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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology is one of the Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor and scientist. The Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has accentuated important discoveries such as penicillin, genetic engineering and blood-typing. The Nobel Prize in Medicine is awarded annually and and recognizes individuals in the field of Medicine or Physiology. As designated in the will of Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology shall be distributed "… to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine."

| Chemistry | Economics | Literature |
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Nobel Laureates
(Click on laureate names for biographies)

Year Winner Achievement
2008 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
2008 Harald zur Hausen "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
2007 Mario R. Capecchi,
Sir Martin J. Evans, and Oliver Smithies
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
2006 Andrew Z. Fire and
Craig C. Mello
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

2005 Barry J. Marshall and
J. Robin Warren
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
2004 Richard Axel and
Linda B. Buck
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur and
Sir Peter Mansfield
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
2002 Sydney Brenner,
H. Robert Horvitz, and John E. Sulston
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

2001 Leland H. Hartwell,
Tim Hunt, and
Sir Paul Nurse
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
2000 Arvid Carlsson,
Paul Greengard, and
Eric R. Kandel
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
1999 Günter Blobel "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
1998 Robert F. Furchgott,
Louis J. Ignarro, and
Ferid Murad
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
1996 Peter C. Doherty "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"
1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, and
Eric F. Wieschaus
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
1994 Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
1993 Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp "for their discoveries of split genes"
1992 Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
1991 Erwin Neher and
Bert Sakmann
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
1990 Joseph E. Murray and
E. Donnall Thomas
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
1989 J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
1988 Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, and George H. Hitchings "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
1987 Susumu Tonegawa "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
1986 Stanley Cohen and
Rita Levi-Montalcini
"for their discoveries of growth factors"
1985 Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
1984 Niels K. Jerne,
Georges J.F. Köhler, and César Milstein
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
1983 Barbara McClintock "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
1982 Sune K. Bergström,
Bengt I. Samuelsson, and John R. Vane
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
1981 Roger W. Sperry "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
1981 David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
1980 Baruj Benacerraf,
Jean Dausset, and George D. Snell
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
1979 Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield "for the development of computer assisted tomography"
1978 Werner Arber,
Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton O. Smith
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
1977 Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
1977 Rosalyn Yalow "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
1975 David Baltimore,
Renato Dulbecco, and Howard M. Temin
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
1974 Albert Claude,
Christian de Duve, and George E. Palade
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
1973 Karl von Frisch,
Konrad Lorenz, and Nikolaas Tinbergen
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
1972 Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
1970 Sir Bernard Katz,
Ulf von Euler, and
Julius Axelrod
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
1969 Max Delbrück,
Alfred D. Hershey, and Salvador E. Luria
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
1968 Robert W. Holley and
H. Gobind Khorana
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
1967 Ragnar Granit,
Haldan K. Hartline and George Wald
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
1966 Peyton Rous "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"
1966 Charles B. Huggins "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
1965 François Jacob,
André Lwoff, and
Jacques Monod
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
1964 Konrad Bloch and
Feodor Lynen
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
1963 Sir John Eccles,
Alan L. Hodgkin, and Andrew F. Huxley
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
1962 Francis Crick,
James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
1961 Georg von Békésy "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and
Peter Medawar
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
1959 Severo Ochoa and
Arthur Kornberg
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
1958 George Beadle and Edward Tatum "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
1958 Joshua Lederberg "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
1957 Daniel Bovet "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"
1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, and Dickinson W. Richards "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
1955 Hugo Theorell "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"
1954 John F. Enders,
Thomas H. Weller, and Frederick C. Robbins
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
1953 Hans Krebs "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
1953 Fritz Lipmann "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
1952 Selman A. Waksman "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
1951 Max Theiler "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, and Philip S. Hench "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
1949 Walter Hess "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"
1949 Egas Moniz "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"
1948 Paul Müller "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"
1947 Carl Cori and
Gerty Cori
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"
1947 Bernardo Houssay "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
1946 Hermann J. Muller "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, and
Sir Howard Florey
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"
1944 Joseph Erlanger and Herbert S. Gasser "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"
1943 Henrik Dam "for his discovery of vitamin K"
1943 Edward A. Doisy "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 Gerhard Domagk "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"
1938 Corneille Heymans "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"
1936 Sir Henry Dale and
Otto Loewi
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"
1935 Hans Spemann "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"
1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, and William P. Murphy "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"
1933 Thomas H. Morgan "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"
1932 Sir Charles Sherrington and Edgar Adrian "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"
1931 Otto Warburg "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"
1930 Karl Landsteiner "for his discovery of human blood groups"
1929 Christiaan Eijkman "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"
1929 Sir Frederick Hopkins "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"
1928 Charles Nicolle "for his work on typhus"
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"
1926 Johannes Fibiger "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"
1925 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1924 Willem Einthoven "for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
1923 Frederick G. Banting "for the discovery of insulin"
1922 Archibald V. Hill "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"
1922 Otto Meyerhof "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"
1921 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1920 August Krogh "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"
1919 Jules Bordet "for his discoveries relating to immunity"
1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1914 Robert Bárány "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"
1913 Charles Richet "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
1912 Alexis Carrel "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
1911 Allvar Gullstrand "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"
1910 Albrecht Kossel "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"
1909 Theodor Kocher "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"
1908 Ilya Mechnikov and
Paul Ehrlich
"in recognition of their work on immunity"
1907 Alphonse Laveran "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"
1906 Camillo Golgi "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"
1905 Robert Koch "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"
1904 Ivan Pavlov "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

1902 Ronald Ross "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

1901 Emil von Behring "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"
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