Joe Cahak has more than 25 years of design and test engineering experience. Specialties include RF/Microwave transceiver and semiconductor
parametric test, CAD and software design with extensive capabilities in process automation, database programming, & graphics. Joe has
created easy to use software for engineering and science, all available a reasonable
price. Here are a few of the most popular:
• RF Calculator: Large variety of the most often
needed electronic and RF test calculations
• Astro Calculator: General time and
• PNA Capture: Test automation tool for the
Agilent PNA model vector network
• S-Parameter Library: LLB library (LabVIEW),
including a DLL and
all associated files to the
library for use in other programs languages
ENA Capture: Test automation tool for the
Agilent ENA model vector network analyzer
7 Layers | 7layers.com | 949-716-6512 | Irvine, CA
Testing and qualification for
wireless communication technologies and products.
Abidale IT Solutions | abidale.com | (01287) 218004 | UK
Provides a range of IT and
communications services including the supply, installation and support of standalone & networked computers,
network servers, network hardware (routers, firewalls etc), telephone systems, closed circuit television systems,
IP CCTV systems, public address systems, entertainment systems, copper data & voice cabling, fibre optic
ABR Industries | abrind.com | 713-492-2722 | Houston, TX
Custom and off-the-shelf
coaxial cable, connectors, and assemblies, plastic connector protector caps. Braided and semi-rigid shield.
Fast turn-around from Houston, TX facility. RF, hi-pot and electrical testing available. Kitting & JIT
Action Cabling | actcabling.com | 281-364-3710 | Houston, TX
Voice & Data Cabling
Services for Houston, TX business including professional design, installation, maintenance, testing &
certification of Cat 3, Cat 5, Cat 6 and fiber optics.
Adamson Consulting | patadamson.com | 720-496-4002 | Boulder, CO
Specialists in intellectual
properties strategies, product development, safety marks, and onsite electromagnetic measurements.
Advanced Compliance Solutions, Inc | acstestlab.com
| 770-831-8048 | Buford, GA
complete EMC, product safety and environmental testing of your products.
Advantage Communications, Inc. | advantage-com.com
| 866-688-1510 | Hollywood, FL
Consulting, design construction and maintenance of two-way radio systems. We service and sell all major brands
including Motorola and Kenwood, but are not driven by manufacturer incentives or commissions.
Alistair Electronics | aliselectron.com
| 505-702-5219 | Albuquerque,
Service/restoration of vintage tube equipment; Cushman monitor repair/calibration; amateur radio
gear repair. Also repair antique, table-top model radios. Some tubes stocked.
American Environments Company | aeco.com | 631-736-5883 | Medford, NY
engineering and test Laboratory specializing in the simulation of climatic, electromagnetic, shock, vibration
and mechanical environments. Testing is performed for compliance, qualification, design verification and failure
analyses. Testing in accordance with domestic & international requirements. EMI, FCC, HIRF, Lightning,
Power Quality, ESD Testing Services.
American Telecommunications Certification Body (ATCB)
| 703-847-4700 | McLean,
Provides certification services for wireless equipment manufacturers. We are accredited by the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) and designated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as a Telecommunications
Certifications Body (TCB). We are accredited to provide the widest scopes of Wireless Certification in the
FCC's TCB program, certifying the most challenging state-of-the-art products with unparalleled response.
antennas.us | antennas.us | 954-0975-2712 | Margate, FL
Antennas for military, mobile
radio, GPS, EMS, satellite/terrestrial, ISM, WLAN/Wi-Fi/WiMax, Ham, AM/FM/satellite radio. Cable assembly,
connectors, diplexers & filters, software, measurement services.
Antenna Systems & Solutions | antennasystems.com
| +1-847-584-1000 | Schaumburg,
An international distribution firm specializing in HF, VHF, UHF, WiFi, and Microwave systems. Our installation
and engineering technicians use the most advanced site planning technologies to make sure the project gets
done, and gets done right. We have successfully completed a major communications project on every continent
for high-end commercial companies and government agencies. Complete ranges of antennas, towers and masts for
HF, VHF, UHF, and microwave, in parabolic, sector, yagi, omni directional, patch, and disguised formats. Coaxial
cable and waveguide assemblies built & tested to your specs.
Antenna World | antennaworld.com | 305-471-9507 | Miami, FL
Offers a wide selection
of antennas, cable, connectors and antenna accessories for various applications and markets. Also provides
testing and design services.
Applied Research Associates, Inc | ara.com | 505-881-8074 | Albuquerque, NM
innovative, in-depth and diversified research, engineering, and technical support services to clients in government
Ascom | ascom.com | +41 31 999 11 11 | Switzerland
Provider of services for telecommunications
systems, integrated voice & data communications, wireless & corded security solutions & networked
revenue collection systems.
Boonton | boonton.com
973-386-9696 | Parsippany, NJ
RF power and peak
power meters, voltmeters, average and peak power sensors, USB power meters. Modulation and audio
analyzers. PIM testers and calibration services.
CACO Services, LLC | cacoservices.com | 763-557-9711 | Minneapolis, MN
instrumentation installation specialists.
Cal-Bay Systems, Inc | calbay.com | 415-258 9400 | San Rafael, CA
A value-added provider
for the test, measurement, and automation industry including data acquisition systems, automated test equipment,
programming tools, engineering services, process monitoring, RF switch matrix, embedded control, instrumentation,
motion and vision, medical device test systems.
Cal Enterprises Ltd | calenterprises.co.uk | 01229 826692 | UK
Test equipment calibration
and repair, HP VEE automation software and measurements.
Car-Cim Services, Inc. | carcim.com | 315-463-8189 | Syracuse, NY
diplexer service, repair and parts. Car-Cim Services Inc., has 40 years of experience to handle your broadcast
Cats Design Communications | catsdesigninc.com
| 215-364-7101 | Churchville, PA
small group of head-end technicians located in the northeast. Planning, constructing, wiring, labeling, balancing,
and cutovers. We will work with you to get your "I need it now" project done with an in-house feel.
CellAntenna | cellantenna.com | 954-340-7053 | Coral Springs, FL
Cellular and wireless
base stations, antennas, repeaters,
signal boosters, docking stations, cabling, and signal jamming equipment.
Installation and test services are our specialty. U.S. and EU locations.
CES Network Services, Inc | cesnetser.com | 972-241-3683 | Barksdale, TX
A full service
turnkey voice, data & video MAN / LAN / WAN system integrator.
Chemandy Electronics | chemandy.com | +62 31 8914627 | Jawa Timur, Indonesia
selection of online interactive calculators for RF design, including attenuators, capacitance, resonance,
RF traps, and microstrip impedance. Design, development and small scale manufacture of simple RF and Audio
items. We also have the capability for ATE programming in Labview, HP/Agilent Vee or Visual Basic, and can
produce associated test jigs.
Ciao Wireless | ciaowireless.com | 805-389-3224 | Camarillo, CA
Broad selection of
amplifiers for multi-octave, octave & ½-octave, broadband, LNAs, and RF limiting. Replacement amplifiers
for anything previously or currently made by JCA Technology, Cougar (connectorized versions), Avantek, WJ,
CTT, Celeritek, Amplica, among others, but at a much quicker delivery. Also manufacture radial combiners and
space qualified filters. Environmental screening services available.
Circuit Electrical Testing Ltd | electricity-test.co.uk
| 0800 007 5422 | UK
a firm of qualified electricians operating NATIONWIDE who specialise in PAT testing. All work is completed
by experienced professionals.
Communications International, Inc | ask4cii.com
| 772-569-5355 | Vero Beach, FL
of wireless telecommunication systems and services.
Computer Input | computerinput.com | 954-344-4825 | Coral Springs, FL
and supports any cable plant infrastructure.
Comsat Laboratories (now ViaSat)
| 301-428-4500 | Clarksburg, MD
consulting, engineering design and system engineering for satellite and wireless communications.
Curtis-Straus LLC | curtis-straus.com | 978-486-8880 | Littleton, MA
Services in Massachusetts: NEBS, EMC, Product Safety and Telecom. A2LA accredited. CE mark and FCC.
Custom Systems Integration - CSI | customsi.com
| 607-757-0200 | Endicott, NY
performs 3 main types of contracted services: design and development; build to print; and time and materials.
Custom Test Systems (EE, ME, Sw, Fab, Assembly). CSI's engineering and manufacturing team is proficient in
segments of engineering extending literally from DC to light. Whether your system is digital, analog, RF,
microwave or optical we can help!
Damaskos, Inc | damaskosinc.com | 610-358-0200 | Concordville, PA
Provider of materials
measurement services and products with 24 years of experience in the general field of electromagnetics. Features:
standard fixture sizes, calibration standards, software for common analyzers, complete systems, ancillary
components-cables, interfaces, processors.
DriveTest, Inc | drivetestinc.com | 804-868-6995 | Richmond, VA
Provides drive testing
services to the wireless communications community, focusing on providing the wireless operator, be it cellular,
emergency services, commercial interstate or satellite radio, with a dependable, reliable, affordable alternative
to the oversaturated marketplace of engineering firms and contracting companies.
easel technologies limited | easeltechnologies.co.uk
| (+44) 7760 172 135 | Bath, Wiltshire,
Manufacturer of RF and LF generators for plasma and materials processing applications, matching networks,
repair, help and consultancy.
EMA Consulting Engineers | emaengineers.com | 859-420-1026 | Orlando, FL
architects, the legal profession, and the insurance community in the investigation and redesign
of structures. We solve design issues of already designed buildings and performing damage assessment.
Forensic engineering is our specialty.
Ensco, Inc | ensco.com | 800-ENSCO-VA | Falls Church, VA
Provides engineering, science &
advanced technology solutions for the defense, security, transportation, environment, and aerospace industries.
ERZIA Technologies S.L. | erzia.com | 0034 942 29 13 45 | Spain
supplies custom designed RF & Microwave systems, ATE RF equipment, satellite link emulators, Eb/No generators,
wireless product design and RF and Microwave consulting services.
EZ Wireless Communications Company | ezwireless.ca
| 604-438-1246 | Vancouver BC Canada
High quality testing services, certification solutions and customer support for wireless products.
First Level, Inc | firstlevelinc.com | 717-266-2450 | York, PA
services, packaging for microelectronic assemblies, CSP, COB, SCM, MCM, flip chip, chip on flex, stud bumping/micropost,
die and wire bonding, encapsulation, PCB assembly and test, prototype to production.
Future Technologies, LLC | futuretechllc.com
| 770-995-6070 | Lawrenceville, GA
professional services and technology integration firm specializing in the delivery of unique and innovative
solutions for government and commercial customers worldwide. Through the utilization of leading edge broadband
wireless technology, satellite communications, and converged network applications, Future Technologies’ inventive
products have demonstrated their value in standard community environments, austere emergency environments
and combat situations.
Garwood Laboratories | (now Stork Garwood Laboratories, Inc)
888-427-4111 | Pico Rivera, CA
Product testing labs for EMI, EMC, reliability, vibration and environmental
testing, FCC approval and CE certification testing, CE and CCC marking.
Global Advantage International | globaladvantage.ca
| 905-883-3919 | Toronto, Ontario,
Product EMC & safety testing. Your complete product safety, regulatory compliance and EMC solution
Ground Zero Electrostatics | gndzero.com | 877-463-9376 | Bradenton, FL
installation for all things related to ESD protection. ESD Flooring - Carpet, Vinyl, Rubber. ESD Matting –
Bench, Floor. Test equipment, ESD bags, labels, totes, straps testers, gloves, coats, furniture grounding,
clean room grades.
Hydratel Telecommunications | hydratel.com | 00447891401693 | London, UK
technical and project management, equipped with a commanding track record in design, development, production,
repairs and measurements of communications and related technologies.
Infineon Technologies | infineon.com | +49 89 234 86083 | Austria
selection, supply, installation, integration and maintenance services for the successful deployment of RFID
INSTALLS, Inc | installs.com | 716-854-1994 | Buffalo, NY
Manages national installation
programs for retailers and major corporations.
Instrument Calibration Service, Inc | instrumentcalibration.com
| 800-826-3759 | Alpharetta,
Our laboratory currently provides quality test equipment services to manufacturing, research & development,
service, testing, engineering, aviation, and medical/healthcare organizations nationwide. On site calibration
services are available for most technical measurement parameters the laboratory supports.
JEM Engineering | jemengineering.com | 301-317-1070 | Laurel, MD
and testing of antennas, microwave circuits, phased arrays, and associated electronics for military and commercial
applications, covering the spectrum from 30 MHz to 40 GHz.
JIT Technologies | jittechnologies.net | 828-244-5389 | Morganton, NC
in industrial electronic repairs and upgrades, retrofits, PLC programming, calibration, computer networking,
PC repair, and electrical services.
JPL Consulting LLC | jplconsulting.net | 203-838-8373 | Norwalk, CT
RF & microwave
component and subsystem design, circuit simulation, hybrid design & manufacturing support, automated test
Knox Electronic Technologies | knoxetech.com
| 603-379-2595 | North Hampton, NH
engineering facility has the tools to support, design, development, and build, high frequency devices such
as; antennas, subsystems and systems, including full measurement capability to 40 GHz. MIL/Aero Radar &
SATCOM, Application specific hardware / instrumentation / system development, Test Services, R&D, High
Frequency Circuit/System Modeling and Simulation, including 3-D Finite Element, Test Fixtures, Commercial
RFIC testing, Metrology with a concentration in microwave measurement science or Microwave & RF Measurement
Launch 3 Telecom | launch3telecom.com | 877-878-9134 | Garfield, NJ
distributor of new, used, and refurbished telecommunications equipment specializing in central office, switching,
cellular wireless, fixed wireless, data networking, and other telecom equipment.
LoKey - data acquisition & control
| 508-761-5296 | Attleboro, MA
Providing services to establish computerized data acquisition and control systems specializing in LabVIEW
programming - Massachusetts & Rhode Island.
Lun'tech (English language)
| Lun'tech (French language) | luneberg.fr
(33) 4 67 55 69 56 | Perols, France
For more than 40 years, Lun’tech designs, develops, manufactures, repairs
and sales passive and active reflectors (Luneberg lens, trihedral reflector, active system) and antennas as
well as microwave measurements in anechoid chamber (3.5 to 40 GHz). ISO9001:2008 certification
Lysko Consultings | lysko.com | +27 73 67 26 331 | South Africa
Consultancy in microwave
and RF: computational electromagnetics, signal propagation, antenna placement, antenna design, test and measurement,
passive microwave component design, HP HFSS and WIPL-D import/export, LabVIEW.
Micro-Ant, Inc | micro-ant.com | 508-679-9300 | Fall River, MA
Specification generation &
compliance review, EM model simulation & optimization, antenna design with CAD documentation, antenna
testing & analysis, prototyping & production design, manufacturing, consulting, system link budget
generation & analysis.
Microwavefilters | microwavefilters.it | +39(0)292162703 | Pioltello, Milano, Italy
Manufacturing of RF components including waveguide band and channel filters, duplexers, couplers, tapers,
adapters, flanges, housings and cold plates for RF bridges, and also offers electric testing, project consulting
and problem solving.
Midland Communications | midlandcomms.co.uk | +44 870 8351000 | Worcestershire, UK
We supply install & maintain Panasonic, Avaya & Mitel phone systems, Sony video conferencing, PA Systems
and offer cheaper business phone calls.
M M Stephens Engineering | meyrickstephens.com
| 00353 23 38185 | Ireland
microwave design engineering services, up/down-converter design, microwave link design, measurement uncertainty
analysis report authoring. We have a track record of RF & Microwave design of microwave point-to-point
link system design, satellite and ground station equipment design; very strong on designing microwave metrology
systems and researching & writing measurement uncertainty analysis reports for satellite & RF/microwave
systems. Customers include ESA.
Morcom International | morcom.com | 703-263-9305 | Chantilly, VA
The latest in wireless
communications and advanced weather systems for commercial, security, government, and amateur use. Communications
systems design, airport ground-to-air communications, weather information systems design, IT hardware support
and management, repair and programming of radio transceivers, hydro-meteorological system design, airport
weather observation systems (AWOS), export/import consulting services.
Monitronics International, Inc | monitronics.com
| 800-447-9239 | Dallas, TX
nationwide security system design, installation, and alarm monitoring services for businesses & residential.
MTC Controls, Inc | mtccontrols.com | 718-389-8110 | Buffalo, NY
engineering services, sales, repairs, installation.
National Technical Systems, Inc | ntscorp.com
| 800-270-2516 | Boxborough, MA
is the largest independent testing company in the US. NTS supplies testing and technical staff to both commercial
and Military customers and provides one-stop-solutions for worldwide compliance to standards such as NEBS,
CE Marking, UL, CSA, FCC, RTCA-DO-160, MIL-STD-461/462.
Nemko Canada, Inc | nemko.com | 613 737 9680 | Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
TCB and CCB
offering wireless certification and also a test laboratory covering wireless, EMI, safety, laser safety and
telecom. We offer one-stop-shop solutions for worldwide compliance to standards such as FCC, RSS, CE Marking,
UL, CSA, Korea, and Taiwan. We also have experienced design engineers who can help with product design and
Nevada Microwave & Tower | nmandt.com | 775-782-5231 | Minden, NV
testing and installation services for cellular, microwave and TV/radio broadcast systems. Our company also
installs and maintains DC backup power systems for communications sites including solar and wind turbine systems.
Nevada Microwave and Tower LLC is fully licensed, bonded and insured in Nevada & Utah, CA.
Odyssey Technical Solutions | odysseyrf.com | 877-989-7007 | Round Rock, TX
of the art repair facility specializing in RF microwaves, RF generators, and Automatch Networks. Services
include repair, refurbishment, core exchanges, process & equipment engineering, and equipment sales.
Plexus | plexus.com | 920-722-3451 | Neenah, WI
Services include mechanical, electronic
and software design, printed circuit board development, prototyping services, new product introduction, material
procurement and management, printed circuit board and higher level assembly, test development, in-circuit
and functional testing, final system box build, fulfillment and sustaining services.
Principled Connections | principledconnections.com
| 330-459-8922 | Barberton, OH
We offer both commercial and residential services, including the design, installation, maintenance, and repair
all cable, phone, and internet services, including digital phone and wireless networking. We also design and
install surveillance systems. From the addition of a single cable outlet to the design and installation of
a structured cabling system, we are equipped to meet your needs.
Professional Teleconcepts | pro-tel.com | 607-337-7474 | Norwich, NY
furnishing, and installation services to the telecommunications market, including design, provisioning and
installation of switches, transmission and broadband equipment, power plants, CEVs and CEMHs, co-location
cages, wireless, and most other telecom infrastructure equipment.
QRC Technologies | qrctech.com | 540 446-2270 | Stafford, VA
Cellular survey and
forensic tools, Turn-key system integration engineering. QRC has products used for phone forensics, base station
location, mobile location (Direction Finding), and cellular system surveys. QRC tools cover CDMA, WCDMA, GSM,
and iDEN protocols.
RBrooker Engineering | rbrooker.com | 703-548-6777 | Alexandria, VA
for the satellite and microwave communications industry with a broad technical-business perspective and the
depth of experience to solve real-world problems.
RCC Consultants, Inc | rcc.com | 732-404-2400 | Woodbridge, NJ
An international telecommunications
consulting, integration, and outsourcing firm who provides solutions to its clients' problems through the
application of both wireless and wired communications and information technologies. Full range of processes,
tools, and expertise needed to advance a telecommunications business concept or project from a strategy, to
a tactical plan, through implementation, to full operation. Our work includes the analysis of user needs,
budgeting, design, procurement support, deployment, and management of network infrastructure and/or services.
Comsite comprehensive radio frequency engineering
RepairLaunch.com | RepairLaunch.com | 1-888-494-iFix | San Francisco, CA
a number of different repair services, but our iPhone Repair service and information resources are very popular.
RF Exposure Lab, LLC | rfexposurelab.com | 760-737-3131 | Escondido, CA
owned independent SAR testing facility located in Southern California. We provide support to you by selling
a total solution with both testing and design suggestions to insure your product can meet the testing limits.
RFIC Solutions | rficsolutions.com | 408-499-0846 | Milpitas, CA
for complex highly integrated RF SoC solutions, custom RFIC/MMICs based on GaAs, SiGe, CMOS and BiCMOS process
for applications ranging from DC to 60GHz, and RF Modules and systems design services for WLAN, Wimax and
RFTek | rftek.net | 919-622-4088 | Raleigh, NC
Consulting and contracting
services for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Electrostatic Discharge (ESD): design, test and compliance.
Rhein Tech Laboratories | rheintech.com | 703-689-0368 | Herndon, VA
- Rhein Tech Laboratories is an accredited Test Lab specializing in FCC. Certification, CE Mark Certification,
Design for Compliance.
SalvageData | salvagedata.com | 888-212-2002 | Stamford, CT
Hard disk drive recovery
service - recovers lost data from damaged drives and storage devices.
Scott Baxter & Associates | howcdmaworks.com
| 800-890-0829 | Nashville, TN
Baxter is a CDMA2000 network and RF performance consultant and trainer. Consulting continuously since 1995,
he has delivered CDMA training and performance optimization services in 40 US states, 5 Canadian provinces,
and eleven other countries around the world.
Skymasts Antennas Limited | skymasts.com | 00 44 1604 494132 | Northampton, UK
manufacture and worldwide distribution of professional wireless base station antennas, specialised low profile
antenna products, power splitters, duplexers, filters and antenna installation hardware. ISO9001 certified
and all products RoHSS compliant.
SMT Resource | smtresource.com | 919-554-3008 | Wake Forest, NC
Refurbished semiconductor &
SMT assembly equipment. Installation, training, warranty, maintenance, service, leasing.
Spectrum Integrity, Inc | spectrumintegrity.com
| 805-426-4267 | Simi Valley, CA
RF PCB design, high-frequency test sockets, flex design, high-speed testing, PCB fabrication.
Sunshine Design Engineering Services | Ramona, CA
- hardware, CAD and software engineering. Test Engineering Services - 20 years experience RF/Microwave and Semiconductor
Parametric Test. Electronic Calculator - Multiple pages of calculators for capacitance, resistance, inductance,
attenuation, microstrip, resonance, etc. Many astronomical calculators. RF Calculator: RF and RF Test calculations
for design and analysis.
Sypris Test & Measurement | wetest.com
| 800-775-2550 | Orlando,
Complete metrology solutions for calibration and repair of electrical, mechanical and process control
instrumentation, testing and evaluation services, components.
Technology International | techintl.com | 800-810-9000 | Richmond, VA
Offers a range
of services to assist you with your regulatory needs for EMC, Low Voltage (LVD), Machinery Safety Directives
(MSD) and SEMI. Full network of affiliated North American test laboratories for electrical safety and EMC.
Testing, document preparation and approvals needed for Europe (CE Mark). Certified Competent Body for the
EMC Directive and Notified Body for the Low Voltage and the Machinery Safety Directives.
Tektronix | tek.com | 800-835-9433 | Beaverton, OR
and monitoring equipment including oscilloscopes, signal generators, logic analyzers, real-time spectrum analyzers,
and application testing software.
Telestrian Limited | telestrian.co.uk
+44 (0)1235-227236 | Wantage, Oxfordshire, UK
A UK based RF design consultancy offering RF module development, wireless design services, hire of the RF
test facility and phase noise testing using the Agilent E5501B phase noise test system.
Turnkey Instrument Solutions | turnkeyinstrumentsolutions.com
for instrumentation and control systems in the manufacturing, process control and related industries including
installation, calibration, commissioning, tuning, programming, & upgrades.
TV Magic, Inc | tvmagic.tv | 858-650-3155 | San Diego, CA
Full service broadcast
and A/V company specializing in engineering design, integration, equipment sales, service and support for
a host of applications from broadcast to production to presentation systems and beyond.
TV Pro Gear | tvprogear.com
| 877-887-7643 | Glendale,
Turnkey systems integrator, systems design, and mobile solutions.
Validus Technologies IT Consulting | validustechnologies.com
| 703-728-0605 | South
Provides analysis, design, implementation, testing and maintenance of business applications.
Vincent Electronics | vincentelectronics.com
| 734-347-2736 | Livonia, MI
equipment repair, product design, and prototype services. We are also experienced with custom test equipment
(PC controlled) using the Agilent VEE language. We build stand-alone custom testers, and other embedded microcontroller
devices using the Microchip PIC product.
Welt Wireless | weltwireless.home.att.net
Expert, on-site field support, deployment,
commissioning, and consulting services for broadcast television products and systems, broadband fixed wireless
access systems, RF/microwave & radio telecommunications, radar and EW Systems. Available for travel to
or between your sites, domestic (USA) or international on short notice. Excel-based RF/Microwave/Antenna/Geodetic
Yale Materials Handling Corp | northamerica.yale.com
including purchasing, financing, repairs, downtime, maintenance, operator training, administration, retiring