Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes Calculators Education Engineering Magazine Articles Engineering software RF Cafe Archives Magazine Sponsor RF Cafe Sponsor Links Saturday Evening Post NEETS EW Radar Handbook Microwave Museum About RF Cafe Aegis Power Systems Alliance Test Equipment Centric RF Empower RF ISOTEC Reactel RF Connector Technology San Francisco Circuits Anritsu Amplifier Solutions Anatech Electronics Axiom Test Equipment Conduct RF Copper Mountain Technologies Exodus Advanced Communications Innovative Power Products KR Filters LadyBug Technologies Rigol TotalTemp Technologies Werbel Microwave Windfreak Technologies Wireless Telecom Group Withwave Sponsorship Rates RF Cafe Software Resources Vintage Magazines RF Cafe Software WhoIs entry for RF Cafe.com Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
Innovative Power Products Passive RF Products - RF Cafe

KR Electronics (RF Filters) - RF Cafe

Rigol DHO1000 Oscilloscope - RF Cafe
Innovative Power Products Resistors Terminations

Bell Telephone Laboratories - The Transistor
June 1952 Radio-Electronics

June 1952 Radio-Electronics

June 1952 Radio-Electronics Cover - RF Cafe[Table of Contents]

Wax nostalgic about and learn from the history of early electronics. See articles from Radio-Electronics, published 1930-1988. All copyrights hereby acknowledged.

When this self-promotion of progress made on the transistor invention by Bell Telephone Laboratories appeared in the June 1952 issue of Radio−Electronics magazine, a mere three and a half years had passed since the announcement of the achievement by Drs. Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley. Interestingly, it refers to germanium as a metal rather than as a semiconductor. In that interim, many problems had been solved in the effort to make robust, reproducible devices that were affordable replacements for vacuum tubes. One of the primary differences between the most recent transistors and the early models was the use of doped junctions rather than point contacts. This made them more resistant to effects of vibration, temperature changes, and contamination, and also produced higher yields in manufacturing. Gaining the confidence of designers was imperative if the newfangled technology was to gain (pun intended) ground as the preferred component for amplifier, oscillator, mixer, and other type of circuits traditionally served by tubes.

Bell Telephone Laboratories Ad

Bell Telephone Laboratories Transistor, June 1952 Radio-Electronics - RF CafeThe Transistor - A picture report of progress

First Transistors were of this point contact type (picture three times life size). Current is amplified as it flows between wires through a wafer of germanium metal. These transistors are now being made at the Allentown plant of Western Electric, manufacturing unit of the Bell System. They will be used in a new selector which finds the best routes for calls in Long Distance dialing.

Assembly Problems, such as fixing hair-thin wires to barely visible germanium wafers, have been solved through new tools and mechanized techniques. Finished transistors withstand great vibration and shock. Engineers see many opportunities for these rugged devices in national defense.

New Junction Transistors, still experimental, also use germanium but have no point contacts. Current is amplified as it flows through germanium "sandwich" - an electron-poor layer of the metal between two electron-rich ends. This new transistor runs on as little as one-millionth of the power of small vacuum tubes.

Moist Paper and Coin generate enough current to drive audio oscillator using junction transistors. Half as big as a penny matchbox, an experimental two-stage transistor amplifier does the work of miniature-tube amplifiers ten times larger.

Much to Be Learned, especially about the surface of germanium and the effect of one part in a million of alloying materials. Transistors promise many uses - as amplifiers, oscillators, modulators ... for Local and Long Distance switching ... to count electrical pulses.

A tiny amplifying device first announced by Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1948 is about to appear as a versatile element in telephony.

Each step in the work on the transistor ... from original theory to initial production technique ... has been carried on within the Laboratories. Thus, Bell scientists demonstrate again how their skills in many fields, from theoretical physics to production engineering, help improve telephone service.

Bell Telephone Laboratories

Improving telephone service for America provides careers for creative men in scientific and technical fields.



Posted June 14, 2022

Bell Telephone Laboratories Infomercials
RF Cascade Workbook 2018 - RF Cafe

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

1996 - 2024


Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

Copyright  1996 - 2026

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

My Hobby Website: AirplanesAndRockets.com | My Daughter's Website: EquineKingdom

ConductRF Phased Matched RF Cables - RF Cafe


Anritsu Test Equipment - RF Cafe