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|January 1954 Radio & TV News|
These articles are scanned and OCRed from old editions of the Radio & Television News magazine. Here is a list of the Radio & Television News articles I have already posted. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
As quoted in this article about analog[ue] computers as compared to digital computers, "Add two and two. Coming from an analogue computer, the answer would most likely be, 3.999 or 4.001." While that is a true statement, there is one important feature that an analog computer had over digital computers of the era: once initially set up with a transfer function, outputs were nearly instantaneous as the input was varied over a range of values, whereas a digital computer could take quite a bit of time to crank through involved mathematical equations. Performing tasks such as computing aircraft flight paths and other sequential operations was the analog computer's forte. If you needed to calculate exact values for atomic research or cryptographic code cracking, that was and still is the domain of digital computers.
See also Mr. Math Analog Computer.
The Convair Analogue Computer
By R. D. Horwitz
Engineering and Electronics Laboratories
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp.
This million-dollar unit can be set up to obey the flight equations of an airplane, computing motions of aircraft in flight.
Today is the age of computers. A slide rule, an adding machine, or even a man making a left turn onto a crowded highway is a computer. Anything that involves the weighing of related factors and seeking a solution of an unknown related to these factors can be considered a computer. The concern of this article is with analogue computers rather than digital computers.
One of the first questions asked when a visitor, not familiar with computers, is shown the Convair computer is: "What is the difference between an analogue and a digital computer?"
Analogue computers use continuously variable quantities such as voltages or shaft rotations to represent numbers. Digital computers use discrete quantities such as pulses to represent numbers and compute by counting. One kind of analogue computer is an electrical model of the mechanical system one wishes to study. Currents and voltages in the computer correspond to forces and displacements in the mechanical system. Convair's electronic analogue computer is of a different type: it uses voltages and shaft rotations that obey the same mathematical equations that govern the physical system under study. This computer can be set up to obey the flight equations of an airplane, computing the motions of the aircraft in flight.
"This is nice," says our visitor, "but let us get to something simple. Add two and two." Coming from an analogue computer, the answer would most likely be, 3.999 or 4.001. Such a computer is not an exact device, but one that approximates correctness depending on the accuracy of both the operator and the components in the computer.
"All right, then, what do you put in and where does it come out?" asks the visitor. To answer this question, it is necessary to start with the language of the computer.
The components of the computer have block diagrams that identify their functions and serve as guideposts for the operator when he sets up a problem. See Fig. 2. Fig. 2A is the symbol for an amplifier. Usually the amplifier is shown with its input and feedback resistances (Fig. 2B). It is the ratio of the values of these resistances that determines the gain of the amplifier.
Since all voltages are referred to ground, the ground terminals are usually not shown. The basic amplifier can do many things, (a) It can add and when so doing is called a "summing amplifier" or "summer," Fig. 2C. (b) It can perform integration, Fig. 2D, and is called an "integrator." (c) With the aid of a potentiometer, it can multiply by a constant (Fig. 2E). For this case the potentiometer is adjusted so that it will divide any voltage such as x by 2. The amplifier is adjusted for a gain of ten. (d) An amplifier in conjunction with a servo-controlled motor, Fig. 2F, which drives the arm of a potentiometer can multiply or divide. (e) For trigonometric functions, the amplifier (Fig. 2G) controls a servo-driven sine-cosine potentiometer.
In each case, the amplifier is the heart of the computing element. Other devices such as function generators for non-linear equations, limiters, relay amplifiers, and recorders are used where required for a solution. The computer at Convair has many combinations of these devices.
Now the visitor remarks, "These gadgets are all very fine. Let's see you solve a problem with them."
That seems like a logical request so let us run through a simple problem to see how the computer works.
Take a classical example, the spring supporting a weight. Fig. 2H. This problem requires some set-up work before the computer can be of use. First we must find an equation describing the problem. X1 is the position of W hanging on the spring, k. X2 is the condition when W is displaced by some force pulling the weight down. The equation expressing this system is m(d2x / dt2) = -kx where x is the displacement of the weight from its rest position X1.
In order to set up the computer, the equation is rearranged to read: (d2x / dt2) = - (k/m) (x). The desired answers to this equation are the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the weight, W, at any time after the weight is released. The computing elements (Fig 2I) needed for a solution are: two integrating amplifiers (1), a potentiometer set at the ratio k/m (2), and an inverting amplifier to change the algebraic sign (3).
Now we are ready to patch up the problem on the computer patchboard, Fig. 2J. Assume, to start, that you have a voltage equal to d2x/dt2 on one end of a patch cord. This is plugged to the input of Integrator 1. The output of this integrator will be -dx/dt. This value is patched to Integrator 2 whose output will be x. Going back to the equation, we note that d2x / dt2 = (k/m) (x) so we patch the output of Integrator 2 to a potentiometer set at the ratio of k/m.
We still have to change the sign so the potentiometer is then patched to the input of an inverting amplifier which changes the sign. At the output of the inverter appears -(k/m) (x), which is equal to d2x / dt2 which is the value we assumed to be the input to Integrator 1 in the first place. So, we patch the output of the inverter to this point.
We now have taken care of everything but setting the system into operation. This requires that we duplicate in the computer the initial conditions, i.e., the weight is motionless because it has not been set into motion by releasing the force holding the weight in the position where the displacement is -x (the sign is negative because the force is in a downward direction). To put this initial condition into the computer, a charge corresponding to the initial output voltage, -x, must be placed on the feedback condenser of Integrator 2. There is no initial condition required at Integrator 1 because the output of Integrator 1, which is the velocity, dx/dt, at the start of the problem, is zero.
The control switch of the computer, which is in the "Reset" position, is thrown to "Operate" which is analogous to releasing the weight. The output voltage of Integrator 2 will rise and fall just as the weight rises and falls.
These three answers can be obtained on a recorder or other measuring device: The displacement of the weight, x; the velocity of the weight, dx/dt; and the acceleration d2x / dt2, Fig.2J.
This problem is a very simple one to solve either by "longhand" or with the computer. The value of the computer can be appreciated if any of the parameters of the system are varied. The answers appear instantly. Thus, it is possible to run a system from "one end to the other" and be able to determine its capabilities at once.
Because of the comparatively lengthy set-up time on the patchboards, the Convair computer has removable patchboards. This allows the operating station to be occupied only during actual computation. While one operator is setting up a problem, another can be using the machine. Fig. 1 shows the removable patchboard with a problem patched in. It also shows portions of two operating stations. At either side are the controls for each station. Answers may be read on the eight-channel recorders in front as well as on the meter on the control panel. Trunk lines between stations allow operators to "borrow" equipment appearing on adjacent patchboards.
The million-dollar computer is housed in a temperature- and humidity-controlled area to insure minimum variations caused by temperature fluctuations or leakage due to atmospheric moisture. Many factors were considered in the design and layout of the computer: (1) High stability over long periods of time, (2) Isolation of critical elements. (3) Modern, neat appearance. (4) Ease of operation and maintenance.
Needless to say, many problems had to be met and overcome in the design and construction of the Convair computer facility. As various portions are placed into service, new problems arise that require solutions and new techniques are developed. With the completion of the computer facility, Convair will have a versatile, accurate, time-saving device that is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool in the art of aircraft design and manufacture.
Posted June 19, 2015