (EW) applications, and they must be accurately measured for manufacturing, design of countermeasures, and threat assessment. Pulse measurements are an especially challenging area for signal analysis due to a combination of factors. Fortunately, many of the improving signal processing and analog-digital conversion technologies behind the generation of complex pulse environments also enable new techniques for effective pulse analysis. A real-time spectrum measurement of a multi-emitter ..."

Infineon Joins 5G Automotive Association for Automated Driving

Infineon Joins 5G Automotive Association to Make Automated Driving a Reality - RF Cafe"Infineon Technologies has joined the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA), to contribute towards the creation of a 5G standard for cars. The association is working on the introduction of new communication solutions enabling connected automated driving and on intelligent transport systems. Infineon will provide key 5G technologies required for the autonomous car, and for electromobility. Secure communication with practically zero time delay is a critical requirement ..."

Why Use a Triac?

Why Use a Triac?, April 1974 Popular Electronics - RF CafeTriacs are not a component often used in RF and microwave circuit design, but being conversant in its operation could make you popular at nerd parties. A triac is basically the equivalent of two SCRs connected back-to-back, allowing it to conduct on both the positive and negative half-cycles of an AC connection. Both devices are most commonly used in switching applications. The unique feature of an SCR and triac is that once the gate voltage is sufficiently high to begin conduction between the anode and cathode, it can be removed and conduction will continue until the anode-cathode voltage is removed ..

AT&T Debuts 5G Channel Sounder 'Porcupine' with NI

AT&T Debuts 5G Channel Sounder 'Porcupine' with NI  - RF Cafe"The 'Porcupine' is out, and it's making its debut in all its shiny grandeur. Nicknamed 'Porcupine' within AT&T, a new millimeter-wave channel sounder was introduced this week as a first-of-its-kind device. Looking a bit like something that might be walking and talking in a Star Wars movie, the sounder was developed with the help of National Instruments (NI) to capture how wireless signals are affected in a given environment. It can be used to measure how signals reflect off of, or are blocked by, objects like trees ..."

Science & Electronics Crossword Puzzle for April 23, 2017

Science & Electronics Crossword Puzzle for April 23, 2017 - RF CafeThis week's tech-themed crossword puzzle, as is the case every week, contains only words pertaining to science, engineering, amateur radio, physics, mechanics, mathematics, etc. Making a special appearance is the name of the most recent company to support RF Cafe through advertising. You will see their banner graphical ad appearing in the right page border sometime this week. Enjoy ...

$5.00 for Best Short Wave Kink

$5.00 for Best Short Wave Kink, September 1935 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeHere for radio hobbyists are a dozen handy-dandy 'kinks,' otherwise known as tricks, shortcuts, or clever ideas, that could prove useful while working in the lab at work or in your shop at home. One kink that might be worth trying calls for immersing an aluminum panel in a water-lye solution to achieve "a professional-looking finish." A satin look results. A Google search on etching aluminum turns up many other methods. Admittedly, most of these ideas would not ...

Semiconductor Nanofiber with Superb Charge Conductivity Developed

Semiconductor Nanofiber with Superb Charge Conductivity Developed - RF Cafe"A novel technology that embeds highly conductive nanostructure into semiconductor nanofiber has now been developed by researchers. The novel composite so produced has superb charge conductivity, and can therefore be widely applied, especially in environmental arena. A research team led by Prof. Wallace Leung develops novel semiconductor nanotubes with superb charge conductivity which can be widely used in different applications, especially in environmental arena ..."

Space Debris Problem Getting Worse

Space Debris Problem Getting Worse - RF Cafe"Scientists sounded the alarm Tuesday over the problems posed to space missions from orbital junk - the accumulating debris from mankind's six-decade exploration of the cosmos. In less than a quarter of a century, the number of orbiting fragments large enough to destroy a spacecraft has more than doubled, a conference in Germany heard. And the estimated tally of tiny objects - which can harm or degrade spacecraft in the event of a collision, and are hard to track - is now around 150 million. - We are very ..."

U.S. Radio and Television Stations January 15, 1948

U.S. Radio and Television Stations January 15, 1948, March 1948 Radio-Craft - RF CafeSignificant advances in electronics - and all other kinds of technology for that matter - occurred during World War II, which in conjunction with the U.S. government selling surplus equipment at the end of that war at very low prices, cause a boom in consumer electronics markets. The established radio business and the fledgling television markets were abetted by quickly expanding numbers of broadcast stations. This chart from early 1948 show the number of currently licensed AM, FM, and TV stations, with projections out 20 years to 1968. I don't have ..."

Join Empower RF Systems at the EW Symposium Point Mugu

Join Empower RF Systems at the Electronic Warfare Symposium Point Mugu - RF CafeAs EW warfighting requirements continue to evolve in their complexity and interdependency, it is clear that future EW systems must work collaboratively with other air, ground, surface space and cyberspace systems. The need for multi-purpose, multimode, flexible software defined EW systems is being clearly and widely communicated by the DOD EW community. Empower RF has developed the world's first software definable high power RF amplifiers, an essential element for adaptable multi-mode EW systems. Come visit us to learn more at the Point Mugu Electronic Warfare ...

Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion-Conducting Materials

Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion-Conducting Materials - RF Cafe"NASA Langley Research Center has developed a novel negative dielectric constant material based on ion conducting materials. A negative dielectric constant material is an essential key for creating metamaterials, or artificial negative index materials (NIMs). NIMs have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties, and could be used for unique optical and microwave applications, including new methods of electromagnetic cloaking and extremely low loss communications ..."

Flexible Memory device Using Oxide Ferroelectric Material

Flexible Memory device Using Oxide Ferroelectric Material - RF Cafe"For the first time, researchers have been able to deposit an ultra-thin oxide ferroelectric film onto a flexible polymer substrate. The research team used the flexible ferroelectric thin films to make non-volatile memory devices that are wearable and resilient. 'Ferroelectric materials are capable of storing charge, which makes them ideal for non-volatile memory devices,' says Jacob Jones, a professor of materials science and engineering at North Carolina State University and co-author of a paper on the work ..."

Keysight Technologies to Present Vision for 5G Evolution at WAMICON 2017

Keysight Technologies to Present a Vision for 5G Evolution at WAMICON 2017 - RF Cafe"Keysight experts will be at WAMICON 2017 (April 24–25), an annual IEEE Wireless and Microwave Conference, to discuss everything from circuit-level modeling to system verification for general RF, microwave, millimeter wave for 4G, emerging 5G communications, and aerospace & defense. Keysight also will be demonstrating the latest ADS 2016, EMPro and SystemVue software, as well as a range of RF and microwave tools that include the ENA network analyzer, MXG X-Series RF vector signal generator and MXA multi-touch signal analyzer ...

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

Italian Court Finds Link Between Cellphone Use and Tumor (ruh-roh)

Death by Overwork: Japan's 100-Hour Overtime Cap

FCC Proposes Levying Huge Fine on New York Police Radio Jammer

China Mobile Network Market to Shrink 34% in 2016-2021

Verizon Drops a $1B on Fibre with Corning

Children as Young as 13 Treated for Cellphone Addiction

H-1B Visa Applications Drop

The Motor City Tops Best Town List for CAD Designers

Nominations Open for 2017 Bill Pasternak Young Ham of the Year

Research Advances Knowledge Classical Theory of Electromagnetism

Research Advances Knowledge Classical Theory of Electromagnetism - RF Cafe"Radio waves, microwaves and even light itself are all made of electric and magnetic fields. The classical theory of electromagnetism was completed in the 1860s by James Clerk Maxwell. At the time, Maxwell's theory was revolutionary, and provided a unified framework to understand electricity, magnetism and optics. Now, new research led by LSU Department of Physics & Astronomy Assistant Professor Ivan Agullo, with colleagues from the Universidad de Valencia, Spain, advances knowledge of this theory. Their recent discoveries have been published ..."

Drone-Based Sensor Detects Radio Signals from 20 Miles

Drone-Based Sensor Detects Radio Signals from 20 Miles - RF Cafe"Sensor firm, VStar Systems, has completed a successful flight test of its modular Signal Intelligence Sensor, MA-C/lite, aboard the Martin UAV V-Bat aircraft. Over the duration of 35 minutes at an altitude of 400 feet above ground level, the MA-C/lite sensor collected radio signals from as far as 20 miles, according to VStar. VStar's goal for the MA-C/lite sensor was to build a light-weight signal detector small enough to be carried on UAVs used by military and private security clients. 'Radio detection systems are large. It's hard to find ..."

Call Me KB3UON/AE - Amateur Extra License Exam Passed!

Call Me KB3UON/AE - Amateur Extra License Exam Passed!, Kirt's Cogitations #283 - RF CafeWoo-hoo, I have finally achieved Ham radio license Nirvana! Reporting this on World Amateur Radio Day seems appropriate. On Saturday, April 15, 2017, I passed my Amateur Extra exam in the presence of three VEs at the Wattsburg Wireless Association meeting room in Erie, PA. Nearly 7 years have transpired since I took the Technician test in the same room in 2010. My General license test was taken at the Forsyth Amateur Radio Club meeting room in Winston Salem, NC, in, 2015. Until the FCC updates my record in the online Universal Licensing System (ULS), my call sign will be KB3UON/AE. Motivation for pursuing the Ham radio license goal was two-fold ...

Electronics-Themed Comics March 1951 Radio & Television News

Electronics-Themed Comics March 1951 Radio & Television News - RF CafeThe March 1951 issue of Radio & Television News had just two television-themed comics. The first one might have been pushing on the edge of acceptability, but these types of magazines were directed almost exclusively toward men. The easily-offended special snowflake generation was far in the future. Television at that time was building a huge presence in homes worldwide, and there was a huge amount of interest in the technology. It hadn't really been all that long since the public got used to hearing sound (i.e., 'talkies') in the movie theater, so the mystique ...

Russian 'Buzzer' Disappears, Chinese 'Foghorn' Returns

Russian 'Buzzer' Disappears, Chinese 'Foghorn' Returns - RF Cafe"The International Amateur Radio Union Region 1 (IARU-R1) Monitoring System (IARUMS) March newsletter reports that the Russian 'buzzer' on 6,998.0 kHz has disappeared. For a long time the system interfered with the lower edge of the 40-meter band. In addition, a Russian F1B transmission on 7,193 kHz - believed to be emanating from Kaliningrad - has ceased. IARUMS credits German telecoms authorities for submitting complaints and the Russian military. The IARUMS March newsletter further reports that a Chinese ..."

Notable Tech Quote: John Renshaw Carson

Notable Tech Quote: John Renshaw Carson - RF Cafe"Static, like the poor, will always be with us." - John Renshaw Carson, inventor of single sideband (SSB) modulation. His mathematical analysis 'proved' that frequency modulation (FM) offered no improvement in noise over amplitude modulation (AM). The well-known Carson Rule of FM, BW = 2(Δf + fm), came out of that work. Major Edwin H. Armstrong, a contemporary of Carson's, invented wideband FM, hence rendering the prediction void. The rest, as they say, is history Armstrong also invented the regenerative and heterodyne circuits prior to his FM work.

Pasternack 1.0 mm Flexible VNA Test Cables Operate up to 110 GHz

Pasternack Introduces New Series of 1.0 mm Flexible VNA Test Cables Operating up to 110 GHz - RF Cafe"Pasternack, a leading provider of RF, microwave and millimeter wave products, has released four new 1.0 mm flexible VNA test cables that are designed to deliver precision testing results for Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) testing, semiconductor probe testing, automotive radar testing and military radar testing. They are ideal for applications such as test benches, radar, microwave radio and millimeter wave radio. Pasternack's four new high-performance, flexible VNA test cables operate at up to 110 GHz and deliver precise results for testing ..."

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