March 1957 Radio & Television News
of Contents] These articles are scanned and OCRed from old editions of the Radio & Television News magazine.
Here is a list of the Radio & Television News articles
I have already posted. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
is as prevalent today as is was at the beginning of radio communications
- maybe more so since there are typically more reflective obstacles
between the transmitter and the receiver. The evidence of multipath
with digital communications, be it voice, Internet page viewing, or
movies, is slowness in transmission as opposed to the analog case where
garbled speech on radio and ghosting pictures on television are the
evidence. High data rates with digital transmissions typically mask
the packet errors and their necessary re-transmission; it all happens
before the buffered information is presented to the listener / viewer.
However, there is no such buffering of over-the-air radio or TV transmissions
so evidence of multipath is immediately noticeable. I remember how sometimes
simply having a large metal trash or delivery truck roaming through
the neighborhood was enough to cause the Leave It to Beaver
(and other) program's pictures to lose sync. Now, as then, one of the
best ways to mitigate the issue is use of a directional antenna.
Problems in Metropolitan TV Reception
By Simon Holzman
Chief Antenna Engineer JFD Manufacturing Co., Inc.
Fig. 1. The JFD "Super Helix" is an example of an antenna with
a narrow polar angle (see Fig. 4B) that weakens ghosts.
Fringe areas have no monopoly on difficulties with picking up good signal.
Overload, ghosting, and interference often plague prime-signal locations.
While considerable attention has been given to the reception
difficulties encountered in areas distant from TV transmitting points,
one sometimes forgets that television installations in metropolitan
and other primary areas often suffer from problems peculiar to these
locations. Noteworthy among these problems are those of ghosting, graininess,
the effects of too much (or too little) signal, cross-modulation, and
interference from a number of sources. In some cases, these conditions
can be completely controlled. In cases where they cannot be entirely
eliminated, they may be greatly minimized, as a rule, resulting in satisfactory
In many localities, ghosting is a serious deterrent
to acceptable viewing. This phenomenon is caused by the simultaneous
reception of out-of-phase signals on the same channel. High-frequency
TV waves are capable of being reradiated (as in radar) by metallic bodies.
The body reradiating these waves acts as a secondary transmitting antenna
and effectively "bounces" the signal in a different direction. The action
of two such reflecting bodies is illustrated in Fig. 3. Since the bounced
wave and the original signal travel different distances before arriving
at the receiving antenna, they are out-of-phase. The phase differential
governs the degree of separation of the two pictures on the screen.
To understand the cure, let us investigate two properties of
receiving antennas. The first of these, the front-to-back ratio, is
the ratio of the received voltage from the front of the array to the
signal received from the rear, given equal power densities in both cases.
The higher the front-to-back ratio, the less signal the antenna will
receive from reflections coming in from in back of it.
Fig. 2. Some interference can be tuned out with a receiver-installed
high "Q" frequency-selective adjustable trap.
The second property is the antenna's polar response. This has to do
with the directivity of the antenna with respect to a signal from one
source. It is determined by the angle formed between the direction or
position in which the antenna is most sensitive (forward pickup) and
the direction or position in which it receives 3 db, or 30 percent,
less signal from the same source. This may be measured by beaming a
constant signal toward the antenna while the latter is aimed directly
at the transmitting source, measuring the signal voltage generated in.
the antenna, and then rotating the antenna without changing the source
until the antenna is in a position where the signal generated in it
is 3 db down.
In actual practice, this property is of interest
because it describes the relative sensitivity of the antenna to signals
coming in from different directions. One signal, for instance, may be
an unwanted ghost. In Fig. 4 we see the effect of a wide polar pattern
(A) and a narrow one (B) in picking up or rejecting such a ghost. In
the former case, pickup of the ghost is almost as great as that of the
primary signal. In the latter case, the angle at which the ghost comes
in is outside the polar response angle, or 3-db point, and is sufficiently
weaker so that its effect on the viewed picture is considerably reduced.
This property of an antenna is roughly analogous to selectivity in the
receiver's front end. An example of an antenna having a small polar
angle, the JFD "Super Helix", is shown in Fig. 1.
narrow beamwidth goes hand in hand with high gain. Often, the greater
signal level, in a primary area, will overload the receiver causing
buzz, fuzziness, and tearing. This excess of signal, however, is easily
compensated for by the addition of an attenuator pad at the set terminals.
This pad may have a fixed value, but it is preferable to use a variable
type since the degree of attenuation required will vary with the location.
Units of this type are readily available commercially. The use of a
pad will also help minimize ghosts, by bringing the level of the spurious
signal down to a non-visible value. Extreme caution must be exercised
in an installation of this type to orient the antenna accurately and
to keep horizontal runs of lead-in to a minimum. Horizontal lengths
of twin-lead tend to act as signal-collecting devices, and will complicate
the original problem.
Fig. 3. The longer paths of the reflected signals are responsible
Fig. 4. A narrow-beamed, more directional antenna, like the
one in (B), will reduce amplitude of the ghost.
Fig. 5. Receiver i.f. circuits are designed for best response
(center trace) over a certain normal range of a.g.c. voltage.
Abnormally high signal level (right) can deteriorate performance
as much as low signal and a.g.c. values.
Fig. 6. Tuned line is used to locate interference frequency
or act as trap.
In many metropolitan locations, extremely high signal levels are prevalent
due to the proximity of transmitting and receiving antennas and lack
of blocking structures. Too high a signal level can and does cause poor
picture quality. The average television set is aligned for maximum bandpass
with an a.g.c. voltage of approximately minus 3 volts. As the signal
increases, the a.g.c, level goes up, shifting the grid characteristics
of the r.f. and i.f. amplifier tubes that are controlled. When this
occurs, each of these tubes operates on a different portion of its curve,
and its effective input capacitance changes. This, in turn, causes deterioration
of the bandpass characteristic of the set, as shown in Fig. 5, and coarse,
hazy pictures with poor definition may result. There is also a tendency
to poor synchronization due to pre-triggering of the sweep oscillators.
This condition may be eliminated by the same attenuator pad mentioned
previously. The pad should be adjusted for a barely sufficient signal
on the weakest channel. If some channels are still overloaded, a switch
type pad should be used, so that it may be switched into the antenna
system only on those channels where it is needed.
or windshield wiper, is another symptom of too much signal. It usually
manifests itself as a dark vertical bar sweeping horizontally back and
forth through the picture. This particular trouble is usually caused
by a single channel much stronger than the others. TV tuners are rarely
selective enough to eliminate this annoying feature particularly on
channels adjacent to overly strong ones.
If all channels are
sufficiently powerful, an attenuator pad may be used to reduce the overall
signal level. A preferable method, however, is to install an adjustable
high-"Q" trap in the lead-in, and set it for sufficient attenuation
of the undesired channel. This is the equivalent of a frequency-selective
attenuator. These adjustments are usually quite critical, and care should
be taken when they are made. The interfering channel can be identified
by turning the channel selector to the unused channel positions, and
noting which channel is most often seen. A commercial version of such
an attenuator that may be adjusted for rejection on the high v.h.f.
band is shown in Fig. 2.
In an urban area, there are many sources
of interference. Interference caused by amateur radio transmitters is
usually of a frequency below 50 megacycles. This, as a rule, can be
eliminated by the use of a high-pass filter. This type of filter should
be installed as close to the set's antenna terminals as possible, so
that there will not be pickup of interference along the lead-in wire
beyond the filter.
The previously mentioned selective high-"Q"
traps will be of great use in removing interference caused by powerful
local FM transmitters.
Pulse-type interference, one form of
which is ignition noise is often the most difficult type to eliminate.
In its milder forms, putting a tight twist in the downlead may be sufficient
to minimize it. Care should be taken in the original installation to
keep the antenna and lead-in as far as possible from sources of ignition
noise. Grounded metal screening, used to shield the antenna from the
street or other source of ignition noise, is often used with considerable
In exceptionally noisy areas, shielded 300-ohm twin-lead
or coaxial cable should be used. The outer shield should be grounded
at as many points as possible. When using 75-ohm coaxial cable, a balun
impedance transformer must be installed at the top to match the antenna
to the characteristic impedance of the line. Another transformer must
be used at the set to match the line to the balanced 300-ohm input of
the front end.
Both shielded 300-ohm cable and coaxial cable
have comparatively high signal loss. For this reason, a moderately high-gain
antenna may be needed to compensate for these line losses.
is often difficult to determine the source and frequency of an interfering
signal. A convenient gimmick that the technician can carry with him
is a 20-inch length of 300-ohm twin-lead, with lugs attached to one
end and the other end cut straight across and left open-circuited. A
piece of aluminum foil should be wrapped around the twin-lead for a
length of about 2 1/2 inches, as shown in Fig. 6. This forms a capacitively
loaded half-wave line. In use, the lugs are attached to the antenna
terminals of the set in parallel with the antenna lead-in, which remains
connected. The interference is then tuned in, and the foil moved up
and down the line until a point is found at which the interference is
at a minimum.
Diathermy interference is rare today, but, when
present, is extremely annoying. The best cure for this condition is
to locate the source and notify the Federal Communications Commission.
For several years, it has been illegal for a diathermy machine to radiate
and cause interference.
Most cases of insufficient signal in
metropolitan areas are caused by blocking of the direct signal by a
tall structure, such as an apartment house. In cases such as this, reception
may often be obtained by means of a high-gain, sharply directional antenna,
an example of which has been shown, oriented to receive a bounced signal
from some large structure to the side or rear. When this means is ineffective,
an attempt should be made to get permission to install the antenna on
the roof of the structure that is blocking the signal. A third alternative
is the use of a tower or telescopic mast, enabling the antenna to be
even with or above the edge of the roof of the blocking structure. A
30-foot height will usually be more than sufficient.
problems caused by the use of indoor antennas are difficult, if not
impossible, to solve. Generally, the best cure is an outdoor roof installation.
A final difficulty occasionally observed is phase shift due
to high voltage standing-wave ratio. The phase shift manifests itself
as a ghost which will change position with variations in the fine tuning
adjustment. This is almost always due to faulty installation techniques.
Be sure the lead-in has minimal horizontal runs and does not run parallel
to metallic objects closer than 6 inches. Often, the condition can be
eliminated by removing several inches of lead-in from the slack left
behind the set. This slack should also be kept as short as possible.