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November 1957 Radio & TV News[Table of Contents]
These articles are scanned and OCRed from old editions of the Radio & Television News magazine. Here is a list of the Radio & Television News articles I have already posted. All copyrights are hereby acknowledged.
This 60-year-old design for a coaxial line RF monitoring instrument uses components still readily available since it has no vacuum tubes and you can still buy the 1N34 germanium diodes that are used as detectors. Only 18 components (including jacks, meter, case, and switch) are used to indicate relative power, modulation percentage, and to monitor the signal modulation. Sampling is done with a high impedance tap on a through connection so that the impact on characteristic impedance on whatever coax you are using is negligibly affected.
Robert F. Lewis, W8MQU
Output meter for ham shack measures relative power, modulation percentage, and monitors the modulation.
Views of r.f. monitor. The shielding cover has been removed in bottom view.
Most amateur radio operators these days, are fairly well supplied with instruments for measuring the various operating characteristics of their equipment. Practically any ham can determine, with reasonable accuracy, his operating frequency or final amplifier power input. Very few stations, on the other hand, have any facilities at all for determining the quantity or quality of r.f. output into the transmission line or antenna system.
In an attempt to help fill this gap, an r.f. output meter was developed which provides for the monitoring of: 1) relative carrier output power; (2) amplitude modulation percentage; and 3) aural monitoring of modulation. In view of the almost universal use of coaxial output circuits the instrument was designed to be inserted into a coaxial line without upsetting the characteristics of the line.
The circuit of the monitor is very simple. No external power source is required and the total cash outlay for component parts should not exceed ten or fifteen dollars, depending on the cost of the microammeter.
Briefly the monitor functions as follows : Resistors R1 and R2 form a voltage divider network across the coaxial line. That portion of the r.f. line voltage which appears between the junction of the two resistors and ground is rectified by CR1, a 1N34 germanium diode. The rectified current passes through an r.f. filter composed of RFC1 and C1, through calibrating resistors R3 and R4 and then through M1 (when S1 is in the "R.F." position). The audio component of the signal passes through C3 and T1 and is rectified by CR2. The rectified current is indicated on M1 when S1 is in the "MOD." position. Thus it is possible to read either the relative r.f. carrier level or modulation percentage of a signal by merely throwing S1 to one position or the other. Output for aural monitoring is available at J3. Inter-stage transformer T1 is connected in a stepdown arrangement to provide a better match between the low-impedance load and the high-impedance primary circuit.
Schematic and parts list of r.f. monitor.
R1, R2 - See text
The resistance values of R1 and R2 are not given in the parts list as they must be determined for each individual case. The total network resistance (R1 plus R2) should be roughly one-hundred times the nominal line impedance, that is, between 5,000 and 7,500 ohms. It can be readily seen at this point that the monitor will draw a very insignificant amount of power from the transmission line, probably not more than one percent. The ratio of R1 to R2 should be chosen so that between 5 and 10 volts of unmodulated r.f. will appear across R2. Much more than this may damage the germanium diode, CR1, especially with amplitude modulation. The total power-dissipation rating of R1 plus R2 should be one percent, or more, of the expected transmitter power output. Both resistors should be of the non-inductive carbon type.
All other component values remain as indicated in the parts list irrespective of transmitter power rating. It should be noted, however, that calibrating resistors R3 and R4 were chosen for use with a 0-200 microampere meter. In the event that a meter of different range is used, it would be advisable to change the values of R3 and R4. Thus if M1 were to have a range of 0-100 microamperes, then the values of R3 and R4 should be doubled. The use of a meter of greater than 1 milliampere range is not recommended.
The construction of the instrument can assume many variations. However, several points should be observed. First, the unit should be built in a metal enclosure. The two coaxial connectors should be mounted close together and their center studs connected by a heavy wire. Resistors R1 and R2 should be soldered directly from the coaxial circuit to the nearest available ground point, preferably to one of the coaxial connector mounting screws. The resistors should be spaced away from other metal parts in order to prevent stray capacities which might upset the characteristic impedance of the line.
Inspection of the photographs will show the mechanical arrangement of the author's monitor. The case is a standard 3"x4"x5" aluminum box. On the front panel are mounted the microammeter, S1 and J3. Calibrating resistors R3 and R4 are mounted on the right side of the box, while transformer T1 is atop the chassis on the left. The following components are mounted on a terminal strip at the back of the case: R1, R2, CR1 RFC1 and C1. Care should be taken in the soldering of the crystal diodes to prevent damage from excessive heat. This can be accomplished by holding the leads with long-nose pliers while soldering.
Accurate calibration of the monitor for observation of modulation percentage requires the use of another modulation indicator of known accuracy or an oscilloscope capable of showing the trapezoidal or wave-envelope modulation pattern. With the instrument connected in position in the coaxial line, but before applying power, turn both R3 and R4 to zero (arm at ground end). Throw switch S1 to the "MOD." position. Turn on the transmitter and adjust for 100 percent sine-wave modulation, using an audio oscillator or some other steady signal source. Turn up R3 until the reading on the meter comes up to a point arbitrarily picked for 100 percent modulation. Now throw S1 to the "R.F." position and increase R4 until the indication is the same as that obtained in the "MOD." position. From this point, the setting of R4 should be left unchanged. Any future adjustment necessary to bring the r.f. reading to the reference point should be done with R3. Due to the nature of speech waveforms, 100 percent voice modulation indications will occur at 60 to 70 percent of the sine-wave reading. Thus, if an audio oscillator gives a reading of 100 on the meter for full modulation, then average speech readings should be around 60 or 70.
This little instrument will work with transmitters of any power and on any frequency. It really comes into its own in v.h.f. applications where other types of indicators frequently fall down. Perhaps one of the best features is that the monitor will permit compliance with FCC regulations regarding the checking of modulation percentage.
Posted September 22, 2014