1996 - 2016
BSEE - KB3UON
RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...
All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.
My Hobby Website:
While it is difficult to quantify lightning losses, it is estimated that $4-5 billion damage occurs each year. Likewise, the cost of lightning protection to safeguard critical equipment and facilities from lightning strikes during severe weather is enormous.
A Basic Primer in Lightning Effects and Protection
Summary from weighing-systems.com.
Air Force Instruction 32-1065 Grounding Systems
Assigns maintenance responsibilities and requirements for electrical grounding systems on Air Force installations.
An Overview of Lightning Safety | sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/socasp/weather1/kithil.html
Summary by Richard Kithil.
Electrical Hazards: Protecting Yourself, Your Home, and
Your Assets | statefarm.com/consumer/electrichazards.htm
Information from State Farm Insurance.
FLASH— KABOOM! | homepower.com/view/?file=HP57_pg82_CodeCorner
Article by John Wiles, Sponsored by the Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center, Sandia National Laboratories.
Global Lightning Observations | sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/atmos/tgf/UCB-TGF.pdf
From the Space Physics Research Group, University of California, Berkeley.
Grounding Bonding and Shielding for Electronic Equipments
and Facilities | wbdg.org/ccb/FEDMIL/hdbk419a_vol2.pdf
From the Department of Defense.
High Resolution Full Climatology Annual Flash Rate
Fort Worth, TX
From National Weather Service.
Let's Learn About Lightning! for Kids | realinsurance.com.au/Article-Library/Lets-Learn-about-Lightning%21-for-Kids.aspx
Lots of resources great for school teachers and homeschoolers.
Lightning and Surge Protection | arcelect.com/lightnin.htm
Tutorial by Kenneth Schneider, PhD.
Lightning Protection | beradio.com/departments/radio_lightning_protection
Article from Radio Magazine, by John Battison.
Lightning Protection | wisconsinpublicservice.com/farm/lightning.asp
Green Bay, WI
Information from the Wisconsin Public Service Corporation.
Lightning Protection | wvlightning.com/protection.shtml
Facts & information from wvlightning.com.
Lightning Protection for the Amateur Station Part 1
By Ron Block, KB2UYT.
Lightning Protection for Farms | cdc.gov/nasd/docs/d001801-d001900/d001825/d001825.html
From National Ag Safety Database.
Lightning Protection Hazard Alert | cpwr.com/hazpdfs/hazlightning.pdf
Silver Spring, MD
From The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights.
Lightning Protection Institute | lightning.org
800-488-6864 / Maryville, MO
Dedicated to insuring that today's lightning protection systems are the best possible quality - in design, materials and installation - so that precious lives and property can be protected from the damaging and costly affects of one of nature's most exciting phenomena - lightning.
Lightning Protection Systems | ul.com/lightning
Information from the Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL). UL issues certificates of conformance for systems, inspecting system components and checking completed installations.
Lightning Risk Reduction Outdoors | lightningsafety.noaa.gov/outdoors.htm
From NOAA, National Weather Service.
Lightning Rod | en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning_rod
Definition and information pertaining to lightning protection, from Wikipedia.
Lightning Density Map of the United States |
Lightning Safety | lightningsafety.noaa.gov
NOAA, National Weather Service data
Lightning Information & Safety for Kids
Links to lightning safety resources.
Lightning Strikes to People and the Legal Duties to Warn
and to Protect | rbs2.com/ltgwarn.pdf
By Dr. Ronald B. Standler, attorney and consultant.
Methods of Creating Lightning Protection Zones Near Tall
Telecommunications Structures According to Different National Standards
MIL-STD-464, Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirements
for Systems | tscm.com/MIL-STD-464.pdf#search="MIL-STD-464"
Lightning strike waveforms. This standard establishes electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) interface requirements and verification criteria for airborne, sea, space, and ground systems, including associated ordnance.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
| nfpa.org | 800 344-3555 | Quincy, MA
Serves as the world's leading advocate of fire prevention and is an authoritative source on public safety.
National Lightning Safety Institute (NLSI) |
lightningsafety.com | Louisville, CO
A non-profit, non-product advocacy of lightning safety for both people and structures.
Naval Weapons Station Yorktown Instruction 8020.1
Reporting the physical location of ammunition and explosives (A&E) during non-working hours.
Protection Against Ignitions Arising out of Static, Lightning,
and Stray Currents | techstreet.com/cgi-bin/detail?product_id=8321
Document from American Petroleum Institute.
Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems | webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/product.asp?sku=142-1991
United Lightning Protection Association | ulpa.org
| 800-668-8572 | Libertyville, IL
Promotes National Safety Standards regulating our industry, promotes the proper installation of lightning protection throughout the country and promotes lightning safety.
U.S. Army Explosives Safety Program | wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/ARMYCRIT/ar385_64.pdf
From the U.S. Army.
U.S. National Lightning Detection Network Database (NLDN)
The National Lightning Detection Network, NLDN, consists of over 100 remote, ground-based sensing stations located across the United States that instantaneously detect the electromagnetic signals given off when lightning strikes the earth's surface.
Why You Need Lightning Protection | elec-toolbox.com/usefulinfo/lightprot.htm
From Electricians Toolbox Etc.