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Module 10 - Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas

Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS)
Chapter 4:  Pages 4-51 through 4-60

Module 10 − Introduction to Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas

Pages i, 1−1, 1−11, 1−21, 1−31, 1−41, 2−1, 2−11, 2−21, 2−31, 2−40, 3−1, 3−11, 3−21, 3−31, 3−41, 3−51, 4−1, 4−11, 4−21, 4−31, 4−41, 4−51, Index

 

ISOTROPIC Radiator  - RF Cafe

 

An ANIsotropic Radiator radiates energy directionally.

 

ANISOTROPIC Radiator - RF Cafe

 

A LOBE is the area of a radiation pattern that is covered by radiation.

 

a NULL is the area of a radiation pattern that has minimum radiation.

 

 

4-51

 

Null and Lobe - RF Cafe

 

Antenna LoadING is the method used to change the electrical length of an antenna. This keeps the antenna in resonance with the applied frequency. It is accomplished by inserting a variable inductor or capacitor in series with the antenna.

 

Antenna LoadING - RF Cafe

 

A Half-WAVE Antenna (Hertz) consists of two lengths of rod or tubing, each a quarter-wave long at a certain frequency, which radiates a doughnut pattern.

 

 

4-52

 

Half-WAVE Antenna (Hertz) - RF Cafe

 

A QUARTER-WAVE Antenna (Marconi) is a half-wave antenna cut in half with one end grounded. The ground furnishes the missing half of the antenna.

 

QUARTER-WAVE Antenna (Marconi) - RF Cafe

 

The Ground SCREEN and the COUNTERPOIsE are used to reduce losses caused by the ground in the immediate vicinity of the antenna. The ground screen is buried below the surface of the earth. The counterpoise is installed above the ground.

 

 

4-53

 

Ground SCREEN and COUNTERPOISE - RF Cafe

 

The FOLDED DIPOLE consists of a dipole radiator, which is connected in parallel at its ends to a half-wave radiator.

 

FOLDED DIPOLE - RF Cafe

 

AN ARRAY is a combination of half-wave elements operating together as a single antenna. It provides more gain and greater directivity than single element antennas.

 

A DRIVEN ARRAY derives its power directly from the source.

 

A PARASITIC ARRAY derives its power by coupling the energy from other elements of the antenna.

 

 

4-54

The BIDirectIONAL ARRAY radiates energy equally in two opposing directions.

 

The UNIDirectIONAL ARRAY radiates energy efficiently in a single direction.

 

The COLLINEAR ARRAY has elements in a straight line. Maximum radiation occurs at right angles to this line.

 

The BROADSIDE ARRAY has elements parallel and in the same plane. Maximum radiation develops in the plane at right angles to the plane of the elements.

 

BROADSIDE ARRAY - RF Cafe

 

The END-FIRE ARRAY has elements parallel to each other and in the same plane. Maximum radiation occurs along the axis of the array.

 

END-FIRE ARRAY - RF Cafe

 

MATCHING STUBS are used between elements to maintain current in the proper phase.

 

The Gain of a COLLINEAR Antenna is greatest when the elements are spaced from 0.4 to 0.5 wavelength apart or when the number of elements is increased.

 

The OPTIMUM Gain of a BROADSIDE ARRAY is obtained when the elements are spaced

0.65 wavelength apart.

 

 

 4-55

A PARASITIC ARRAY consists of one or more parasitic elements with a driven element. The amount of power gain and directivity depends on the lengths of the parasitic elements and the spacing between them.

 

PARASITIC ARRAY - RF Cafe

 

MULTIELEMENT ARRAYS, such as the YAGI, have a narrow frequency response as well as a narrow beamwidth.

 

MULTIELEMENT ARRAYS - RF Cafe

 

A Long-Wire Antenna is an antenna that is a wavelength or more long at the operating frequency. These antennas have directive patterns that are sharp in both the horizontal and vertical planes.

 

 

4-56

 

Long-Wire Antenna - RF Cafe

 

BEVERAGE Antennas consist of a single wire that is two or more wavelengths long.

 

BEVERAGE Antennas - RF Cafe

 

A V Antenna is a bi-directional antenna consisting of two horizontal, long wires arranged to form a V.

 

V Antenna - RF Cafe

 

The RHOMBIC Antenna uses four conductors joined to form a rhombus shape. This antenna has a wide frequency range, is easy to construct and maintain, and is noncritical as far as operation and adjustment are concerned.

 

 

4-57

 

RHOMBIC Antenna - RF Cafe

 

The TurnsTILE Antenna consists of two horizontal, half-wire antennas mounted at right angles to each other.

 

TurnsTILE Antenna - RF Cafe

 

Answers to Questions Q1. Through Q48.

 

A1.   Half-wave (Hertz) and quarter-wave (Marconi).

 

A2.   Coupling device, feeder, and antenna.

 

A3.   Frequency of operation of the transmitter, amount of power to be radiated, and general direction of the receiving set.

 

 

4-58

A4.   One-half the wavelength.

 

A5.   Current and voltage loops.

 

A6.   Current and voltage nodes.

 

A7.   Reciprocity of antennas.

 

A8.   Electric (E) field.

 

A9.   Circular polarization.

 

A10.   Vertical polarization.

 

A11.   Less interference is experienced by man-made noise sources.

 

A12.   Vertical polarization.

 

A13.   73 ohms.

 

A14.   Anisotropic radiator.

 

A15.   Isotropic radiator.

 

A16.   Anisotropic radiator.

 

A17.   Dipole, doublet and Hertz.

 

A18.   Nondirectional.

 

A19.   Vertical plane.

 

A20.   The pattern would flatten.

 

A21.   To connect one end through a capacitor to the final output stage of the transmitter.

 

A22.   a circular radiation pattern in the horizontal plane, or same as a half wave.

 

A23.   It is composed of a series of conductors arranged in a radial pattern and buried 1 to 2 feet below the ground.

 

A24.   Nine times the feed-point impedance.

A25.   Folded dipole.

 

A26.   To produce desired phase relationship between connected elements.

 

A27.   Major lobes have the greatest amount of radiation.

 

A28.   Four.

 

A29.   As more elements are added, an unbalanced condition in the system occurs which impairs efficiency.

 

A30.   By increasing the lengths of the elements of the array.

 

 

4-59

A31.   Directivity increases.

 

A32.   Lower radiation resistance.

 

A33.   Parallel and in the same plane.

 

A34.   They sharpen.

 

A35.   Extremely low radiation resistance, confined to one frequency, and affected by atmospheric conditions.

 

A36.   Along the major axis

 

A37.   Symmetrically.

 

A38.   Length of the parasitic element (tuning) and spacing between the parasitic and driven elements.

 

A39.   Increased gain and directivity.

 

A40.   Rotary array.

 

A41.   Their adjustment is critical and they do not operate over a wide frequency range.

 

A42.   Increased gain.

 

A43.   Multielement parasitic array.

A44.   One-half wavelength.

 

A45.   Wave antenna.

 

A46.   Opposite.

 

A47.   It requires a large antenna site.

 

A48.   For omnidirectional vhf communications.

 

 

4-60

NEETS Modules
- Matter, Energy, and Direct Current
- Alternating Current and Transformers
- Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement
- Electrical Conductors, Wiring Techniques, and Schematic Reading
- Generators and Motors
- Electronic Emission, Tubes, and Power Supplies
- Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies
- Amplifiers
- Wave-Generation and Wave-Shaping Circuits
- Wave Propagation, Transmission Lines, and Antennas
- Microwave Principles
- Modulation Principles
- Introduction to Number Systems and Logic Circuits
- - Introduction to Microelectronics
- Principles of Synchros, Servos, and Gyros
- Introduction to Test Equipment
- Radio-Frequency Communications Principles
- Radar Principles
- The Technician's Handbook, Master Glossary
- Test Methods and Practices
- Introduction to Digital Computers
- Magnetic Recording
- Introduction to Fiber Optics
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