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"I can accept the theory of relativity as little as I can accept the existence of atoms and other such dogmas" - Ernst Mach

Today in Science History

Tech Industry Headlines

Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

• US, China Vying for AI and 5G Supremacy

EU Looks to Remold Internet with New Copyright Rules

• 3D Printer Threads Electronic Fibers for E-Textiles

• Japan Approves Carriers' Plans to Build 5G Networks

• O2 to Activate 5G Driverless Car Testbed in June

• Cloud Gaming Could Account for Half of 5G Traffic

Qorvo to Acquire Analog / Mixed-Signal Power IC Firm Active-Semi

• Unexpected Properties Found in New Type Superconductor

• TIM, Ericsson Install 5G Demo Zone at Rome's International Airport

Air Traffic Control by Electronics

Air Traffic Control by Electronics, January 1960 Electronics World - RF CafeAir Route Traffic Control Centers, now using the acronym ARTCC rather than ARTC as used in this 1960 article, were and still are the human and computer command and control facilities responsible for safe and orderly flow of air traffic in the U.S., and a worldwide network of Area Control Center (ACC) handles everything else in a massive coordinated effort. The advent of radar during World War II and the ensuing evolution of it and electronic computers in the following years struggled to keep pace with the equally rapidly evolving aircraft design and capability. A simple control tower with air traffic controllers using binoculars and a radio mike could not handle the volume of airplanes and helicopters traversing the skies and patronizing busy terminals. Many forms of electronic navigation aids were developed including very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR), direction finders (DF) using antenna nulling for finding radials to/from FM radio transmitter, long range navigation (LORAN) 

VidaRF Broadband Power Dividers for 698 MHz to 2.70 GHz

VidaRF Broadband Power Dividers for 698 MHz to 2.70 GHz - RF CafeVidaRF, a manufacturer of high performance RF and microwave high performance circulators, isolators, couplers, power dividers, and other passive components, is proud to introduce a series of broadband Power Dividers covering 698 MHz through 2.70 GHz for all wireless applications from cellular through UMTS. Available in 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8-way with SMA, N, QMA or alternative connector configurations. VidaRF is focused on being a solution provider by building to customer specs and offering zero days lead time for custom parts through stock and ship program 

AC Motor Basics

AC Motor Basics, NAVPERS 10622, Chapter 16 - RF CafeChapter 16 of the "Electricity - Basic Navy Training Courses" introduces concepts of alternating current (AC) motors, their electric supply, and controls. It is part of the NAVPERS (Navy Personnel) 10622 series which is highly regarded both in and out of the military. The manuals were first written in the middle of the last century and have been upgraded a few times since then, but if you compare the sections like this one on AC motors in both the original and most modern versions, not much - if anything - has changed. If you have an interest in motors and want to understand the basics of how they work both as motors and generators (AC and DC), then there is not a much better source from which to start …

Many Thanks to Nova Microwave for Continuing Support!

Nova Microwave circulators & isolatorsNova Microwave is a leader in technically differentiated electronic and radio frequency Ferrite Circulators and Isolators that connect, protect and control critical commercial and military wireless telecommunications systems. Our staff is dedicated to research and development of standard and custom design quality Ferrite Circulators and Isolators from 380 MHz to 26.5 GHz. Please visit Nova Microwave today ...

Complete Filter Design with Discrete Elements Made Easy

Complete Filter Design with Discrete Elements Made Easy - RF CafeJeffrey Kahler's "Complete Filter Design with Discrete Elements Made Easy" article on the MW&RF website reviews some of the filter design software tools currently available both as free apps from component vendors and as a subset of big-name simulator suites. Says Jeffrey, "In an era of a myriad of design tools developed to “save” the filter designer time and effort, it’s exactly time and effort that may be lost due to learning curves, cumbersome workflows, and limitations of the design process itself. Powerful design tools may thus be rendered effectively useless by any one of these problems. For example, a tool that provides powerful synthesis may fall …"

Drilling White Graphene to Create Artificial Atoms

Scientists Drill into White Graphene to Create Artificial Atoms - RF Cafe"By drilling holes into a thin 2-D sheet of hexagonal boron nitride with a gallium-focused ion beam, University of Oregon scientists have created artificial atoms that generate single photons. The artificial atoms - which work in air and at room temperature - may be a big step in efforts to develop all-optical quantum computing, said UO physicist Benjamín J. Alemán, principal investigator of a study published in the journal Nano Letters. 'Our work provides a source of single photons that could act as carriers of quantum information or as qubits. We've patterned these sources, creating as many as we want …"

ConductRF: Precision & Standard Grade RF Cable Assemblies

ConductRF coaxial cables & connectors - RF CafeConductRF is continually innovating and developing new and improved solutions for RF Interconnect needs. See the latest TESTeCON RF Test Cables for labs. ConductRF makes production and test coax cable assemblies for amplitude and phased matched VNA applications as well as standard & precision RF connectors. Over 1,000 solutions for low PIM in-building to choose from in the iBwave component library. They also provide custom coax solutions for applications where some standard just won't do. A partnership with Newark assures fast, reliable access. Please visit ConductRF today to see how they can help your project! 

The Discovery of Radio Waves

The Discovery of Radio Waves - RF CafeAn excellent short history on "The Discovery of Radio Waves" was published by George Steber in the Jan/Feb 2019 issue of Nuts & Volts magazine. "When the concept of electromagnetic waves was first proposed around 1864, it was met with great skepticism. As a result, the idea languished for a long time. This is understandable since the foundations of the theory were complex and the conceptual ideas were at odds with physical thinking. It took several decades for a handful of dedicated persons - infatuated with the mysteries of electricity and magnetism - to finally put the theory on a solid footing "

Improving Object Detection with Low-Bandwidth Radar

Improving Object Detection with Low-Bandwidth Radar - RF Cafe"Researchers at Tel Aviv University have designed a new type of radar ranging system that requires virtually no bandwidth to operate successfully. This new method does not have the bandwidth limitations of traditional methods, meaning it can be used in a vast array of different applications - particularly when it comes to the automotive industry Traditionally, radar resolution was believed to be proportional the bandwidth use. Essentially, the wider available range of frequencies, the better the radar will be at detecting objects in its path. The new method devised by researchers seeks to change all that …"

Restoring Notre−Dame Using Modern Technology

Restoring Notre Dame Using Modern Technology - RF CafeEE Times has an interesting piece on their website regarding how modern engineering methods might be used to restore the fire-ravaged Notre−Dame church to its original condition. Some interesting observations are made, one regarding how cleaning and replacing stained glass tiles will affect lighting to the 13th century conditions vs. as it was two weeks ago. Another suggests ultrasonic analysis of mortar joints to structural integrity, use of drone photos and laser measurement to construct a detailed 3D model of the building for work planning. It also suggests a call to social media for obtain as many of the millions of photographs taken by visitors from all perspectives and times of day for recreating damaged or destroyed components.

Notes on the Getter

Notes on the Getter, February 1958 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeIf you happen to be Estonian, you might think of something entirely different than most of us do when we hear the word "getter." In fact, you probably capitalize the word since it is the name of a pop singer from your country, Getter Jaani. If you are a child living in Japan, you would probably think of Getter Robo, an anime from a popular cartoon series. I, and I dare say just about everyone else that visits RF Cafe, knows getter as that silvery deposit (typically barium) that resides inside vacuum tubes for the purpose of helping to maintain the vacuum and to absorb pesky random molecules that might otherwise cause electrical noise in the circuit. This article from a 1958 edition of Radio-Electronics discusses the purpose of getter. BTW, I had never heard of either of the other two Getters due to OGS (old guy syndrome) 

White Paper: The Future of EMC Test Laboratories

Rohde & Schwarz: The Future of EMC Test Laboratories  - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz has published a white paper entitled, "The Future of EMC Test Laboratories," which addresses the increasingly difficult to meet EMI and EMC certification requirements in today's extremely crowded electromagnetic spectrum. "The growing complexity of electronic devices within both military and commercial products has lead to a significant increase in failure rate of EMC conformance testing. Product design cycle times continue to decrease due to competitive pressure in the market. Product design companies are spending more money on multiple iterations of product EMI compliance testing at EMC test laboratories, and this comes at a significant …"

Many Thanks to Res-Net Microwave for Continuing Support!

Res-Net Microwave componentsRes-Net Microwave has a complete line of precision RF & microwave components including attenuators, terminations, resistors, and diode detectors for commercial, military, and space applications. Products range from the small flange type to large 2,000 watt connectorized power attenuators and/or terminations at frequencies up to 26.5 GHz. In-house photo etch and laser trim capability. Please check out Res-Net Microwave's website to see how they can help with your current project ...

Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle for April 21

RF Cafe Engineering & Science Crossword Puzzle April 21, 2019Since 2000, I have been creating custom technology-themed crossword puzzles for the brain-exercising benefit and pleasure of RF Cafe visitors who are fellow cruciverbalists. The jury is out on whether or not this type of mental challenge helps keep your gray matter from atrophying in old age, but it certainly helps maintain your vocabulary and cognitive skills at all ages. A database of thousands of words has been built up over the years and contains only clues and terms associated with engineering, science, physical, astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, etc. You will never find a word taxing your knowledge of a numbnut soap opera star or the name of some obscure village in the Andes mountains. You might, however, encounter the name of a movie star like Hedy Lamarr or a geographical location like Tunguska, Russia, for reasons which, if you don't already know, might surprise you 

Mac's Radio Service Shop: Pride and Prejudice

Mac's Radio Service Shop: Pride and Prejudice, April 1955 Radio & Television News - RF CafeThere's not a much better way to finish up a hard week at the office than reading a new episode of John T. Frye's "Mac's Radio Service Shop." Mac McGregor and his trusty sidekick technician Barney tackle nearly every issue associated with an electronics sales and service establishment back in the heyday of radios and televisions. You might recognize the title of "Pride and Prejudice" as being borrowed from Jane Austin's classic, which, to summarize, deals with, well, pride and prejudice based on one's social status, and how it results in lost opportunities. To be honest, I have not read the book (Melanie's the designated book reader in our household) but I did see the movie version starring Keira Knightly. Anywho, you'll need to read the second half of the story to get to the actual pride and prejudice part 

Noise and its Shaping in Ultra-Low-Noise Synthesizer Design

Noise and its Shaping in Ultra-Low-Noise Synthesizer Design - RF CafeThis is part 3 of a 5-part series of articles by Farron Dacus. You can access this and the previous two articles and "Noise and its Shaping in Ultra-Low-Noise Synthesizer Design" on the MW&RF website. "This third part in our low-noise synthesizer design series is the medium-length online version. In print are the abridged versions, while full-length versions are available at www.longwingtech.com. Part 1 (Dec. 2018) covered basic design for functionality and stability. Part 2 (Feb. 2019) covered the many noise sources in the synthesizer outside of the actual synthesizer IC. This third article looks into synthesizer IC noise, the closed-loop shaping of noises, and related issues such as optimum bandwidth. Here, a key metric for characterizing synthesizer IC noise is developed. This material also leads directly to analysis of optimum loop bandwidth …"

Balloons Raise Shortwave Antenna

Balloons Raise Shortwave Antenna, April 1935 Short Wave Craft - RF CafeAntennas have been deployed in difficult environments using many ingenious methods over the years both by professionals and amateurs. The process typically involves first propelling a lightweight string or wire across and/or up to a supporting structure (a tower, tree, building, whatever) and then using that lead line to draw the antenna and its accompanying coaxial or twin lead cable into its final position. Sometimes simply tying a line to a rock and tossing it over a tree branch does the trick, but usually deployment requires a more powerful launch such as a a bow and arrow or even a model rocket. Many years ago R/C Modeler magazine reported on a large radio controlled airplane (Senior Telemaster) that towed a lead line across a wide gulch 

Skyworks Waveguide Circulators for 5G Infrastructure

Skyworks Launches Suite of Custom Waveguide Circulators for 5G Infrastructure - RF CafeSkyworks Solutions, an innovator of high performance analog semiconductors connecting people, places and things, today unveiled its newest family of mini circulators for 5G infrastructure. Circulators, which play a critical role in protecting RF elements from excessive signal reflection, help eliminate performance risks and safeguard vital equipment. Given footprint constraints in 5G, solution size is also a key factor. Leveraging proprietary materials and processes, Skyworks' ultra-small circulators occupy up to 50 percent less board space than competitive products without compromising functionality - making them ideal for 5G massive MIMO and small cell applications. Skyworks' mini circulator family represents just one segment of the company's expansive 5G 

A Soluble Memristor

A Soluble Memristor - RF Cafe"This new memristor mimics the activity of neural networks, but can be thrown into water and dissolved if data is at risk of falling into the wrong hands. Neurons are remarkable. Simply by firing in certain patterns and at particular frequencies in concert with one another, they endow us with something incredibly valuable: memory. It's no wonder that scientists have long sought to mimic neural networks, which are both compact and efficient, with electronic devices. One way is with the development of memristors, devices that retain a 'memory' of the direction and amount of electrical charge …"

Rohde & Schwarz: RF & Microwave, Analog, Digital, & Optical Test Equipment

Rohde & Schwarz RM & Microwave Test Equipment - RF CafeRohde & Schwarz develops, produces and markets test & measurement, information and communications technology. Focus is on test and measurement, broadcast and media, cybersecurity, secure communications, monitoring and network testing. Markets serviced are wireless, the automotive industry, aerospace and defense, industrial electronics, research and education, broadcast and media network operations, consumer electronics, cybersecurity for business and governments, communications and security solutions for critical infrastructures and the armed forces, reconnaissance equipment for homeland and external security, and much more 

High-Fidelity Anagram (Crossword, Actually)

High-Fidelity Anagram, January 1960 Electronics World - RF CafeAccording to the Oxford English dictionary, the definition of an anagram is: a word or phrase made by using the letters of another word or phrase in a different order; e.g. "Neat" is an anagram of "a net." Therefore, the title of this puzzle appears to be misnamed. Sometimes an anagram crossword puzzle is created in which the clues are in the form of anagrams, but even that is not the case here. With any due apologies to author Comstock, I hereby re-title this a "High-Fidelity Crossword Puzzle." The "high-fidelity" part is entirely appropriate since it refers to the musical nature of the clues and words. As mentioned previously, the late 1950s through the early 1980s was a major era for interest in high fidelity radio receivers and playback gear. It represented the transition from powerful vacuum tube amplifiers to hybrid amplifiers, clear through to high power transistorized amplifiers. "Man caves" of the day were outfitted with the latest 

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    Kirt Blattenberger,

RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

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