of Contents]These articles are scanned and OCRed from old editions of the Radio & Television News magazine.
Here is a list of the Radio-Electronics articles I have already
posted. All copyrights (if any)
are hereby acknowledged.
has been widely misunderstood by many electronics enthusiasts, even
those who have a fairly extensive background in circuit design (that
which does not involve feedback). In fact, there have been instances
of articles being printed in magazines like Popular Electronics
, etc., where the authors got relatively simple
feedback equations wrong due to improper summing of nodes, necessitating
a correction in a later issue based on reader feedback (a convenient
and appropriate word for this comment). This article discusses feedback
in audio circuits to avoid distortion, but the concepts apply to any
frequency of operation. It is possible in many cases to implement seat-of-the-pants
feedback schemes successfully, but if you need a specific response and
guaranteed stability, nothing short of rigorous mathematical applications
will do the job.
See all available
vintage Radio-Electronics articles
Getting Feedback Straight
it will and won't do in audio amplifiers
By Norman H. Crowhurst*
It's surprising how often feedback is expected to do something
it can't possibly do. For example, I recently met an enthusiast with
an amplifier that put out about 48 watts comfortably and then ran into
severe distortion. He was frantically trying to use feedback to make
the amplifier deliver what he wanted - a full 50 watts. He couldn't
understand why using enough feedback wouldn't push the output up just
this little bit!
Most material on feedback has been based on
a theoretical treatment using the algebra of feedback theory. This algebra
cannot take into account everything at once - if it did it would become
so involved that no ordinary person could possibly understand it. We
use one piece of algebra to tell us the effect of feedback on the gain
of the amplifier, then we go over the algebra again and find out what
its effect will be on the amplifier's impedances, frequency response
and distortion. Each investigation uses a separate application of the
same math. But this does not prove that the amplifier will do all of
these things in equal manner at the same time. It depends on just what
form distortion (and other things feedback is expected to correct) may
Some presentations on feedback
have suggested (with deceptive simplicity) that as feedback tends to
smooth out fluctuation in gain it must flatten the frequency response
- on the basis that deviation from flat in frequency response is merely
deviation in the gain of the amplifier at different frequencies. Some
readers are doubtlessly aware that his oversimplification of theory
can often be the reverse of what really happens. Due to phase shifts
in the amplifier, frequency response can often be accentuated by feedback,
rather than flattened.
Fig. 1 - Three forms of single-stage feedback: a - current feedback
in the cathode; b - plate feedback to grid; c - Ultra-Linear,
plates to screens.
Let's take feedback, step by step, starting from a single stage and
using practical examples to see how it can change the response in each
case. Fig. 1 shows some examples of single-stage feedback: simple cathode
circuit current feedback, voltage feedback from plate to grid on the
same stage and the very useful Ultra-Linear circuit where feedback from
plate to screen is provided by taps on the output transformer.
With current feedback in a cathode circuit the feedback is effective
right down to dc at the low end. At the high end the only modifying
factor is the stray capacitance of the tube and its associated circuit.
This eventually deteriorates the tube's gain and hence also the feedback.
So current feedback in the cathode does not modify the low-frequency
response at all, and the high-frequency response is modified according
to the distribution of tube capacitances.
In plate-to-grid feedback
- shown in Fig. 1-b - a blocking capacitor between the plate and grid
keeps dc from feeding back to the grid and there is stray capacitance
to ground. The blocking capacitor introduces a rolloff at the low end
in the feedback circuit while stray capacitance to ground introduces
a rolloff at the high end.
The low-end roll off causes feedback
to fall off and stage gain to rise to its no-feedback value if no other
rolloff is introduced into the circuit to compensate for this. The high-end
rolloff is the same as that produced without feedback, but feedback
extends the frequency range by the same factor as it reduces gain. Thus,
if feedback reduces gain by 6 db, frequency range at the high end is
extended by a ratio of 2 to 1.
In the Ultra-Linear circuit (Fig.
1-c) the signal fed back from plate to screen is coupled by the output
transformer. At the low end of the frequency response the transformer
introduces a reactance shunting the plate circuit, due to its primary
inductance. When the tube is operating as a straight pentode, without
coupling to the screen, its source resistance is much higher than with
Ultra-Linear feedback introduced. This means that adding feedback extends
the low-frequency response due to the reduced source impedance the primary
At the high end of the frequency response
the transformer introduces a leakage inductance between plate and screen
so at some point the amount fed back to the screen begins to fall off.
This causes feedback to begin to fall off somewhere in the higher frequencies.
However, this does not show up in practice because there is a larger
leakage inductance between the whole primary and other windings on the
transformer than between the part of the primary feeding the plate and
the part coupled to the screen. So the other rolloffs in the amplifier
circuit go into effect before the reduction in feedback from plate to
screen starts to make itself felt.
Fig. 2 - A form of feedback using two reactances in feedback
loop at each end of audio response. (Output transformer not
part of feedback circuit.)
Fig. 3 - Sample low-end response curves for Fig. 2. A - Original
rolloff of each time constant; response of amplifier without
feedback; B - open loop response; C - round-the-loop response
with 6-db feedback; D - amplifier response with 6-db feedback
(difference between curves A and B); E - round-the-loop response
with 12-db feedback; F - amplifier response with 12-db feedback
(difference between curves A and E).
Fig. 4 - Sample high-end response curves for Fig. 2, assuming
loss due to stray capacitance gives identical roll-off with
3-db point at 20 kc for each stage.
Now let's start on feedback over two stages. Take the circuit of Fig.
2, which represents a driver and output stage with feedback from the
output stage plates to the driver cathodes. Considering the round-the-loop
effect, here we have the coupling capacitors from driver plates to output
grids, and blocking capacitors from the output plates to the driver
cathodes, which contribute to low-frequency response. At the high-frequency
end we have stray capacitances which can be regarded as shunting the
driver and output plates, respectively.
Consider the low-frequency
response. A first study might suggest that low-end response could be
made absolutely flat. By making the time constant of the interstage
coupling between driver and output equal to the time constant of the
feedback arrangement, the blocking capacitor in the feedback loop would
cause a rise in frequency response as feedback falls off, while the
coupling capacitor between stages causes a similar roll off in the forward
response. The two having identical frequency characteristics should
result in a flat response. But this assumption ignores one fact.
What happens with phase when there are two or more coupling elements
in the feedback loop? If we use two identical time constants, as suggested,
then more than 6 db of loop feedback starts to show a peak in the loop
response at the low end, due to phase interaction. But 12 db of feedback
shows a peak of about 1.25 db; 18-db feedback shows a peak of about
3.6 db; 24-db feedback shows a peak of about 6.3 db, and every successive
6 db of feedback shows approximately 3 db more peak.
is independent of how the coupling arrangements are distributed around
the loop. If one coupling element is in the feedback arrangement, the
inverse of the response due to feedback coupling must be added to this
peaking effect. For example, with 6-db feedback there is a slight peak
of a little more than 2 db (curve D, Fig. 3). With 12-db feedback the
peak rises to about 7 db (curve F, Fig. 3) and so on, due to the additional
boost given by the coupling element in the feedback part of the arrangement.
At the high-frequency end of the response there is no loss in
the feedback part of the arrangement. Losses due to both groups of stray
capacitance from plate to ground affect the forward response. The only
place where loss would affect feedback is at the cathode of the driver
stage, where there is no loss worth mentioning. Therefore, assuming
the time constant of the stray capacitance from plate to ground is the
same for each circuit, the amount of peaking introduced by different
amounts of feedback in the loop response would apply without the boost
effect due to part of the loss being in the feedback path. See Fig.
In this circuit (Fig. 2) the feedback does not include
the output transformer, so any frequency response contributed by the
output transformer is added to the response of the feedback measuring
The next question
is: What happens when we apply feedback from the output transformer
secondary? So far we have discussed circuits where the factors contributing
to rolloff at the low and high ends are easily separable. But when we
consider an output transformer they are a little more tied up and perhaps
not so easy to recognize.
In the output transformers of conventional
push-pull amplifiers, considertion of the low-frequency response, since
it is caused by just the primary inductance shunting the plate resistance
of the output stage, is simple enough. Hence, for low frequencies, performance
is the same whether connected from primary or secondary of
stage. In fact, by connecting from the secondary, the blocking capacitor
can be eliminated and thus the possibility of achieving good low-frequency
response is somewhat improved.
At the high-frequency end the
output transformer contributes two reactances. There is the plate-to-ground
capacitance, to which the output transformer contributes primary-winding
capacitance, and the leakage inductance between primary and secondary.
Since both of these contribute to high-frequency rolloff, by feeding
from the secondary of the output transformer back to the grid of the
output stage, we have two reactances contributing to high-frequency
This means that peaking starts immediately there is
more than a certain amount of feedback, according to the relationship
between the circuit constants. The circuit shown in Fig. 5 never becomes
unstable, no matter how much feedback we use, but we do run into peaking
similar to that produced by the two-stage circuit of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 - Feedback over single stage with output transformer.
Fig. 6 - Basic factors in long-loop-feedback amplifier. Numbered
boxes indicate amplifier stages or phase inverters without frequency-discriminating
If we attempt to feed back over more of the circuit than shown in Fig.
5. from the output winding of the transformer, it becomes possible for
feedback to push the peaking up to the point where oscillation begins.
This is where real care is needed in the design.
of tackling this is to arrange the time constants contributing to rolloff
response at both ends of the frequency spectrum so they are as widely
divergent as possible. The best possibility of increasing the amount
of feedback is to make one of the time constants effect a roll off much
closer to the passband of the amplifier than all the other time constants.
For example, if four reactances contribute to an ultimate roll
off, at each end of the response, which is a common arrangement, then
by having one time constant at 100 times nearer the amplifier's passband
than the remaining three, 24 db of feedback can be used before peaking
begins to show up at all. And almost 40 db of feedback can be used before
the amplifier becomes unstable. To achieve this range with this particular
configuration, illustrated in basic form by Fig. 6, the roll off point
at the low end for one of the networks could be 100 cycles while the
remaining three should be moved down to 1 cycle. Similarly, at the high
end, one rolloff could be effective at say 10 kc, while the remaining
three should be moved up to 1 mc.
To arrive at what the ultimate
response will be, suppose we use 24-db feedback. The first acting rolloff
is extended by approximately the ratio represented by 24-db feedback.
This corresponds with a ratio of 16 to 1. So the 100-cycle rolloff is
pushed down to about 6 cycles, and the 10-kc roll off is pushed up to
about 160 kc, both of which are well beyond the limits generally recognized
as necessary in an audio amplifier.
Readjusting our figures
to finish up with an amplifier that is just about right for audio, we
could make the rolloff points for the low end 320 cycles with 3.2 cycles
for the remaining three which leaves us with a 20-cycle rolloff for
the low end, and 1,250 cycles with the three additional rolloffs at
125 kc gives us an ultimate rolloff at 20 kc.
Such a combination
provides a satisfactory feedback amplifier for use on audio, but the
trend in most feedback-amplifier designs is to have a much larger margin,
and the figures first given are nearer to those used in actual design.
Once these figures are chosen, we have to stick with them to get successful
This explains why it is necessary to insure
that some stages respond out to 1 mc to get satisfactory performance
out of the amplifier. A while ago someone asked why Joseph Marshall
added neutralizing to some of the stages in his Golden Ear amplifier
(Radio-Electronics, April, 1954). From this discussion we see that there
can be a good reason for doing this, although it might appear to be
going to extreme limits, until we realize the fundamentals necessary
to achieve stability in a feedback amplifier.
So much for frequency
response and stability problems. The statements made can be substantiated
by the necessary mathematics and, if any readers are doubtful about
them or want further detailed information for design purposes, they
are referred to my article, "A New Approach to Negative Feedback Design"
(Audio Engineering, May, 1953). But here we want to get on to the question
of sorting out some of the things that the mathematics seem to have
Fig. 7 - Amplifier output waveform at two levels, where distortion
sets in gradually.
Fig. 8 - How feedback can improve the output in Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 - Amplifier waveform where distortion appears suddenly
as clipping. Feedback cannot help appreciably.
Let's revert to the question introduced at the beginning of the article.
Can feedback actually extend the output of an amplifier? We could go
into a lot of theory on this but probably the best way to illustrate
the matter is to take some typical waveforms from amplifiers we want
Fig. 7 shows the output waveform at two different
levels for an amplifier where the overloading effect is not too sudden
- it runs into a gradual curvature. This could be, for example, an amplifier
employing power drive, so the output tubes are driven into positive
grid current, and there is power in the driver stage to supply the necessary
grid current. This type amplifier shows a rounding of the top of the
waveform before it begins to flatten. And this rounding can introduce
considerable distortion before actual clipping begins.
kind of amplifier, feedback can help. The feedback signal can make the
driver give a slightly more peaky waveform to offset the roundings,
and the resultant wave comes closer to the sinusoidal. This is shown
in Fig. 8.
Now look at Fig. 9, which shows sample waveforms
from an amplifier at two different levels, where clipping occurs quite
suddenly. This might be a push-pull amplifier fed by a non-power-driver
stage, so commencement of grid current at the output tubes causes very
abrupt clipping. Since the driver cannot supply any power to the grids
of the output tubes, nothing feedback can do will ever overcome the
clipping. If the driver delivers a small amount of power that starts
to give a little positive grid current in the output tube, rounding
the corners of the clipped waves slightly, feedback will be able to
accelerate the rate at which this power is provided. So applying feedback
makes the output waveform even more squarely clipped than it is without
In other words, feedback stands a chance of improving
the waveform of an amplifier below maximum output but, once clipping
starts, feedback tends to make the clipping sharper rather than to eliminate
Another effect of feedback on the overall distortion of
an amplifier seems to get overlooked. At lower levels feedback does
reduce the total harmonic content of an amplifier. But it also changes
the harmonic present, and this change is not always an improvement.
This is best illustrated with some simple figures.
have an amplifier that introduces a distortion of 5% third harmonic.
This could be due to too high a value for the plate load resistor for
a pentode in an early stage and the percentage might be almost independent
of operating level - 5% third harmonic would appear on signals of all
levels. Now suppose this amplifier has its gain increased, to make it
possible to apply a total overall feedback of 40 db. This sounds quite
good. We should be able to knock the 5% third harmonic down to .05%
third harmonic and probably we can.
But we have overlooked something
which is illustrated in Fig. 10. To reduce the third harmonic from 5%
to .05% the input to the amplifier consists of a 100% original input
signal, offset against a 99% fed-back signal. To offset the 5% third
harmonic that the amplifier is going to introduce, the final input signal,
made up by the 100% minus the 99%, must contain a third-harmonic component
almost 5% in value but in opposite phase to the 5% the amplifier introduces.
This 5% of third harmonic goes through the amplifier as does the original
100% fundamental. Besides offsetting the distortion produced by the
fundamental, it produces some distortion of its own, to the extent of
5% of 5%, at a harmonic which is the third of the third. This produces
0.25% of ninth harmonic. So what our feedback has done is to reduce
the original 5% third harmonic to .05% and at the same time gives us
a 0.25% ninth harmonic we never had before.
Measuring this on
a distortion analyzer, it will look as if the feedback has produced
an improvement, not quite as much as we calculated, but quite a good
reduction and so we are happy. But if we listen to the amplifier, it
may not sound as much better as we expected, because 0.25% ninth harmonic
can be quite noticeable.
More than this, we have only considered
the effects of feedback on a single sine wave. When we come to consider
intermodulation products, we find them multiplying up out of all proportion,
and a great variety of intermodulation products is introduced by an
amplifier designed in this manner. The resulting reproduction sounds
extremely muddy, although the figures might appear quite presentable
- an overall distortion figure of 0.25% is not generally considered
to be too bad.
You can't eat your cake ...
the question of distortion let's look at one more aspect. When we apply
feedback, sometimes we achieve more than one purpose. We can make feedback
do two or three things at the same time, but sometimes we use up the
feedback on one purpose so that it is not available for others. This
can happen, for example, where feedback is used to change an impedance.
Suppose we use a regular type of feedback amplifier to provide
a lower source impedance than its nonfeedback cousin. Next we apply
an output load equal to the source impedance.
We calculate the
amplifier performance on the basis of either no load impedance or the
optimum load impedance for the output tubes used. So it is not really
legitimate to change just the load impedance and expect the same performance
from the feedback amplifier. To find out what really happens we should
recalculate the performance of the amplifier on the basis of the revised
load impedance. What we will probably find is that the new load impedance
allows much smaller output before distortion starts to be really serious
and that feedback has become almost nonexistent, due to the change in
loading impedance reducing the gain of the output stage.
take some figures to illustrate. Suppose that the optimum load of a
certain output stage is 8,000 ohms and its source resistance is 3,000
ohms. By applying 26 db of feedback, the source resistance can be reduced
from 3,000 ohms to 150 ohms. Now suppose we load the amplifier with
a 150-ohm load (by the same matching transformer used for the 8,000-ohm
Let's take the feedback off for a moment and see what
happens by changing the load in this condition. When we take the 8,000-ohm
load off, the gain rises, due to an open-circuit condition, in the ratio
of 11/8. Then, when the 150-ohm load is connected in place of it, gain
is reduced in the ratio of 150/8,150. The net result, is reduced gain
due to the change of load, by a factor of 1/40.
With the 8,000-ohm
load the feedback was designed to be 26 db, which is a ratio of 20/1.
As the gain has already been knocked down by a ratio of 40/1, the feedback
factor will not be only 0.5, instead of 20. The amount of feedback resulting
from 0.5 fed-back signal injected in series with the input is only 3.5
This can do little toward reducing distortion. To be precise,
it will reduce distortion by a factor of 2/3. If connecting a 150-ohm
load to the output of this stage produces a distortion of 20%, which
is quite a normal figure for such low loading, feedback reduces this
only to 13.33%, which is still a very high distortion figure.
However, the amplifier will have an apparent source impedance of
150 ohms, which is what we have used the feedback up for. All of which
reminds us of the old proverb about eating one's cake and having it
Hum and noise reduction
Another thing feedback
is used for is to reduce amplifier hum and noise. In other words, to
clean up any unwanted sounds not present in the input.
users have applied feedback with this object in view, only to be disappointed
in finding either that it has had no effect whatever or that it has
had the reverse effect. Let's just see how this can be.
let's take hum. One point not to be overlooked is: when adding feedback
to an amplifier that must give full output for a specified input, more
gain is necessary, so adding feedback leaves us with the same gain we
had originally. Generally speaking, hum gets induced in the earlier
stages of an amplifier so, if we're going to apply 20-db feedback, we
need 20 db more gain in the first place, and the hum will get 20 db
more amplification before feedback is applied. Application of feedback
then knocks the hum back to where it started from.
This is assuming
that the hum is injected somewhere within the feedback loop. If however,
as sometimes happens, the hum creeps in outside of the feedback loop,
it is possible for the addition of feedback actually to increase hum
instead of reducing it.
Noise in feedback amplifiers actually
tends to be higher, other things being equal, than in nonfeedback amplifiers,
The reason for this is fairly easy to see.
Fig. 10 - How
feedback affects harmonic distortion.
Suppose noise at the
input 0 a non-feedback amplifier is equivalent to 10 μv at the grid
of the first stage, which is intended to accept an input level of 10
mv. If 20 db of feedback is added to the amplifier, it will need 20
db more gain, and hence should be able to load with only 1 mv on the
first stage grid. But this grid will still have a noise level of 10 μv.
If the feedback is successful in reducing the noise level by the complete
amount of feedback added, then this reduces the effective noise back
to its original 60-db discrimination. But this depends on every element
in the noise signal being fed back completely out of phase with the
original noise signal.
The lower component frequencies in noise
may be successfully reduced by the 20 db in this way but, at the upper
end of the response, where the random happenings that constitute noise
are of shorter duration, feedback cannot keep pace with the changes
and hence fails to make a reduction of the full 20 db.
the noise level is higher in the feedback amplifier and it tends to
concentrate in the upper frequencies.
Also - if due care has
not been paid to eliminating the peaking effect mentioned earlier-the
noise will definitely be colored by peaks at both ends of the frequency
response, resulting in the familiar hissy, boomy background common with
amplifiers using a large amount of feedback. This is quite independent
of the fact that frequency response throughout the audio range may be
Does multi-loop help?
A final question concerns
the relation between single-loop and multi-loop feedback, in all these
points of discussion. In an earlier article, I called attention to some
of the deficiencies of feeding back over the whole amplifier ("Why Feed
Back So Far?," Radio-Electronics, September, 1953).
of multi-loop feedback does overcome some of these deficiencies. The
short-loop feedback, toward the output end of an amplifier, stabilizes
that part of the amplifier and usually extends frequency response beyond
the audio range to give a satisfactory margin for application of longer-loop
feedback. Also the short-loop feedback, over a section of the amplifier
operating at higher level, will not aggravate hum or noise troubles
in the same way as the equivalent amount of feedback applied in an overall
It is advantageous to apply as much feedback as
possible over a shorter loop and minimize the long-loop feedback, if
possible, avoiding any feedback right back to the input stage at all.
It is better to take the feedback to a stage immediately following the
input stage, so the first stage operates at maximum gain and gets the
signal level above the inherent noise of tubes and other things, before
we introduce any feedback.
This last remark applies especially
to high-gain amplifiers or preamps which operate from low level inputs.
Amplifiers designed to operate from high-level inputs are quite satisfactory
with overall feedback, provided precautions are taken to minimize the
possibility of conditional stability.
*Author of Understanding Hi-Fi Circuits (Gernsback
January 24, 2014